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words. We should therefore expect that the mean intensity of tone in class TG would be greater than in class G and, inasmuch as this tone is positive, that the mean memory value would also be greater.

The former is the case as will be seen later. That the latter is not may, I think, be explained as follows: complex-indicators, other than those here analysed, are rare in my material, but no fewer than nine are to be found in class TG; the mean memory value of these is 5.2 and if they are eliminated from the class the mean memory value of the remainder is 7.4 which raises it to the position of equal first with class G. (Actually, if we take the mean to another place of decimals we have-mean for class TG 7.425, mean for class G 7:41.)

Whether this alteration is legitimate is a matter of opinion into which subjective factors enter largely. I, personally, think that it is, and I am strengthened in this view by considerations of the relative intensity of the tone in different classes as shown by the mean magnitude of the complex-indicators.

Since the probable Means of the reaction times and galvanometer deflections vary considerably in different subjects it might be unwise simply to calculate the arithmetic means of the times and deviations in the different classes and to use these as measures of the intensity of affective tone; to do so would involve a danger of the classes being dominated by a few subjects whose probable means are unusually high. I prefer to express each value as a percentage of the corresponding Probable Mean and to use the mean of these percentages as the measure of intensity; I think this plan might profitably be adopted in all similar work which may need to be compared with results obtained by other experimenters. It is equivalent to reducing all subjects to terms of a ‘standard subject' whose Probable Mean is 100 units.

In this particular case it makes no difference which method we use. The results obtained by both are shown below:

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This shows that class TG is more intensely toned than either of classes T or G, and class TGR than either TR or GR; this applies both to reaction time and galvanometer deflection; which is just what we should expect. The discrepancy between the percentage of the Probable Mean and the Arithmetic Mean in the case of the reaction time in classes T and TR is negligible.

It is possible to apply a further check to the results. If the words learned form a reasonably representative sample of the whole of the material available there ought to be some degree of correspondence between the mean values of the reaction time and the galvanometer deflection, in the various classes, when calculated from all the reactions, and the values yielded by the learned words only. The correspondence will not be quantitatively exact because in the case of my first 25 subjects, of whom 15 are included in the 18 here concerned, I selected to be learned the 15 words giving the largest galvanometer deflection and the 15 giving the smallest. This was done with the idea of giving affective tone the best possible chance of exhibiting any influence on memory which it might have, and this circumstance affects the quantitative relations between the sample' and the remainder of the material in a somewhat complicated way.

The comparatively large number of data here available makes it unnecessary to use the percentage method. The values of the arithmetic means for the whole material are:

Table V.
Indicator
Class No. in class A.M. of R.T. A.M. of G.D. Proportions
TG 239

15.6

14.5 G

Positively toned 31.4%
307

12.4 s
255
14:6

Neutral 42.2 %
480
GR 105

11.2
TR
119

13.9
TGR 107

16.8

11.7

Negatively toned 26.4 %
R 129

The correspondence between these values and those given in the preceding table is obviously very close.

I have entered into these details because I want to show how very concordant the results are and how those obtained by one method of treating the data harmonise with those obtained by another.

When we remember how rough a test of the quality of affective tone the 'memory value of a word must necessarily be in practice, and how many accidental causes may distort and obscure its indications, it will be admitted, I believe, that this concordance is remarkable and justifies us in regarding the results as possessed of a high degree of reliability.

A few miscellaneous observations concerning complex-indicators may be noted here.

In the 1741 reactions given by the 18 subjects dealt with above there are 460 disturbances in reproduction; this is equal to 26.9 % as compared with Jung's “33 % not reproduced?.” It is not clear whether this last figure includes associations reproduced with great hesitation, presumably it does. I attribute the difference between these two values to the fact that among the 28 subjects dealt with by Jung there were 25 nervous and mental patients of different kinds, whereas all my subjects were normal.

Jung found that “on the avarage, 62.2 % of the absent reproductions lie, as regards the reaction-times, above the probable mean"; I find only 49.2 %. This difference is probably due to the same cause. Abnormal subjects will, in general, possess more numerous and stronger complexes than my normal subjects, and the more intense tone aroused by the complex-striking stimulus words-indicated in both cases by the disturbance of reproduction-will tend to prolong the reaction time more frequently in the case of the abnormal subjects.

