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in broad outline, how it may be applied in professional life. The one-sided training of the medical student is emphasised, and cogent reasons are given why every practitioner should have some knowledge of psychology, and why this knowledge should be imparted by a trained psychologist-not merely a specialist in psychotherapeutics. This teacher must be "a psychologist who has been trained not only in a school of philosophy but also in a school of biology....He must know not only about the emotions but about internal secretions....If he himself be a member of the profession, so much the better; but he must be a psychologist."
In the course of his paper Professor Lloyd Morgan makes some criticisms of Psycho-Analytic theory, "Here the trouble is that one has to grapple with new technical terms, some of them founded on metaphor and mythology, and with old terms used in quite unfamiliar ways." In speaking of the Freudian theory of dreams, he says, "There are, I should contend, unconscious psychical processes ...but there are, in the unconscious, no ideas, no re-presentations, no memoryimages, such as are developed in consciousness and there only,...ideas or memoryimages are no more preserved, as such, in the mind, than sounds, as such, are preserved in the gramophone record. Only the conditions of reproduction are preserved....If I am right, there are no phallic ideas in the unconscious. We may cleanse these Augean stables. The latent dream is a bit of sheer mythology."
"Education and its Rôle in the Prevention of Neurosis" is discussed by J. Ernest Nicole. The education which the writer desiderates is based on knowledge which has been acquired by psycho-analysis and 'analytical psychology.' The importance of the unconscious and the significance of the primitive tendencies and their possible fates are insisted on from the Freudian point of view. Jung's theory of 'the types' is also drawn upon as a possible source of help in the training of the child. "Thus, in order to prevent deficiency of adaptation from, say, an excessive extravert character, the developing child should receive an education tending towards introvert characteristics." But the application to child-education of Jung's constructive psychology is stated to be rather problematic "on account of the infancy of the subject and the element of uncertainty that still clings round its results." The writer blows hot and cold on the question of sublimation: we will next attempt to urge and direct a particular child in the paths of sublimation more fitting to its mental attributes. We must never forget, however, that a sublimation cannot in any case be forced." But, if it cannot be forced, why urge?
"The Neuropathic Individual as a Social Unit" is the title of a Critical Review by Henry Devine. His purpose is to indicate some directions in which the presentday interest in the social aspects of psychiatry is finding expression. He deals chiefly with the view of 'mental contagion' put forward by Pierre Janet in his paper on "Les fatigues sociales et l'antipathie" (Revue Philosophique, Jan. 1919). Janet contends that those in constant contact with neuropathic individuals tend themselves to become neurotic. This he explains by the production in them of lowered psychological tension due to the prolonged strain of dealing with the whims and exactions of neurotic patients.
Dr Devine thinks Janet's explanation incomplete and unsatisfying, and would refer the nervous symptoms of those living continually with neurotics to "a pent-up libido in which the mechanism of regression comes into play." The whole personality has to be subservient to the caprice and will of another, and every natural impulse and tendency to self-expression has to be curbed. The evil effects of this would be especially pronounced in the case of a child with a neuropathic parent.
The Psychoanalytic Review, Oct. 1920, Vol. vm, No. 4.
This number is almost entirely devoted to the records of cases of War Neuroses and Psychoses. Karl M. Bowman gives an account of a case seen and analysed by him at Maghull Red Cross Hospital. It may, perhaps, be taken as typical of a method employed very largely in the British War Hospitals. The theoretical foundations of this method need more consideration than they have received. It has some relation to psycho-analysis and is no doubt based on psycho-analytic findings; but its technique is different, and probably its results are different.
A similar comment may be made on the two cases of psychosis reported by Dudley Ward Fay-"The case of Jack" and "The case of Jim." The cure of dementia praecox by a dissertation on Freud's sexual theories, a little analysis and much good advice, is very interesting.
Pierce Clark contributes "A Clinical Study of some Mental Contents in Epileptic Attacks." His main contention is that "a study of the make-up and the content in the petit mal attacks gives us a more rational and enlightened method of conducting the proper therapy."
The Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol. xv, No. 1.
Among the original articles in this number are two studies of personality. In Character vs Intelligence in Personality Studies" Guy G. Fernald insists that "personality studies should recognize character as an integral field of inquiry.” Intelligence refers only to capacity or degree of intelligence, while character implies quality of intelligence. In mental tests the determination of intelligence age level is not enough. Only when investigation of character is superadded do we get an evaluation of the whole personality. Different kinds of culture and training may, therefore, be employed in trying to modify personality. But "intelligence defects are irremediable or nearly so, while character deviations are susceptible of improvement while plasticity remains."
