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been confirmed by Dr G. A. Waterman in a case of his own1. I have found them, according to the evidence of the subjects, in four cases including that of Dr Waterman, who gave me an opportunity to examine his case.

Coconscious visual images may be defined as psychical images of which the individual is not aware and therefore which are subconscious. They occur as:

1. Phenomena of suggested post-hypnotic acts.

2. After phenomena of dreams.

3. After phenomena of repressed thoughts.

4. Phenomena of moods (depressed and exalted states).

5. Phenomena of perseveration of previous emotional complexes (mental systems).

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6. Phenomena in the mechanism of hallucinations.

Because of the behaviour of the phenomena in the last class they belong to this study. As phenomena of suggested post-hypnotic acts they permit of experimental induction and study. I have found that each step in such an act (in the cases studied) is preceded or accompanied by a subconscious image or picture corresponding to one of the elements of the act performed or to be performed. Such images occurring with repressed thoughts not in awareness are interesting from a psychological and psychopathological point of view. Sometimes these subconscious pictures are accompanied by an affect which alone emerges into consciousness, as with artificial hallucinations, and apparently determines the conscious mood2.

Now the point I am coming to is this: occasionally I have found that one or more images emerge into consciousness and become a hallucination. This observation led me to postulate a theory of visual hallucinations, namely, that in certain instances at least they were the emergence into awareness of imagery belonging to subconscious thought-the same sort of imagery that occurs in conscious thought.

Auditory hallucinations, similarly, are the emergence of subconscious verbal 'images,' i.e. sounds of words used in subconscious inarticulate thought or internal speech.

1 For a study of these phenomena see article by the writer, "Coconscious Images," Journal Abnormal Psychology, XII, No. 5, December 1917. (A report of Dr Waterman's observation is included in this article.) See also The Unconscious: Index, "Coconscious Images."

2 I have discussed this important phenomenon in The Unconscious, chaps. XII, XIII, XVII; see also The Dissociation of a Personality for numerous observations.

3. Subconscious Script.

It remained, however, to prove this by a method not dependent upon hypnotic introspection and memory but by one that would reveal the subconscious thought and synchronously the corresponding hallucinatory images after emergence into consciousness; and the correlation of the two. For this purpose the following procedure was devised: (a) to induce experimentally subconscious processes; (b) to 'tap' the subconscious process while in progress and obtain physical records of it; (c) if any hallucinations occurred synchronously to obtain a detailed description of the same; (d) to correlate by comparison if possible the imagery of the hallucination with the ideas expressed in the written record of the subconscious process; and (e) to obtain immediate evidence by subconscious introspection of the relation, if any, between the elements of the subconscious process and the imagery of the hallucination and the mechanism of the same.

The technique of 'tapping' the subconscious process suited to the experiments and obtaining physical records of the same is subconscious writing, commonly called 'automatic writing.' (Here I may again venture a parenthetic remark: it is strange that psychologists and those engaged in psycho-pathological work have so utterly neglected the study of subconscious writing, both as a phenomenon and a mode of investigating the nature and potentialities of processes outside of awareness, and, I may add, of the dynamic structure and mechanism of the mind. The mechanism of this kind of writing still needs to be worked out as well as the relation of the process to the personal consciousness1.

To carry out the proposed plan of investigation it was necessary to have a subject who both experiences hallucinations and can produce automatic (subconscious) script without awareness of what the hand is writing. (The latter is necessary because some automatic writers become aware of the content of the script as it is being written although it is subconsciously written in that they are not aware of what will be produced and do not voluntarily produce it.) I fortunately have a subject who answers these two conditions and who has been under my observation for about a year. She came to me as a patient for other reasons. I have therefore an intimate knowledge of her character and personality and can vouch for the bona fide nature of the phenomena themselves. She comes of a good, and at one time wealthy, American family and as

1 This important phenomenon has been left to those interested in Psychical Research and spiritualism, who are concerned solely with the content of the writing and not with its psychology.

a young girl she was, I judge, rather luxuriously brought up: she possesses considerable artistic talent with pencil and brush and has an ambition to develop her voice for dramatic purposes. This is the ambition of her life. These facts are pertinent to an understanding of the content of the script and the hallucinations obtained. She produces automatic script with remarkable facility and has written what would make several volumes in this way, including two or three of fiction and a good deal of verse.

