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as, for the most part, actually being that which they appear to be, i.e. manifestations of (relatively) infantile tendencies which, as regards their nature and origin, are continuous with, and comparable to, the fully developed sexual tendencies of adult life."

He makes, however, a distinction between the 'sexual' and the 'dependence aspects of the family relationship, although he admits that in actual life these are inextricably interwoven. Normal development entails emergence from parental authority and care and the attainment of autonomy in judgment and conduct. Development in these respects seems as difficult as in the case of the sexual tendencies, and, when obstacles and difficulties are encountered, is liable to arrest, retardation and regression to earlier stages, just as in the case of libido development.

The abnormalities and varieties of development in respect of the love and hate elements of the Edipus complex and the influence of the fixation of these on the growth of the dependence aspects are well described. An outline of "The Psychology of Initiation and Initiation Rites" is followed by two interesting chapters on "The Development of Parent Substitutes" and "Family Influences in the Development of the Love Life." In the latter chapter Freud's division of loves into two types-the narcissistic type and the dependence type -is adopted and an instructive account of the implications of this division is given. Noteworthy also is the detailed consideration of the factors tending towards the production of dissociation of purely sexual attraction from tenderness, esteem and the other components of fully developed love.

Problems of great sociological importance are discussed in Chapter XII on "Family Influences in Social Development." The displacement of motherregarding and father-regarding tendencies on to the state is illustrated by the different attitudes towards their native land shown by Englishmen and Germans, for example, and this difference suggests to Mr Flügel "the existence of a fairly close correspondence on the one hand between the maternal view of the state and the development of democratic institutions and individual independence, and on the other hand between the paternal view and the development and retention of autocracy and a relatively strict subordination of the individual to the authority of the government and of its representatives" (p. 128).

When the attitude towards the state is not one of love but one of hate and rebellion, hostility towards the parent is held to play the leading part in the unconscious motivation of malcontents and revolutionaries. It is for this reason, Mr Flügel says, that revolutions in autocratic paternal states are usually more violent and extreme than in the case of freer and more liberal maternal countries "since the desire for rebellion in early family life is generally directed against the authority of the father to a much greater extent than against that of the mother." But rebellion against the mother is a common feature in the family life of the female half of the population, and, if Mr Flügel's view is correct, it is interesting to speculate on the probable effect on future revolutions of the recent accession of women to political power.

The descriptive portion of the book concludes with chapters on "Family Influences in Religion" and "The Attitude of Parents to Children." This latter chapter is one of the most useful and valuable of the whole book, for, as Mr Flügel says, "The avoidance of the evils consequent upon the insufficient readjustment of the parents' attitude towards their children is one of the most pressing tasks of an enlightened hygiene of family life."

In the more theoretical portion of his book Mr Flügel attempts to establish

some connections between the psychological data and the related facts of anthropology and biology. The origin and development of the love and hate aspects of the family tendencies are dealt with in some detail; but since the hate tendencies arise very largely from thwartings of the love tendencies, the latter are fundamentally the more important and receive from the author the more searching examination.

From the standpoint of psycho-analysis the love aspects of the family tendencies centre in the problem of incestuous affection, and Mr Flügel discusses this problem, asking (1) What are the influences which bring about this attachment in the human mind, and (2) what are the further influences which have brought about its repression?

Very full consideration is given to all the factors which may have been operative in producing and maintaining the tendency to incest; but in view of the universal occurrence of this tendency and of its great strength even after ages of repression, Mr Flügel is tempted to regard it as an innate factor in man's mental constitution. Indeed he supposes that at one time this tendency may have been of advantage in the struggle for existence and that its persistence to-day may be due to a consolidation of hereditary dispositions effected by natural selection.

When he comes to consider the question of the repression of incestuous love Mr Flügel finds, as was not the case in his discussion of the positive aspects of the tendency, that certain explanations have already been advanced by other writers; but these he considers for the most part unsatisfactory or at least incomplete. He passes in review the explanations of exogamy given by primitive peoples themselves and by such writers as Durkheim, Westermarck, Wundt, McLennan, Herbert Spencer and others; and although he admits that the factors suggested by these authorities may have played some part in bringing about the practice of exogamy, he thinks there is pretty general agreement that none of them affords a complete or sufficient account of this phase of racial development.

