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To hang Cordelia in the prison, and
To lay the blame upon her own despair,
That she fordid herself.
Alb. The gods defend her ! Bear him hence
awhile.

[Edmund is borne off. Re-enter LEAR, with CORDELIA dead in his

arms ; EDGAR, Captain, and others fol

loving. Lear. Howl, howl, howl, howl 1 0, you are

men of stones : Had I your tongues and eyes, l’ld use them so That heaven's vault should crack. She's gone

for ever! I know when one is dead, and when one lives; She's dead as earth. Lend me a lookingglass ;

261 If that her breath will mist or stain the stone, Why, then she lives. Kent.

Is this the promised end ? Edg. Or image of that horror ? Alb,

Fall, and cease! Lear. This feather stirs : she lives ! if it

be so,

Have follow'd your sad steps.
Lear.

You are welcome hither. Kent. Nor no man else: all's cheerless, dark, and deadly.

290 Your eldest daughters have fordone them

selves,
And desperately are dead.
Lear,

Ay, so I think.
Alb. He knows not what he says : and vain

it is
That we present us to him.
Edy.

Very bootless.
Enter a Captain.
Capt. Edmund is dead, my lord.
Alb.

That's but a trifle here.
You lords and noble friends, know our intent.
What comfort to this great decay may come
Shall be applied : for us, we will resign,
During the life of this old majesty,
To him our absolute power: [ To Edgar and
kent] you, to your rights :

300 With boot, and such addition as your honors Have more than merited. All friends shall

taste The wages of their virtue, and all foes The cup of their deservings. O, see, see ! Lear. And my poor fool is hang'd! No,

no, no life! Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life, And thou no breath at all? Thou’lt come no

more, Never, never, never, never, never ! Pray you, undo this button : thank you, sir. Do you see this ? Look on her, look, her lips, Look there, look there !

[Dies. 311 Ed. He faints! My lord, my lord ! Kent. Break, heart; I prithee, break ! Edg.

Look up, my lord. Kent. Vex not his ghost : 0, let him pass!

he hates him much That would upon the rack of this tough

world Stretch him out longer. Eig.

He is gone, indeed. Kent. The wonder is, he hath endured so

long : He but usurp'd his life. | Alb. Bear them from hence. Our present

business Is general woe. (To Kent and Edgar] Friends of my soul, you twain

319 Rule in this realm, and the gored state sustain,

Kent. I have a journey, sir, shortly to go; My master calls me, I must not say no. Alb. The weight of this sad time we must

obey ; Speak what we feel, not what we ought to say. The oldest hath borne most: we that are

young Shall never see so much, nor live so long.

[Exeunt, with a dead march.

It is a chance which does redeem all sorrows
That ever I have felt.

Kent. [Kneeling] O my good master !
Lear. Prithee, away,
Edg.

'Tis noble Kent, your friend. Lear. A plague upon you, murderers, trai

tors all! I might have saved her ; now she's gone for ever!

270 Cordelia, Cordelia ! stay a little. Ha ! What is't thou say'st ? Her voice was ever

soft, Gentle, and low, an excellent thing in woman. I kill'd the slave that was a-hanging thee.

Capt. 'Tis true, my lords, he did.
Lear.

Did I not, fellow ? I have seen the day, with my good biting fal

chion I would have made them skip : I am old now, And these same crosses spoil me. Who are Mine eyes are not o' the best : I'll tell you

straight. Kent. If fortune brag of two she loved and hated,

280 One of them we behold. Lear. This is a dull sight. Are you not

Kent ? Kent.

The same, Your servant Kent. Where is your servant

Cailis ? Lear. He's a good fellow, I can tell you He'll strike, and quickly too : he's dead and rotten.

[man,Kent. No, my good lord ; I am the very Lear. I'll see that straight. Kent. That, from your first of difference

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(WRITTEN ABOUT 1606.)

