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and Preserver. The conscious and personal unconscious, on the other hand, contain certain contents of the collective psyche as personal differentiation, that is as personal acquisitions of the individual life as opposed to what is inherited.

In the personal unconscious all the lost memories are stored. New products arise from a new combination of unconscious contents, of which dreams are a common example. In addition to the lost memories and the new combinations, intentional repressions of painful and incompatible thoughts and feelings form an important part of the contents. It is here we find the infantile mind, whereas the primitive aspects belong to the impersonal unconscious.

As a correlate to this, and to distinguish the ego contents of the collective unconscious from the non-ego contents, the Persona is postulated as distinguished from the Individual. The persona is an “excerpt from the collective psychel.” The persona was the mask actors wore, through which they spoke. The mask constituted the appropriate appearance for the part played. The persona then is what a man appears to be both to himself and others. A man's type determines his persona to a great extent; he is as he is by nature. The individual, on the other hand, is what he becomes, and is the product of a life-enduring differentiation from what is general and collective and inherited. The persona and the individual are in a sense pairs of opposites. The idea of the persona and the individual comprises as great a difference as that of a person and a personage, save that a personage as often as not attains distinction by conforming to collective opinion and gaining collective approval; whereas the individuated person differentiates himself from what is customary and average, and is only approved when he has given an equivalent to Society in exchange for the exemptions, licenses, or heresies through which he has established his freedom. "The unconscious being collective psyche, is the psychological representation of Society”?; the persona has no relation to it, because being itself collective it is identical with collectivity. Thus the persona is both an excerpt and a component of the general collective psychological function. As it is obvious we have originally nothing but collective material at our disposal, what is individual lies in the uniqueness of the combination of the psychological elements. Individuation follows after the dissolution of the persona into the collective psyche, “whereupon a principle arises that selects and limits the contents that shall now be consciously chosen to be accepted

1 Analytical Psychology, p. 456. 2 Jung, Individuation and Collectivity (unpublished MS).


as individual?.” Individuation demands the surpassing of the type, first by recognition of what is missing or unconscious in the functions, then by consciously endeavouring to develop what is lacking in order to become free from the childish personality.

In the course of analysis what is unconscious in the mind is gradually made conscious--one gets deeper into the collective psyche—and it becomes obvious that phantasies appear which have no connexion with the actual experiences of the person being analysed, but which are a universal possession dormant from immemorial ages. Thus an impersonal layer of the unconscious is demonstrated, which is also called the absolute. Here the primordial images are discovered; they are the inherited potentialities of human imagination. These form the themes of myths and legends all over the world. In the individual case it is not merely a reproduction of myths once heard, but a new creation of mythology.

Similar images are produced by the insane, and are found in the oldest of existing human records. "The primordial images represent the most ancient universal and deep thoughts of mankind. They are feeling just as much as thought, and might therefore be termed thought-feelings 2: and expressed differently Jung says the collective unconscious is “the sum of the instincts and their correlates the archetypes of apprehension.” He says: “Just as instinct is the intrusion of an unconsciously motivated impulse into conscious action, so intuition is the intrusion of the unconscious content of an 'image' into conscious apperception. ... The mechanism of intuition is analogous to that of instinct, with this difference that whereas instinct means a teleological impulse towards a highly complicated action, intuition means an unconscious teleological apprehension of a highly complicated situation. In a way intuition is a counterpart of instinct, not more or less incomprehensible and astounding than instinct itself3.”

The archetypes of apperception are regarded as “the a priori determining constituents of all experience. Just as instincts compel man to a conduct of life which is specifically human, so the archetypes...coerce intuition and apprehension to forms specifically humano."

“ Just as the instincts are deeply covered over by processes of rationalization, so also are the archetypes of apprehension overlaid. But man's conception of the world is just as regular and uniform as his

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1 Jung, Individuation and Collectivity (unpublished MS).
? Analytical Psychology, p. 411.
3 British Journal of Psychology, x, No. 1, p. 18.

Ibid. p. 19.

instinctive actions. It is the determining factor of this latter uniformity which is conceived as the archetype, the primordial image.”