In pointing out the "biological absurdity" of parent-child incest (p. 207) Mr Flügel raises some doubts in our minds concerning his suggestion, referred to above, that the tendency to incest is perhaps innate and was at one time fostered by natural selection. For now he describes the dysgenic effects on the offspring which result from cohabitation between individuals of widely different ages, and the disadvantages which would accrue to any races in which parent-child unions were common. Natural selection would act adversely to the inheritance of such tendencies; and although this objection would not apply to brother-sister unions, yet these are admittedly not the most primitive form of incest, and, on Mr Flügel's own showing, it is therefore difficult to see how natural selection in our human ancestors can account for the universal presence of the incestuous tendencies revealed in the Edipus complex. Their innateness, if they are innate, must be traced to an earlier phase of phyletic history.

On the other hand there is every reason to believe that the tendency to the repression of incest is innate in man, and, as Mr Flügel well shows, such repression would have survival value in primitive peoples and would thus allow natural selection to come into play in forming and consolidating the hereditary dispositions which ensure the repression of the Edipus complex. For as he points out, strong family ties conflict with individual and social development and natural selection would ensure the continuation of those communities

in which the incest tendencies were more repressed" (p. 211).

J. of Psych. (Med. Sect.) п


The book concludes with two valuable chapters on the "Ethical and Practical Application" of the knowledge to be derived from the psycho-analytic study of the family. The two chief tasks revealed by this study are (1) "the weaning of the child from the incestuous love which binds it to the family (together with the secondary hatred which this love may entail), and (2) the gradual loosening of the psychological, moral and economic dependence of the individual on the family."

Considerations of space forbid us to enter into any detailed examination of the many important contributions which Mr Flügel has made to the matters discussed in this book; we can only recommend their careful study to everyone who is interested in the psychological and sociological problems of to-day. T. W. MITCHELL.

Psychanalysis in the Classroom. By GEORGE H. GREEN. London: University of London Press, Ltd., 1921. pp. viii + 276. 7s. 6d. net.

The writer of this little volume has endeavoured to "present as clearly and as simply as possible, such parts of the psychanalytic theory as were likely to be of use to parents and teachers." He has succeeded admirably.

The title is perhaps open to some small objection. "Psychanalysis" is less euphonious than the more generally accepted term; and, further, Mr Green does not for a moment desire, as his title might suggest, that the teacher himself should carry out psycho-analysis upon the pupils in his classroom: he merely feels that an appreciation of recent psycho-analytic doctrines will assist the teacher to understand the nature, or at least to recognise the existence, of many of the commoner problems which the classroom presents.

His exposition starts from the daydream. In so doing he abandons the order followed by most writers, who begin, as a rule, with nocturnal dreams, or with myths and the symptoms of hysterical delusions. Instead, he chooses an approach which is far more familiar, far more intelligible, and far more acceptable, to the lay reader. From the daydream, which he analyses at considerable length, he turns to discuss the nature of play, which is itself to a large extent an acted daydream, just as the daydream is a passive form of imaginative play. Only after these simpler topics does he advance to an exposition of the process of nocturnal dreaming. It is, perhaps, to be regretted that he nowhere attempts to summarise the more important of the recognised mechanisms that underlie the processes of dream-formation; for an understanding of these mechanisms would throw a flood of light upon the allied activities of fantasy and play, and upon classroom problems generally.

A couple of chapters follow upon "word-associations" and on "interest," leading up to the doctrine of "libido," which is conceived, apparently, as a sort of general fund of mental energy, a fundamental conative impulse which becomes specialised into the several hereditary instincts. The three processes of introversion, extroversion, and identification, are then discussed in as many chapters, rather from the standpoint of Jung; and the psychopathology of everyday life is then expounded from the familiar standpoint of Freud. The book closes with a cautious chapter upon "dependence and sex."

A bibliography is appended. Tridon's Psychoanalysis is described, with an excess of generosity, as "the best single volume available for the reader who

is not acquainted with the technical side". -a commendation that would be more worthily attached to Mr Green's own chapters. Dr Tansley's New Psychology, however, and Professor Nunn's Education: Its Data and First Principles are omitted from his list: they would provide the teacher with a far sounder approach to the problems Mr Green has in mind. But, for the most part, both the selection, and summaries of the several books selected (which would have gained by an indication of their size and price) are trustworthy, and likely to be most helpful to beginners.