INTRODUCTION. Macbeth was seen acted by Dr. Forman--who gives a detailed sketch of the play-on April 2, 1610; but the characteristics of versitication forbid us to place it after Pericles and Antony and Cleopure, or very near The Tempest. Upon the whole, the internal evidence supports the opinion of Malone, that the play was written about 1606. The 'materials for his play Shakespeare found in Holiushed's Chronicle, connecting the portion which treats of Duncan and Macbeth with Holinshed's account of the murder of king Duffe by Donwald. The appearance of Banquo's ghost and the sleep. walking of Laily Maibeth appear to be inventions of the dramatist. The Cambridge editors, Messrs. Clark and Wright, are of opinion that Macbeth was interpolated with passages by Middleton, but this theory is in a ligh degrer doubtful. While in Hamlet and others of Shakespeare's plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon or brooder over his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at a heat and imagine Ifrom tirst to last with unabated fervor. It is like a sketch by a great master in which every thing is executed with rapidity and power, and a subtlety of workmanship which has become instinctive. The theme of the Irama is the gradual ruin through yielding to evil within and evil without, of a man, who, thouglı from the first tainted by base and ambitious thoughts, yet possessed elements in his nature of possible honor and loyalty. The contrast between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, umited by their ailections, their fortunes and their crime, is maile to illustrate and light up the character of each. Macheth has physical courage, but inoral weakness, and is subject to excited imaginative fears. His faint and interinittent loyalty embarrasses him-he would have the gains of crime without its pains. But when once his hands are dyed with blood, he hardly cares to withdraw them, and the same fears which had tended to hold him back from murder now urge him on to double and treble muriers until slaughter, almost reckless, becomes the habit of his reign. At last the gallant sollier of the opening of the play tights for his life with a wild and brute-like force. His whole existence has become joyless and loveless, and yet he clings to existence. Lady Macbeth is of a finer and more delicate nature. Having fixed her eye upon an end-the attainment for her husband of Dimean's crown--olie accepts the inevitable means; she nerves herself for the terrible night's work by artificial stimulants; yet she cannot strike the sleeping king who resembles her father, Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is piteously afflicted by the memory of one stain of blood upon her little hand. At last her thread of life snaps suddenly. Macbeth, whose affection for her was real, has sunk too far in the apathy of joyless crime to feel deeply her loss. Banquo, the loyal soldier, praying for restraint against evil thoughts which enter his mind as they had entered Maebeth's, but which work no evil there, is set over against Macbeth, as virtue is set over against disloyalty. The witches are the supernatural beings of terror, in harmony with Shakespeare's tragie period, as the fairies of the Midsummer Night's Dream are the supernatural beings of his days of fancy and frolic, and as Iriel is the supernatural genius of his latest period. There is at once a grossness, a horrible reality about the witches, and a mystery and grandeur of evil influence.

DRAMATIS PERSONÆ. DUNCAN, king of Scotland.

An English Doctor, MALCOLM,

A Scotch Doctor. l:is sons DONALBAIN,

A Soldier. MACBETH,

A Porter.
generals of the king's army.
BANQUO,

An Old Man
MACDUFF,
LENNOX,

LADY MACBETH,
Ross,

LADY MACDOFF. noblemen of Scotland. MENTEITH,

Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth. ANGUS,

HECATE, CAITHNESS,

Three Witches. FLEANCE, son to Banquo.

Apparitions. Siward, Farl of Northumberland, general of the English forces.

Lords, Gentlemen, Officers, Soldiers, Murder Young SIWARI), his son.

ers, Attendants, and Messengers. Seyton, an officer attending on Macbeth. Boy, son to Macduff.

SCENE: Scotland : England. (85€!

Yes ;

sun.

ACT I.

Compell’d these skipping kerns to trust their heels,

30 SCENE I. A desert place.

But the Norweyan lord surveying vantage, Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches. With furbish'd arms and new supplies of men

Began a fresh assault. First Witch. When shall we three meet

Dun.

Dismay'd not this again

Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo ?
In thunder, lightning, or in rain ?

Ser.
Sec. Witch. When the hurlyburly's done,
When the battle's lost and won.

As sparrows eagles, or the hare the lion.

