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which are calculated to rouse feelings of bewilderment and incapacity in the inexperienced
Like the ‘Dora' casel and the 'White Wolves' casea, Freud's two other casuistic studies, the essay is a little masterpiece, more absorbing than any fiction, with its picture of the young girl held in the vice of the tragic and inexorable forces within her, told with the calm of 'tout comprendre' (although we think the affront to the male sex has not left the analyst untouched and perhaps here, in the combination of intuitive sensitiveness with objective insight, lies the secret of Freud's genius), containing so much truth, such wisdom, that, having read it, those who care for truth will feel as though scales had fallen from their eyes.
Dr H. Nunberg has an article in this number “On the Catatonic Seizure,” which is a contribution to the study of the psychoses in the light of psychoanalysis. He describes an interesting case which was more open to observation than many, and sets out in great detail the results obtained. Freud has not published anything dealing exclusively with this subject, but his views are indicated to some extent in his recent works and Dr Nunberg's case confirms his conclusions.
The comparatively familiar theory, which may be regarded as now wellestablished, that the psychoses are related to a disturbance of the development from the primary narcissistic stage on to the plane of Object-love, rendering the subject more or less incapable of investing with his Libido any object (person) in the world outside himself, and causing an accumulation of Libido involving the self (Ego-tendencies) is very clearly illustrated by this case. The patient was a man of 32 who had succeeded fairly well in life until the withdrawal from the outer world had proceeded too far. Homosexual tendencies, pointing to a narcissistic object-choice had shown themselves and he had evidently endeavoured to defend himself against this by various means, partly intellectual, and by an interest in sport, physical training, etc., by which he worked off some of his hypochondriacal pre-occupation with his health and himself generally. Clearly also as a defence, he had been living for two or three years with an unmarried sister, and the failure of this as a protective measure is shown by the ensuing identification of himself with her, which came out in the delusion. The outbreak of the catatonic attack and his removal to an asylum followed upon an attempt to violate her, on which a further regression of Libido took place and contact with the outer world was practically lost, with a resulting confusion, incapacity to distinguish between internal and external stimuli and consequent “disintegration of the self.” The extent to which the self had absorbed the Libido was shown in numerous ways, particularly in the delusion of self-importance, of being or becoming the saviour of the world, and in the loss of capacity to distinguish between self and outer world, so that “he was the only living thing on the earth and all the life of the earth flowed through him," this being the kernel of the delusion of transformations and of the fear of being himself transformed into an animal or a worm or excrement. In the attack the patient was addicted to an interminable preaching of high-flown sermons about the
i Bruch-stück einer Hysterie-analyse. 2 Aus der Geschichte einer Infantilen Neurose. 3 Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psycho-analyse.
Neurosenlehre. Ivle Folge.
regeneration of the world (himself) througb sacrifice and abstinence, both of these last ideas being closely connected with his own narcissistic conflict. Dr Nunberg explains this preaching as a kind of ‘secondary elaboration of an effort still being made to retain a relation with the outer world.
In contrast to this, the patient's behaviour showed a complete abandonment of all aesthetic and ethical inhibitions and expressed in an undisguised manner the seeking for pleasure in self-satisfaction and in love of the self (the subject's own body and its functions and sensations), on the assumption of a self-sufficiency, omnipotence, etc., characteristic only of the primary narcissism. Even here, though, Dr Nunberg shows that the conflict persists and an attempt to resist the withdrawal of Libido to the self is still being made; the effort to retain objects has not been relinquished, for on the basis of the identification of world (objects) with self, objects are being sought within the self. In this way, following on the “disintegration of the Ego," the various erotogenic organs and parts of the body come to be regarded as objects outside the self and invested with Libido as such. The principle of compromise in symptom-formation therefore holds good here as in the neuroses. The withdrawal of Libido into the self is resisted in two ways, by incorporating the objects of the outer world into the self (world-regeneration idea) and by projecting parts of the self (organs) as objects into the outer world.
