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elasticity1 and I have reduced this tendency to a minimum by omitting altogether from the classification a few words about which I felt real doubt.
I do not feel it necessary to give examples of this class as my divergence from Jung is inappreciable and even so occurs almost exclusively in his last and vaguest sub-class.
II. Predicates. I recognise here five sub-classes which are easily distinguishable.
(a) Simple predicates. By this I mean reactions in which the stimulus word is qualified by the reaction word, or vice versa, in a way which contains no element of personal opinion or judgment of value. Examples:
(b) Predicates expressive of personal opinion or judgment of value. This class needs no further definition. Examples:
(c) Predicates of subject relationship.' In this class the two associated words refer to some activity of which one is the subject.
2 These are good examples of the border-line cases mentioned above.
(e) Predicates defining place, time, means, etc. Examples:
III. Causal dependence. This class consists of associations in which one idea is causally dependent on the other or is a common consequence of it; I have extended it to include cases in which the idea expressed by one word may reasonably be regarded as a necessary antecedent to that expressed by the other. Examples:
IV. Co-existence. Associations which arise from the experience of the ideas concerned in temporal or spatial juxtaposition, including cases in which one word represents a part of the other. Examples:
I also include here associations in which one word forms an essential part or concomitant of an activity denoted by the other. Examples:
V. Paraphrases, Synonyms, etc. This is a slightly widened version of Jung's 'identity' class. The characteristic feature is that the reaction word does not possess a meaning radically different from that of the stimulus word; substantially the same idea is represented in a slightly altered form. Examples:
VI. Verbal forms. I have here recognised three sub-classes.
(a) Reactions determined by experience of the words as forming part of common expressions and phrases in daily use. Examples:
(b) Word-completion. A word is added which, with the stimulus word, forms a compound word. Examples:
(c) Clangs, rhymes and word-completion by syllables which cannot stand
VII. 'Indirect' associations. I feel that I may be criticised for making a special class for these associations, contrary to the opinion of some authorities. None the less I believe that it is desirable to do this. By 'indirect' associations I do not mean "that mode of reaction which is only understandable by the assumption of a middle term different from the stimulus or reaction-word2." Or rather I do not mean merely this, although, in a sense, some such reactions may belong to my 'indirect' class.
The principle by which I have been guided in assigning words to this class is this: most associations are readily comprehensible by the experimenter; even although they may not be what he would have given himself or would have expected, he can easily see the kind of connections which result in their formation. There are some, on the other hand, in 1 From recent experiences in H.M. Forces. 2 Jung, loc. cit. p. 29.
which the reaction word seems utterly unrelated to the stimulus word and not to be accounted for by perseveration of ideas aroused by a preceding reaction. These must result from some past experience peculiar to the individual subject.
It is just such associations which on account of their intimate personal origin are likely to be of the very first importance in practical work and it is therefore especially well worth while to ascertain whether they have any characteristic affective properties.
I, personally, have found no difficulty in assigning associations to this class and have, indeed, done so as a rule with considerably more confidence than I have felt in several other instances. I give the following examples:
It will be seen later that the words in this class are, as a matter of fact, distinguished by marked affective properties. This class should clearly be included under the main heading of 'Inner Associations' but, for the moment, I prefer to keep it separate.
VIII. This is not a wholly separate class. I have counted in it a number of 'freaks' some of which were also allotted to other classes. It includes the most conspicuous examples of class VII; cases when the reaction consists of several words instead of the usual single word; reaction by 'stereotypes,' that is to say the same reaction word repeated many times in the course of the experiment; reaction by interjections, etc., etc.
When I had classified the reactions into these eight classes I counted how many in each class were accompanied by no complex indicator, how many by 'too-long' reaction time only, how many by 'too-large' deflection only, how many by both, and so on. The results are shown in Table I.
1 This is presumably equally eligible for class II (c), but it is very personal and I prefer to place it here.