Throughout Mr Green has written in a clear and interesting manner; and the more important points are well illustrated by the analysis, or at least the description, of some fourteen representative cases. I know of no other introduction to psycho-analysis, equally simple in its approach, equally popular in style, and equally cheap in cost, which can be so safely recommended not only to the teacher or student of education, but also to the school medical officer who has at times to deal with problems of child character and of the classroom. The doctrines of the two schools of Zürich and of Vienna are absorbed into the discussion with almost complete impartiality. The author acknowledges the personal assistance of Oxford psychologists-Professor McDougall, Dr Keatinge, and Dr Marett; and their views have plainly influenced his general attitude. If his treatment is a little lacking in profundity, in originality, and in systematic thoroughness, this, as the author explains, is due to a deliberate limitation in his initial purpose.


The Education of Behaviour: A Psychological Study. By I. B. SAXBY, D.Sc. London: The University of London Press, Ltd., 1921. pp. viii + 248. 6s. net.

This book is a lucid and readable attempt to describe for teachers and parents the modern views upon the psychology of character, and to deduce from those views a body of practical precepts for character-training. The basis of the general exposition is McDougall's doctrine of human instincts, as set forth in his Social Psychology; but the writer also incorporates into her pages a good deal of other recent and experimental work.

One or two minor points call perhaps for a little criticism. Dr Saxby is writing primarily "for those who are in charge of boys or girls during adolescence," by which period she seems to understand the ages between nine and seventeen. But of the peculiar difficulties of adolescence, as commonly recognised, she says little or nothing; and the bibliography does not even include Stanley Hall's classical work upon the subject. There is, it is true, a brief section upon the sex instinct; or, as the writer prefers to name it, the "impulse to seek a mate." But her account consists chiefly of cautious platitudes about the microscopic amoeba and the duty of sex-enlightenment.

It is claimed in the publishers' announcement that "the author includes psychanalysis in a very effective way, especially in its direct application to the everyday work of education." The book, however, makes practically no attempt to give a full and systematic account of the characteristic psychoanalytic doctrines; and the summary of the views of Freud and Jung is limited to three or four pages each on "repressed complexes," on "mind tunnelling by free association," and on "hero-worship."

In its general character the book is somewhat uneven. But it represents a sincere endeavour to carry out a useful and much needed piece of work. The analytic summaries at the head of each chapter will be especially helpful to the student: and the bibliography at the close (which, with the index, curiously enough omits all reference to Stout) should be of service to those who wish to fill in the outlines which Miss Saxby has so clearly sketched.


The Psychology of Everyday Life. By JAMES DREVER, M.A., B.Sc., D.Phil., Combe Lecturer in Psychology in the University of Edinburgh. London: Methuen & Co., 1921. pp. ix + 164. 6s. net.

The avowed object of the author is to satisfy the reasonable desire of the ordinary educated man for a closer acquaintance with the science of modern psychology. He claims that "the topics which have been selected for treatment represent at one and the same time the essential elements of the science and those sections of it more particularly which have a close relation to practical life, and which in recent times have come prominently into notice in connexion with various developments in medicine, education and industry." The "modern" psychology of the author is not the "new" psychology of the psycho-analyst, but includes it. He "has striven to preserve a due balance of treatment in the science as a whole, and, taking the longer view, is convinced that psychology is far wider than the theory of Freud or Jung, and that those psychologists themselves would be the first to acknowledge the fact" (vi).

After two introductory chapters, starting from the position that "man is primarily a doer rather than a knower" (19), he shows that the "urge" or "drive" of instinct, with its accompanying emotion, will account for much of the activity of mankind, by treatment of that portion of psychology which is most akin to biology: appetites and instincts; emotion, mood and sentiment; social interaction-imitation, sympathy and suggestion; play, relaxation and mirth; defence mechanisms-self sophistication, compensation, protective camouflage and forgetting. This brings us to the centre of the book and is followed by four chapters dealing with the work of the older "new" psychology, in which the methods and apparatus of the physicist have been applied to the study of sensation, perception and memory. "Jung's association method" and Freud's psycho-analysis" are dealt with briefly in the chapter on memory and forgetting. The author agrees that forgetting is often due to submerged complexes but is not prepared to accept the Freudian theory as to the nature of these complexes; and, in contradiction to the extreme Freudian position that "all forgetting is repression," holds that "As causes of forgetfulness we have these three, selection and interference, which operate partly through inhibition and dissociation, and obliviscence, the result of lapse of time" (117).

We have then a short chapter on imagining and thinking, "devoted largely to defining and distinguishing," and only one page of which deals with thought. Dr Drever recognises that in these processes we are dealing with "higher mental levels" (123), and concludes his short treatment of thinking with the words: "The thinking of relations thus enables us to have that kind of experience called a concept, and to go on to deal with concepts, independently of the particular and the concrete, to go on, it may be, to the discovery of laws and

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