A further corroboration of Freud's views is to be found in the evidence this case brings of the phenomenon of “organ-speech'; it appears that on this regressive level of 'organ-pleasure the sensations and functions of the bodily organs are employed as a means of self-expression in the place of speech and intellectual processes. This primordial disposition may contain the germ of hysterical symptom-formation; at any rate Dr Nunberg compares this neurosis with 'schizophrenia,' the difference between the two being that in hysteria the Libido is still unconsciously attached to real objects in the outer world, whereas in the latter it has instead regressively invested the bodily organs of the subject.
Again exemplifying a point of Freud's, the case shows how the libidinous affect was seeking a revival and repetition of a significant early experience. The attack was a representation of the patient's own birth, the first affective experience. (Ideas of regeneration, rebirth, identification with mother, etc.)
It is not possible here to do more than summarise in this way some of the points dealt with by Dr Nunberg. The obscurity of the subject and the unfamiliarity of the conceptions discussed make the article a difficult one, nevertheless such attempts to develop and illustrate new lines of research are most valuable to the student and repay close attention.
There follows the first part of an interesting study, by Dr M. J. Eisler, entitled “An Unconscious Pregnancy-fantasy in a Man under the Guise of Traumatic Hysteria.” This is concluded in the next number and will be noticed with that.
Dr Karl Abraham contributes a short article on "The Narcissistic Valuation of Excretory-processes in Dream and Neurosis." The primitive attitude (observed in children, the insane, etc.), so characteristic of the Unconscious, which attributes to the excretions (products) the highest degree of value and importance has been frequently referred to in the literature of psycho-analysis. It must have been noted by all analysts that a similar degree of over-estimation is often attached to the excretory-processes, the act of excretion, by the attribution to these functions of power to create or destroy. A woman's dream illustrates the sadistic wish to destroy her entire family (parents and brother) by faeces, 'wind' and 'water. A boy of eleven, who identified himself with his mother after observation of parental coitus, and who suffered from neurotic disturbances of the defaecatory function, dreamt that he was pressing out the Universe from his anus. This dream is compared with the various myths of creation and Dr Abraham shows that the version, God's “Let there be!” followed upon a more primitive conception, in which God breathed the breath of life into a mass of earth (excrement), the idea of omnipotence of thought (Let there be !) being a later development from the primordial idea of the omnipotence of excretory-processes. As regards the connection of sadism with these functions, Dr Abraham points out that in children an access of rage produces physical effects quite similar to those of an act of defaecation, and he relates to this the fact that with neurotics an explosive action of the bowels is a frequent substitute for an explosion of rage.
Dr J. H. W. van Ophuijsen, writing on “The Feeling of being Followed,” refers to the delusions of persecution in paranoia, and also to the similar morbid fears of neurotics, intolerance of being followed upstairs or in the street, dreams of being pursued, etc.
According to Dr van Ophuijsen's experience, this symptom is derived from the anal-complex and he suggests that the paranoiac delusion may be traced to the same source. He gives illustrations from the dreams of three male patients of being pursued, threatened or attacked, which, on analysis, clearly show that the feeling of being followed can result from a projection of the internal sensations caused by the faeces in the anal canal. In all the cases there was also some indication of a connection between tbe 'pursuer' and the father or paternal genital organ.
Besides four interesting reviews of non-analytical books dealing with biology and physiology from which it appears that some support on the physical side may be forthcoming of Freud's theory of infantile psychosexuality, three smaller contributions are included. Dr Paul Federn discusses an inhibition-dream from which the patient awoke with the typical sensation of being unable to make any movement, and shows how this can be provoked by internal physical sensations which are interpreted by the mind as external stimuli, pointing out the difference between this and the typical inhibitiondream in which the inability to move arises from an intra-psychical conflict. Dr Rudolf Schneider makes a tentative criticism of Freud's theory that nothing can occur to the mind ‘by chance, by describing some 'analyses' of numbers not selected by the subject but presented to him, which showed that precisely the same type of intimate personal associations could be arrived at from a number given as from one spontaneously presenting itself. He claims from this that the fact that the latter can always be analysed is not, therefore, proof of the determination of psychical processes, and that other proof is required to support the theory.