In view of the evidence I have brought forward above which shows that disturbance in reproduction is more intimately associated with negative affective tone than are either of the other two complex-indicators discussed, I do not think it is necessary to reproduce from my data the figures analogous to those which Jung gives in favour of regarding this phenomenon as significant. It may be pointed out, however, that even among his so largely abnormal subjects, it is probable that a certain number of reaction times were prolonged on account of positive affective tone aroused by the stimulus word, or on account of intellectual difficulties. If Jung had been able to distinguish between such prolongations and those due to negative tone his figures would, presumably, have borne out his contention even more strongly than

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they did.

There can be no doubt whatever that for quantitative work the galvanometer deflection is a far more valuable indicator than the reaction time. It is not under voluntary control and is not affected to any appreciable extent by non-significant intellectual factors such as sometimes prolong reaction time. Moreover, the absolute magnitude of

1 Loc. cit. p. 401.

the deflections can, in general, be magnified to any extent desired and read with a corresponding degree of precision.

Still more important is the fact that the magnitude of the galvanometer deflection appears to be approximately proportional to the intensity of the corresponding affective tone, however great the deflection; this is not the case with the reaction time. It is obvious on a priori grounds that there must be a point at which prolongation of reaction time ceases to be proportionally significant. No one would suggest, for example, that a time of one minute, say, in a series whose Probable Mean is two seconds, is likely to be the result of an affective state 15 times as intense as that responsible for a time of four seconds. But such considerations cannot be extended to the galvanometer deflections. Table VI shows the 100 words of my list arranged in the order of magnitude of their mean reaction times, calculated for the whole of the 50 subjects examined; Table VII shows the words similarly arranged on a basis of their mean galvanometer deflections.

Table VI.

Mean
Mean
Mean

Mean Word R.T. Word R.T. Word R.T. Word R.T. 1 Name 18-2 | 21 Wicked 13.6 41 Choice 12.5 | 61 Bury 11.5 2 Friend 17.4 22 Afraid 13.5 | 42 Woman 12.4 | 62 Wait 11.5 3 Despise 17.3 23 Dress 13.4 | 43 Speak 12:3 63 Water 11.4 4 Make 15.9 24 Dead 13.4 44 Fight 12.2 64 Hunger 11.4 5 Sad 15.825 Love 13.3 45 Swim 12.1 65 Glass 11:4 6 Proud 15.426 Luck 13.1 46 Jump 12:1 66 Travel 11.3 7 Home 15.2 27 Long 13.1 47 Cow 12:1 67 Flower 11.3 8 Nasty 14.9 28 State 13:1 48 Street 12.0 68 Bed 11.3 9 Marry 14.8 29 Silly 12.9 49 Village 11:8 69 Evil 11.3 10 Habit 14:7 30 Stalk 12.8 50 Bread 11.8 70 Child 11.2 11 Pity 14.5 31 Pray 12.8 51 Wound 11.871 Frog 11.1 12 Happy 14.5 32 Money 12-8 52 Cold 11:7 | 72 Ship 11.1 13 Angry 14.2 33 War 12.8 53 Salt 11:7 73 Lamp 11.0 14 Bring 14.2 | 34 Try 12.8 54 Paper 117 | 74 Blue 10.9 15 Plum 14.0 | 35 Bag 12.855 Divorce 11.6 75 Box 10.9 16 Dance 13.836 Insult 12.8 56 Beat 11.6 76 Pond 10.8 17 Worry 13.7 | 37 Carry 12:6 57 Big 11.6 77 Tree 10-8 18 Kiss 13.7 | 38 Ask 12.5 58 Yellow 11:6 78 Finger 10.8 19 Brother 13.6 39 Sick 12.5 | 59 Cook 11.5 79 Give 10-8 20 Family 13.6 | 40 Wine 12-5 | 60 Go 11:51 80 Doctor 10.8

Mean Word R.T. 81 Motor 10-8 82 Clean 10.8 83 Rich 10.7 84 Table 10.6 85 Sing 10.4 86 White 10-4 87 Pencil 10.4 88 Old 10.4 89 Bird 10:3 90 Walk 10-3 91 Work 10.3 92 Carrot 10.2 93 Chair 10.2 94 Ink 9.9 95 Book 9.8 96 Head 9.6 97 Horse 9-6 98 Green 9.4 99 Needle 9.3 100 Shut 9.2

Table VII.