If I say sooth, I must report they were Third Witch. That will be ere the set of

As cannons overcharged with double cracks,

so they First Witch. Where the place ?

Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe: Sec. Witch.

Upon the heath.

Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds, Third Witch. There to meet with Macbeth.

Or memorize another Golgotha,

40 First Witch. I come, Graymalkin |

I cannot tell. Sec. Witch. Paddock calls.

But I am faint, my gashes cry for help. Third Witch. Anon.

10

Dun. So well thy words become thee as AN. Fair is foul, and foul is fair :

thy wounds ; Hover through the fog and filthy air.

They smack of honor both. Go get him sur(Exeunt.

geons. [Exit Sergeant, attended. SCENE II. A camp near Forres.

Who comes here ? Alarum within. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM,

Enter Ross. DONALBAIN, LENNOX, with Attendants, Mal.

The worthy thane of Ross. meeting a bleeding Sergeant.

Len. What a haste looks through his eyes! Dun. What bloody man is that? He can

So should he look report,

That seems to speak things strange. As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt

Ross.

God save the king! The newest state.

Dun. Whence camest thou, worthy thane? Mal. This is the sergeant

Ross.

From Fife, great king ; Who like a good and hardy soldier fought

Where the Norweyan banners flout the sky 'Gainst my captivity. Hail, brave friend !

And fan our people cold, Norway himself, 50 Say to the king the knowledge of the broil

With terrible numbers,
As thou didst leave it.

Assisted by that most disloyal traitor
Ser.
Doubtful it stood ;

The thane of Cawdor, began a dismal conflict; As two spent swimmers, that do cling together

Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapp'd in proof, And choke their art. The merciless Macdon

Confronted him with self-comparisons, wald

Point against point rebellious, arm’gainst arm, Worthy to be a rebel, for to that

10

Curbing his lavish spirit : and, to conclude, The multiplying villanies of nature

The victory fell on us. Do swarm upon him-from the western isles

Dun.

Great happiness!

Ross. Of kerns and gallowglasses is supplied ;

That now And fortune, on his damned quarrel smiling,

Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition: Show'd like a rebel's whore : but all's too

Nor would we deign him burial of his men 60 weak :

Till he disbursed at Saint Colme's inch For brave Macbeth-well he deserves that

Ten thousand dollars to our general use.

Dun. No more that thane of Cawdor shall Disdaining fortune, with his brandish'd steel,

deceive Which smoked with bloody execution,

Our bosom interest : go pronounce his present Like valor's minion carved out his passage

death, Till he faced the slave ;

20 And with his fornier title greet Macbeth.

Ross. I'll see it done. Which ne'er shook hands, nor bade farewell to him,

Dun. What he hath lost noble Macbeth

hath won. Till he unseam'd him from the nave to the

(Exeunt. chaps, And fix'd his head upon our battlements.

SCENE III. A heath near Forres. Dun. O valiant cousin! worthy gentleman!

Thunder. Enter the three Witches. Ser. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders First Witch. Where hast thou been, sister ? break,

Sec. Witch. Killing swine. so from that spring whence comfort seem Third Witch, Sister, where thou ? to come

First Witch. A sailor's wife had chestnuts Discomfort swells. Mark, king of Scotland, in her lap, mark:

And munch'd, and munch'd, and munch'd :No sooner justice had with valor arm'd

"Give me,' quoth I:

name

10

• Aroint thee, witch !' the rump-fed ronyon That he seems rapt withal: to me you speak cries,

not. Her husband's to Aleppo gone, master o' the If you can look into the seeds of time, Tiger:

And say which grain will grow and which will But in a sieve I'll thither sail,

not, And, like a rat without a tail,

Speak then to me, who neither beg nor fear 60 I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do.

Your favors nor your hate. Sec. Witch. I'll give thee a wind.

First Witch. Hail ! First Witch. Thou'rt kind.

Sec. Witch. Hail ! Third Witch. And I another.