There follows a short note (presumably by Freud) on a passage in Havelock Ellis's book, The Philosophy of Conflict, in which he expresses the view that Freud's work in psycho-analysis is to be regarded as an artistic creation rather than as scientific truth. This is here emphatically denied, and the
writer goes on to consider the question of priority in the discovery of the free-association method, which Havelock Ellis raises. It is then stated that Professor Freud, at the age of 14, possessed a book, written in 1823, by one L. Börne, called How to become an Original Writer in Three Days' Time, which impressed him very deeply, although he had since forgotten most of it. It was recently brought to his notice that a passage in it describes precisely the method employed in free-association: "Write down, for three whole days together, everything as it comes into your head...that is the way to become an original writer.” It is quite possible, therefore, that this idea had lain dormant in Professor Freud's mind for many years, only to be made use of by him later in his treatment of nervous disorders. But of all those to whom the idea of free-association had occur
urred, and they must be many, it was left for Freud to employ it in such a way as to provide the scientist with a new instrument in the search for truth, and mankind with a new endowment in the struggle for life.
NOTES ON RECENT PERIODICALS.
The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, vol. 1, part 1, 1920. This is the first number of a new international publication devoted to psychoanalysis. Directed by Professor Freud and edited provisionally by Dr Ernest Jones, it is an official organ of the International Psycho-Analytical Association, ranking equally with the Internationale Zeitschrift für Psycho-Analyse. Its promoters have felt that the need for such a journal published in English has become urgent owing to the interest in psycho-analysis now taken by many readers who are unfamiliar with the German language. It will deal with the subject of psycho-analysis and kindred studies, but will not attempt to cover the whole field of psychopathology. On the other hand, it will go beyond the clinical sphere and will include the applications of psycho-analysis to literature, education, mythology, philology, sociology, anthropology, and so on.
The first number opens with an appreciative obituary notice, by Dr Ernest Jones, of the late Dr James Jackson Putnam, the well known American neurologist, whose acceptance of the doctrines of psycho-analysis had considerable influence in directing the attention of American and English students to the serious study of the subject.
Professor Freud contributes an article on “One of the difficulties of PsychoAnalysis.” He traces very briefly the history of his Libido Theory of the neuroses and points out that although in the course of individual human development the original narcissistic distribution of the Libido gives place to object-love, yet not all of the Libido passes over from the Ego to the objects of the outer world. In all men there is a certain amount of narcissism or self-love. He then goes on to show how man's self-love has been three times badly wounded by the results of scientific research.
The first occasion was when, with the acceptance of the Copernican theory, it had to be recognised that man's dwelling place, the earth, was not, as he had fondly supposed, the centre of the universe.
The second was when, with acceptance of the doctrine of evolution it became plain that the gulf between the brute and the human was not so great or so fundamental as man had thought. The demonstration of his kinship with the animal world was the second blow to his self-love.
The third blow was inflicted by the psycho-analysts when they declared to be mistaken man's feeling that he is master of his own soul, that consciousness gives the Ego news of all important occurrences in the working of the mind, and that his will, guided by these reports, can keep his instinctive impulses under due control. Study of the neuroses by psycho-analysis showed, on the contrary, that much of importance, which is not reported to consciousness, goes on in the mind, and that the life of the sexual impulses cannot be wholly restrained.
The demonstration of the unconsciousness of mental life and of the psychical significance of sexuality was the third blow to human narcissism. “No wonder, therefore, that the Ego does not favour Psycho-Analysis, and obstinately refuses to believe in it.”
Mr J. C. Flügel contributes an interesting study “On the Character and Married Life of Henry VIII,” in which he applies psycho-analytic findings to historical material. He considers that the “behaviour of individuals long since dead can be satisfactorily accounted for on psycho-analytic theories (and perhaps in no other way),” and that this affords “very valuable corroboration of the utility and validity of the psycho-analytic method.”
The first of a series of elementary didactic articles on psycho-analysis is contributed by Dr Douglas Bryan under the title, “Freud's Psychology." It gives a clear and simple account of Freud's views on the nature and functions of the Conscious, the Pre-conscious, and the Unconscious.
A very full review of the “Recent Psycho-Analytical Literature in English” is given by Dr Stanford Read. No less than 346 original contributions and 30 translations are tabulated.