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The first of these is the actual biological necessity for reproduction —which of course persists, however high may be the degree of Individuation, and which moreover, as we have already seen (Section III above), is liable to be prevented by a number of biological influences, which work in favour of Genesis rather than of Individuation, from attaining that low level which alone is compatible with the highest forms of Individuation.

The second factor is connected with the relatively slow physiological and psychological adaptability of the organism, as a result of which (quite apart from the above-mentioned influences favouring Genesis and even in the face of powerful forces favouring an increased degree of Individuation) only a certain quantity of libidinous energy is capable of sublimation; any attempt to increase this quantity beyond certain limits resulting not in sublimation, but in those unsatisfactory forms of displacement which constitute neurosis or else in unprofitable inhibitions, prohibitions or taboos. The limits in question vary greatly according to age, race and individuality, but in every mind there would appear to be a point beyond which the drafting off of sexual energy into non-sexual channels produces harm instead of benefit. Under the pressure of modern civilisation, with its stern demands for the repression of sexual gratification and the devotion of libidinous energy to sublimation, such attempts at excessive sublimation are very frequent and manifest themselves in the large number of individuals who suffer from the various forms of nervous disease.

The third factor is to be found in the existence of certain correlations between sexual and non-sexual function and development. Just as on the physiological side it appears probable that the performance of the sexual functions (and more particularly perhaps the production of the special secretions of the sexual organs) are of benefit to the organism as a whole, quite apart from sexual life, so too, on the psychological side, it is now fairly clear that normal sexual development and exercise are necessary conditions of healthy mental life in general. Absence of sexual interests, impotence, frigidity, perversion, homosexuality, undue fixation -all implying abnormality of sexual function and development-are all, it would appear, harmful to character or intellect even in matters at first sight totally unconnected with the sexual sphere1. It would seem indeed as though the sublimations are, at all levels of development,

1 Of particular importance in this connection is the correlation between (sexual) object-love and altruism on the one hand and between (the more primitive sexual stage of) Narcissism and selfishness on the other.

dependent on, and constantly reinforced or nourished by, the sexual functions, so that any failure in the proper function and growth of the sexual trends of necessity occasions some defect or disturbance in the powers of sublimation.

In virtue of these factors (and probably of others which closer study of the subject would reveal), the relations between sex and sublimation are extremely intricate. Sublimation is in a sense directly antagonistic to sexuality, but it draws its energy from the same source and is even to some considerable extent dependent on the welfare of its rival.

There are of course many other difficulties and complexities connected with this subject which we have passed over. There is however only room here for brief consideration of three further aspects of our problem.

As regards the first of these, a difficulty arises in connection with the fact that the researches of Freud have shown that the sexual instinct is itself a highly complex thing, comprising many different trends and impulses, the majority of which are not directly concerned with the process of reproduction. The antagonism between Individuation and Genesis which we are here considering appears at first sight to be capable of accounting only for the repression of those aspects of sexuality which directly lead to reproduction, since it might seem that these alone constitute a biological menace to the principle of Individuation. To this the reply appears to be as follows.

(a) Just as from the biological and physiological points of view it was necessary to include under the heading of Genesis not only the matter and energy directly connected with the process of reproduction but also that indirectly connected with it, such as the food provided by the parent for the use of offspring, the energy involved in the provision of which is not available for purposes of Individuation; so also from the standpoint of psychology we must bear in mind that all the numerous sexual interests and activities which are only indirectly associated with reproduction involve the withdrawal of psychic energy from sublimation and are therefore hostile to Individuation. Although the exercise of the non-reproductive aspects of the sexual instinct does not lead to the impoverishment of the individual life by increasing the severity of the struggle for existence as a result of over-reproduction, it does lead to such impoverishment by reduction of the quantity of psychic energy available for work. As Bleuler has indicated1, human beings, owing to their ability to procure opportunities of enjoyment which are difficult.

1 Op. cit.

or impossible in the case of other animals, are constantly subjected to the temptation to pursue sexual activities for the sake of the immediate pleasure that they give. A particularly vigorous effort of repression is therefore called for in order to ensure the devotion of the necessary amount of energy to other purposes purposes which, as Freud has pointed out, involve the renunciation of a nearer pleasure in order to obtain a more distant and permanent satisfaction that can be gained only by modification of the environment, i.e. by work. From this point of view the repression of the non-reproductive elements of the sexual tendencies is just as essential as a condition of increased Individuation as is the repression of the reproductive elements themselves.