“The image might be conceived as intuition of the instinct itself, analogous to the conception of consciousness as an internal image of our objective vital processes....Just as we believe instinct to be thoroughly adapted and sometimes incredibly clever, so we must assume that intuition to which instinct owes its existence, must be of extraordinary precision 1.”

The symptoms of neurosis, particularly of compulsion neurosis, and the symptoms of insanity, show atavistic tendencies, such for instance as interest in excreta, which are remnants of an adaptation which was entirely suitable at one stage of our animal or anthropoid existence.

In every psychotic state the unconscious gains a super-value owing to the regression of libido to the collective unconscious, which it reanimates, having first flooded the ego feelings and stimulated a painful self-consciousness, in which the pairs of opposites, megalomania and feelings of inferiority, alternate. When Nebuchadnezzar, identified with the images of the unconscious, dwelt among wild asses, and ate grass, he responded to the inner compulsion to live his unconscious. This case has many parallels in our asylums. I saw a woman recently tossing her head, champing the bit, and pawing the ground. She told me, “I am a horse." In Nebuchadnezzar's day no doubt she too would have been allowed to roam unclothed in the open, her “body wet with the dews of heaven.”

Jung has pointed out that in the introversion psychosis of dementia praecox, the strange mythological phantasies indicate the replacement of a recent adaptation to reality by an archaic one. The libido of these patients is taken from the function of reality as a whole, not only from the sexual function, which is now replaced by an “intra-psychic equivalent?.” What is peculiar to these patients is the “predominance of phantastic forms of thought” founded upon a pre-occupation of the libido which is normally applied to the ego with the archetypal forms of thought.

In hysterical introversion, on the other hand, the libido designed for the outer object, is introverted and turns to the re-animation of the instincts with the production of auto-erotism. In these pathological states it will easily be seen that the mechanisms approximate to those we have recognised as belonging collectively to the subconscious types, for the reason that they are less rational and nearer their instincts. The adaptation that the objective world has demanded from us has necessarily contracted our horizon to the things which it pays us to attend to, but all the same we are aware that when we work in close harmony with our instincts we get the best results. Hence regression of the libido into the unconscious, which produces new phantasies or re-animates the old, is an attempt at self cure (as Freud says of neurosis). The complete cure as I have indicated earlier, lies in a better adaptation to the demands of both worlds of reality, which can only in the last resort be based on the ability to discriminate between the real facts and the unconscious facts.

1 British Journal of Psychology, loc. cit. p.

22. 2 Psychology of the Unconscious, pp. 152 and 462. See also The Psychology of Dementia Praecor.



The progress made in psycho-analytic knowledge during the past five or six years has been, in spite of the great external hindrances, very considerable, and in the attempt to present it one is met at the outset by two special difficulties. In the first place, the later researches have shown that most of the problems in question are a good deal more complex than was perhaps at first realised, though such researches have naturally had to be based on the earlier work; it is therefore impossible to expound them without presupposing a knowledge of this earlier work, and I trust that this unavoidable fact will be borne in mind by those who find some of what follows too abstruse or abstract. The second difficulty in exposition is a more technical one, and is due to the multiplicity and variety of the contributions made during the past few years, which makes it hard to group or arrange them in any clear way. This difficulty I have dealt with mainly by the simple procedures of omission and selection. I shall not, for instance, touch on any branch of applied psycho-analysis except in the purely clinical field, and even here there are many interesting contributions with which I shall not be able to deal, among them being, to my regret, the valuable series of Pierce Clark's on the subject of epilepsy (1). In the narrower field itself thus circumscribed no general review of the literature will be attempted, this being now fortunately accessible elsewhere (2), and I shall merely aim at calling attention to a few of what I consider to be the main respects in which advance in our knowledge has been made. As may be anticipated from this definition, the work chiefly dealt with will be that of Freud himself, ever the pioneer in our science.


TECHNIQUE One striking new departure in technique has been made, the importance of which, however, cannot yet be estimated because it is relatively at its beginning. It consists in what Ferenczi has called “active therapy.” As is well known, our methods so far have been confined to discovering and overcoming the resistances of the patient against his knowledge of

1 Read before the Medical Section of the British Psychological Society, Jan. 21, 1920. J. of Psych. (Med. Sect.) I


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