Now on several occasions she had casually remarked that often while she was automatically writing she had experienced visualizations and other hallucinatory phenomena which afterwards she discovered corresponded to the content of the script. Being interested in other aspects of the case I had merely made a note of the fact at the time without further attention. Later, when I took up the question of hallucinations for study it occurred to me at once that here I had just the subject I wanted at hand. The conditions of the experiments were arranged as follows:

The head of the subject was covered with an opaque cloth to prevent her seeing the script as it was being written automatically by her hand. A pencil was then put into her hand which rested conveniently on a sheet of paper placed on a writing tablet by her side. She was then told to write automatically regarding some subject which I designated in general terms in each experiment: for instance, a memory of some remembered episode in her life, a memory of such an episode but one forgotten by the subject; a fantasy; a fabrication requiring constructive imagination, etc. The object of diversifying the subjects was to obtain products of different kinds of subconscious work (memory, dream-like fantasy, imagination, etc.). If, during the experiment, while the hand was writing, a hallucination developed, the subject was directed to indicate the fact the moment she saw it by exclaiming 'picture.' Thereupon I made a mark on the script at the point where the picture appeared. Likewise the moment the hallucination disappeared the subject exclaimed, as directed, 'gone,' and the point was similarly marked on the script. Thus those words of the script which were written during the occurrence of any given hallucination could be identified and could be compared with the latter and any correlation of the written ideas and the hallucinatory images noted.

In some cases as soon as the hallucination appeared the subject was required to describe orally the 'picture' in detail. This description was taken down by me verbatim. Two things, be it noted, were thus being

done by the subject at one and the same time; namely, writing with the hand one thing, of which she was not consciously aware, and describing orally and consciously another thing-two entirely different processes, one subconscious and the other conscious.

In other experiments the subject was not required to describe the details of the hallucination until after it had disappeared, but only to indicate its beginning and ending and its general character, such as of a person, or place, or thing-"a ship on the ocean"; "a street in a city," etc. As soon as it disappeared the writing was interrupted and the subject was required, while the memory was fresh, to describe the details of the hallucination. This having been done the writing was resumed and this procedure continued until the script was finished, when, as it happened, the hallucination always ceased. This method was found to be the most practical for reasons I will not go into because it would involve a lengthy discussion of the principles underlying the phenomena of subconscious writing.

After the observation was complete, the script and the hallucination as recorded were compared and for this purpose arranged in parallel columns. Thus any correlations between the imagery of a hallucination and the synchronously written script could easily be noted.

Finally, after each observation the method of subconscious introspection was used to elicit such evidence as might be obtainable as to what occurred subconsciously during the writing of the script and the hallucination, i.e. what was the character of the subconscious process that produced the script; what (if psychological) was its content; what, if any, psychical elements (such as images) of which the subject was not consciously aware were present; and what, if any, light could be thrown by subconscious introspection upon the relation of the subconscious process to the hallucination? Very positive introspective testimony as to the source of the imagery of the hallucinations and the relation of those images to the subconscious process was thus elicited. Its credibility must be judged according to the value assigned to the method. A summary of this evidence will be reported in its proper place, after the various scripts and their accompanying hallucinations have been given.

Before giving the results of the experiments the following facts in the psychological history of the case will enable you to understand the rather fantastic content of the text of some of the script and imagery. The subject had at a previous time exhibited the phenomenon of double personality and for this reason had been sent to me for study and readjustment. This phase of the case had been recovered from at the

time when the experiments were undertaken. During this previous phase one of the personalities called 'Juliana' had imagined as a fantasy that she was the reincarnated soul of a Spanish peasant girl of the thirteenth century and, after the fashion of secondary coconscious personalities of spiritualistic mediums (as in Flournoy's case of 'Hélène Smith'), imagined that she remembered her previous life as such a peasant. A most elaborate and extravagant romance of the thirteenth century had thus been fabricated beginning with her early girlhood as a rustic peasant and ending in her death in old age after many adventures as a street singer and finally as a great artist with a wonderful voice, having sung and danced before the King's Court and great audiences, one of which was gathered in the Coliseum in Rome. The genesis of this fantasy could be traced, I think, to the day dreams of the subject as a young girl and later to dreams under the influence of morphine during a serious illness. But as elements in it could be recognized, as motivating factors, her life's aspirations. As Juliana, a secondary coconscious personality and also an alternating personality (to whom 'Susie' used to change from time to time), she would play the part seriously and honestly of a Spanish girl, spoke broken English with a foreign accent, and also a supposititious Spanish dialect of the thirteenth century which, of course, was only a neologism (nicknamed by me the 'lingo'), and acted the part well.

After reintegration the subject consciously and coconsciously remembered in complete detail the so-called 'Spanish fantasy,' and, according to well known principles, the conserved subconscious systems could be 'tapped' and made to a degree, as artifacts, to manifest themselves as more or less temporarily dissociated autonomous systems.

In the cure, that is the reintegration of the two personalities into one normal one, the belief in all this fantasy, previously strongly held by Juliana and accepted by the other personality, was, of course, destroyed.

It need only be added that at the time when these observations were undertaken the subject, owing to reversals in the family fortunes, was obliged to earn her living and was employed in a large department store in which she rendered excellent service as a saleswoman. She regarded this, however, as only temporary, hoping later to achieve the object of her life-long ambition, to cultivate her voice for a career upon the stage.

I will now give the results of the experiments, not in the order in which they were made, but classified according to the type of content of the script and hallucination.

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