Deflec-
Deflec-
Deflec-
Deflec-

DeflecWord tion Word tion Word tion Word tion Word tion 1 Kiss 72.8 21 Worry 33.0 | 41 Book 26:1 61 Cold 23.0 81 Bird 19.6 2 Love 59.5 22 Insult 32.5 42 Travel 25.9

62 Long

22.7 82 Bread 19.6 3 Marry 58.5 | 23 Friend 32.2 | 43 Sick 25.8 63 Go 22-6 83 Old 19.3 4 Divorce 50.8 24 Head 31.7 | 44 Bag 25.864 Cook 22:3 84 Cow 19-0 5 Name 48.7 25 Angry 31.5 45 Water 25.6 65 Yellow 22-2 85 Bring 19.0 6 Woman 40-3 | 26 Wine 30.9 46 Home 25.4 66 Chair 21.7 86 Clean 18.8 7 Wound 38.0 27 Luck 30.8 | 47 Big 25.3 67 Finger 21.5 87 Ink 18.7 8 Dance 37.4 | 28 Green 30-4 | 48 Bed 25-268 Sad 21.4 88 Shut

18-6 9 Afraid 36.829 Ask 30.0 | 49 Silly 25.2 | 69 Tree 21.2 89 Table 18.5 10 Proud 36.7 30 Make 29.950 Brother 25.2 70 Needle 21:1 90 Work 18.3 11 Habit 36.6 | 31 Pity 29.7 51 Street 24.9 71 Blue 20-6 91 Carrot 18.2 12 Money 35.6 | 32 Choice 29.7 52 Beat 24.6 | 72 Ship 20.5 92 Bury 18.0 13 Fight 35-0 | 33 Dress 28.5

53 Carry

24.5 73 Motor 20.4 93 Hunger 17.9 14 Child 35.0 | 34 Wicked 28.4 54 Wait 24.474 Frog 20-2 94 White 17.8 15 State 34:8 35 Dead 27.6 55 Speak 24:3 75 Walk 20-1 95 Glass 17-6 16 Despise 34.7 36 Sing 27.6 56 Box 23.976 Try 20.0 96 Give 16.7 17 War 34.1 37 Horse 27.1 57 Nasty 23.6 | 77 Plum 20.0 97 Flower 16.1 18 Family 33.6 | 38 Evil 27.0 58 Jump 23.5 78 Village 19.9 98 Pond 15-5 19 Happy 33.4 39 Doctor 26.9 | 59 Paper 23.2 79 Rich

19.9

99 Pencil 15.4 20 Pray 33.1 40 Stalk 26-2 | 60 Lamp 23:

180 Salt 19.8 | 100 Swim 14:2

There can be no doubt that the order of words given by the galvanometer represents their relative affective value far more accurately than that given by the reaction time.

The following points may be noted: (i) The highest value in the galvanometer series is 5.12 times as

great as the lowest; in the time series it is only 1.98 times as great. The resolving power of the galvanometer is, therefore,

rather more than 21 times that of the reaction time. (ii) In accordance with this we find in the reaction time series seven

pairs of words whose mean time is the same, seven such groups
of three words each, five of four words each, and two of seven
words each. In the galvanometer series there are only eight
such pairs and one group of three.
The galvanometer therefore differentiates gradations of affective

tone with much greater delicacy than does the reaction time. (iii) The first six words on the galvanometer list are Kiss, Love,

Marry, Divorce, Name, Woman. Of these, five are obviously
closely connected with sex-life and the other, Name, is probably
constellated by the same ideas. These six words stand out head
and shoulders above the remainder of the series, as I pointed
out in my paper on memory. (N.B. The effect is very noticeable
if the series is represented graphically.) Their mean value is
145 % of that of the seventh word and 220 % of that of the
Probable Mean of the series.
Compare with these the first six words of the time series, Namel,
Friend, Despise, Make, Sad, Proud. This is not nearly so homo-
geneous a group; its mean value is only 110% of the seventh

word and only 141 % of the Probable Mean of the series. 1 For the probable reason of the very long time for this word, compare page 254. The first name to occur is likely to be that of a wife, fiancée, lover or other person of sexual significance to the subject.

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