Harold I. Gosline discusses "Personality from the Introspective View-point." He lays down the postulates of introspective psychology. Being psychology and not physiology primarily its logically necessary point of departure is consciousness and not behaviour or any form of 'ism.' All the mental functions of which the individual is capable may be analysed into sensation, association, reaction and inhibition. All these are based upon sensation, and it may be possible by analysis to determine just what sensations are at fault in any disturbances in these fields. "The analysis of the will, the attention, the thinking, the emotional and the attitude disorders should then throw light on the sensations at fault." Here would be the basis of a rational system of psycho-analysis." One of the author's conclusions is that "the case for lesions in the white matter in the psychoses is then a very strong one." Lydiard H. Horton contributes the last of a series of letters and papers printed in The Journal of Abnormal Psychology since 1913, dealing with the problem of validity in dream-interpretation. The conclusion presented is that great accuracy in dream-study can be attained through the so-called "Inventorial Technique.' This writer believes there is an immense peril to common sense" lurking in the technique of both Freud and Jung; and he would substitute for the "go-as-youplease" methods of the analysts, a standard or criterion by which one may judge the correctness of an interpretation. This standard of interpretative rectitude is no more than the reconstitution of the train of thought." If one prepares an adequate inventory of the items of the dream, all the images in the dream may be traced to a group of particular nerve stimuli, and Horton seems to think that when dreamimages are thus traced to their sensory origin the dream is ‘explained' and needs no further interpretation. He is very suspicious of the "will to interpret" revealed in many dream interpretations, and he thinks that psycho-analysts can be 'entranced' in the sense that "many of them have literally fallen in love with the psychoanalytic method of thinking through the well-known Uebertragung for Freud!'
"The Psychology and Treatment of Insomnia in Fatigue and Allied States" is the title of a suggestive paper by John T. MacCurdy. He ascribes the restlessness which is part of the fatigue syndrome to a conflict between the sense of duty and the craving for shirking induced by mental and bodily fatigue. "Weariness and an instinctive tendency to avoid that which occasions it, leads him to concentrate his attention abnormally and respond to any environmental stimuli with restless activity. Unconsciously lazy, he becomes pathologically active." If circumstances prevent sleep the unconscious becomes more exacting in its demands. It sets up a yearning for the Nirvana of death, against which the conscious personality fights and reacts by still greater activity. "The patient seeks to maintain contact with his environment
by an apparently purposeless restlessness....On account of its symbolic significance, thoughts of slumber obsess him, while his whole being fights against every symptom of approaching sleep, a reaction biologically appropriate to its unconscious equivalent death." Thus the more he tries to sleep, the more does he try to keep in touch with life. "Pathologically he clings to what his unconscious would have him lose." MacCurdy has applied these ideas in the treatment of insomnia with very good results.
T. W. M.
PARTS III & IV
LA TENSION PSYCHOLOGIQUE, SES DEGRÉS, SES OSCILLATIONS1
PAR PIERRE JANET.
LES OSCILLATIONS DU NIVEAU MENTAL 2.
LES notions relatives à la hiérarchie des actions nous ont déjà permis de classer divers individus suivant qu'ils parviennent à tel ou tel niveau psychologique au-dessus duquel ils ne peuvent pas s'élever. En décrivant les actes réflexes, perceptifs et sociaux, les actes intellectuels élémentaires, les volontés et les croyances immédiates du niveau asséritif, les volontés et les croyances réfléchies, les actes ergétiques et rationnels, les conduites expérimentales et les conduites progressives, nous avons reconnu chemin faisant l'idiot, l'imbécile, le débile mental, l'égoïste passionné, le systématique, l'esprit scientifique, le génie. Mais peu d'hommes restent ainsi fixés à un certain niveau et la notion de la hiérarchie des conduites doit nous permettre aussi de comprendre les changements que présente l'activité quand elle monte ou descend à chaque instant sous une foule d'influences et les phénomènes psychologiques si nombreux qui sont en rapport avec ces changements. Pour vous indiquer l'intérêt de ces recherches je voudrais vous rappeler comment nous pouvons interpréter à ce point de vue les phénomènes si importants de l'agitation et de la dépression qui sont unis ensemble, les divers degrés de la dépression, le rôle des circonstances qui produisent ces dépressions.
Tous les observateurs connaissent ces malades accablés par des sentiments de tristesse, d'ennui, de gêne, d'automatisme, de doute, d'irréel, d'indifférence: ils comparent leur conduite actuelle avec leur conduite passée dont ils ont gardé le souvenir, ils expriment perpétuellement le regret du passé, l'humiliation et la honte du présent et ils tirent de ces idées la matière d'un grand nombre d'obsessions et de délires. De tels malades expliquent eux-mêmes leur état en disant qu'ils sont diminués, qu'ils sont au-dessous d'eux-mêmes. En examinant leur conduite le médecin est embarrassé, il constate au premier abord que ces 1 Three lectures delivered before the University of London.
2 Third lecture delivered May 12, 1920.
Journ. of Psych. (Med. Sect.) I