(b) The reproductive and the non-reproductive elements of sexuality, although in their origin they appear to be to a large extent independent, are in the course of their development, as Freud has shown, firmly knit together. The sexual instinct of the normal adult consists of a more or less closely organised body of partial impulses under the hegemony of the directly reproductive trends; the non-reproductive aspects consisting for the most part of preliminary interests and activities which lead up to the reproductive act itself. This being the case, sexual repression in the interests of increased Individuation can no more afford to overlook the non-reproductive aspects of sexuality than can the sailor afford to neglect the distant cloud on the horizon which, harmless in itself, may yet be the forerunner of a storm. As a matter of fact, PsychoAnalysis has shown that it is indeed a general characteristic of repression to extend from the object at which it was originally aimed to other objects associatively connected therewith, so that many thoughts and tendencies, which in themselves would have escaped the censor, are subjected to repression merely because of their associations. This being the case, it is not surprising that the non-reproductive aspects of the sexual instinct (even were there no other grounds for their repression) should suffer repression on account of their close association with the process of reproduction itself.

Though the facts connected with the antagonism between Individuation and Genesis thus to a large extent necessarily prepare the same fate for both the reproductive and the non-reproductive elements of sexuality, it is worth nothing in this connection that the antagonism in question is in human society at any rate-not without a certain differential action in this respect. The difficulties-ultimately, as we have seen, biological and economic-in the way of normal sexual gratification in adult life lead beyond all doubt to a far more frequent indul

gence in perverse, homosexual and autoerotic activities than would otherwise be the case. Normal intercourse resulting in reproduction causes a prolonged or permanent impediment to Individuation; nonreproductive sexual gratification produces no such serious consequences and can therefore be indulged with relative impunity. It is true that the condemnation passed on abnormal or autoerotic sexuality is in some respects more severe than is that meted out to normal intercourse, which is of course permitted and even enjoined under certain conditions— conditions, be it noted, which imply that the responsibility for the consequences is to some extent being faced: this however is probably due (among a number of other causes into which we cannot enter here) to a dim realisation of the fact that abnormal and autoerotic practices are in some important respects easier and less dangerous, and therefore also more tempting and in greater need of inhibition. Fundamentally it remains true that in adult life the (social and psychic) impediments are in many ways greater in the case of reproductive sexuality and that in consequence there is a tendency for sexual energy to be deflected (or to regress) from normal, i.e. reproductive, aims to non-reproductive ends presenting fewer obstacles.

The second of the three final considerations mentioned above can be more briefly disposed of, though in truth its importance is such as to merit extensive treatment on its own account. The higher degrees of Individuation are in human society-very largely connected with, or dependent on, the process of Socialisation. On the intellectual side, the individual can only attain the higher elements of culture through learning from his fellows, or through co-operation with them; as a result of which co-operation individuals are enabled to specialise in some particular branch of activity or culture and at the same time to derive the advantage of the work of others who have specialised in other branches. On the character side, this co-operation requires a high development of certain 'moral' or 'social' attributes, which in some respects, it is true, entail a sacrifice of individual aims, but which in other respects involve a greater individual development; such as is manifested for instance in the ability to subordinate immediate to ultimate ends and in increased powers of integration and control of impulse. To so great an extent is the increase of individual development in human beings bound up with the process of socialisation that the antagonism between Genesis and Individuation, as it applies to civilised societies, might, from certain points of view, almost as well be considered as a struggle between Genesis and Socialisation: for the

devotion of large quantities of energy to sexuality is antagonistic to the higher development of sociality in much the same way as it is antagonistic to the higher development of individuality (cf. the inverse correlation between birth rate and culture referred to above). The great importance of socialisation in the struggle for existence in the human race has brought it about that the qualities required for socialisation have played a very significant rôle in the later stages of human progress. Among these qualities the ability to 'get along' with our fellows and to accept their views and estimates is of particular importance and has probably undergone a special degree of development. It is in virtue of this fact that so many of the 'moral' impulses are connected with, or derived from, our relations with our fellow men, by way of fear, love, precept or example; so that it has appeared to some psychologists that repression in general, and repression of the sexual impulses in particular, is due to the operation of the 'herd instinct.' There is probably much truth in this view (though it is almost certainly an exaggeration to attribute all repression-sexual and otherwise-to this source) but from our present standpoint it is important to bear in mind that the influences inhibiting the sexual tendencies, which in human society may appear to emanate largely from the relations that connect us with our fellows, are only the representatives at this particular stage of development of forces that have been at work throughout the course of evolution, both in gregarious and in solitary animals.

The last factor which we can consider here is connected with the circumstance that, as a result of the repression to which it has been subject, a certain degree of inhibition has become, as it were, an integral part of the sexual instinct itself, which in human beings cannot attain full satisfaction unless it has to overcome some obstacle and, in the absence of any obstacle, tends to create one for itself. Modesty, coyness, shyness, secrecy, act not merely as hindrances to the manifestations of sexuality, but themselves constitute an essential aspect of these manifestations, a necessary link in the chain of processes that culminates in the reproductive act itself. When these resistances are lacking, sexuality tends to lose its charm; a too free, too rapid or too abrupt approach to sexual intimacy frequently resulting not in an increase but in a loss of sexual excitement. At times and places where the sexual inhibitions have been much reduced, sexuality (as Freud reminds us1) often ceases to exercise its usual fascination. Thus the freedom in sexual

'Beiträge zur Psychologie des Liebeslebens," II. Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen, 1912, iv. 49.

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