Third Witch. Hail ! First Witch. I myself have all the other, First Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and And the very ports they blow,

greater. All the quarters that they know

Sec. Witch. Not so happy, yet much hapI'the shipman's card.

pier. I will drain hiin dry as lay :

Third Witch. Thou shalt get kings, though Sleep shall neither night nor day

thou be none : Hang upon his pent-house lid ;

20 So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo ! He shall live a man forbid :

First Witch. Banquo and Macbeth, all liail! Weary se'nnights nine times nine

Macb. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell Shall he dwindle, peak and pine :

me more :

70 Though his bark cannot be lost,

By Sinel's death I know I am thane of Glamis; Yet it shall be tempest-tost.

But how of Cawdor ? the thane of Cawdor Look what I have.

lives, Sec. Witch. Show me, show me.

A prosperous gentleman ; and to be king First Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, Stands not within the prospect of belief, Wreck'd as homeward he did come.

No more than to be Cawdor. Say from whence

[Drum within. You owe this strange intelligence ? or why Third Witch. A drum, a drum !

30 Upon this blasted heath you stop our way Macbeth doth come.

With such prophetic greeting ? Speak, I charge All. The weird sisters, hand in hand,

yoll.

[Witches vanish. Posters of the sea and land,

Ban. The earth hath bubbles, as the water Thus do go about, about:

has, Thrice to thine and thrice to mine

And these are of them. Whither are they vanAnd thrice again, to make up nine.

ish'd ?

80 Peace! the charm's wound up.

Macb. Into the air ; and what seem'd corEnter MACBETH and BANQUO.

poral melted

As breath into the wind. Would they had Macb. So foul and fair a day I have not stay'd !

Ban. Were such things here as we do speak Ban. How far is't call’d to Forres ? What

about?
are these

Or have we eaten on the insane root
So wither'd and so wild in their attire, 40 That takes the reason prisoner ?
That look not like the inhabitants o' the earth, Macb. Your children shall be kings.
And yet are on't? Live you ? or are you auglit Вап.

You shall be king. That man may question? You seem to under- Macb. And thane of Cawdor too : went it stand me,

not so ? By each at once her chappy finger laying

Ban. To the selfsame tune and words. Upon her skimy lips : you should be women,

Who's here?
And yet your beards forbid me to interpret
That you are so.

Enter Ross and ANGUS.
Macb. Speak, if you can : what are you? Ross. The king hath happily received, Mac-
First Witch. All Mail, Macbeth! hail to beth,
thee, thane of Glamis !

The news of thy success; and when he reads Sec. Witch. All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight, 91 thane of Cawdor!

His wonders and his praises do contend Third Witch All hail, Macbeth, thou shalt Which should be thine or his: sileuced with be king hereafter !

50

that, Ban. Good sir, why do you start ; and seem

;

In viewing o'er the rest o' the selfsame day, to fear

He finds thee in the stout Norweyan ranks, Things that do sound so fair ? I the name of Nothing afеard of what thyself didst make, truth,

Strange images of death. As thick as hail Are ye fantastical, or that indeed

Came post with post; and every one did bear Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence, You greet with present grace and great predic- And pour'd them down before him. tion

Ang.

We are sent 100 Of poble having and of royal hope,

To give thee from our royal master thanks ;

seen.

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Only to herald thee into his sight,
Not pay thee.
Ross. And, for an earnest of a greater

honor, He bade me, from him, call thee thane of

Cawdor :
In which addition, hail, most worthy thane !
For it is thine.

Ban. What, can the devil speak true ?
Macb. The thane of Cawdor lives : why do

you dress me In borrow'd robes ? Ang.

Who was the thane lives yet ; But under heavy judgment bears that life 110 Which he deserves to lose. Whether he was

combined With those of Norway, or did line the rebel With hidden help and vantage, or that with

both He labor'd in his country's wreck, I know not; But treasons capital, confess'd and proved, Have overthrown him. Macb. [Aside] Glamis, and thane of Caw

dor! The greatest is lehind. [To Ross and Angus]

Thanks for your pains. [To Ban.). Do you not hope your children

shall be kings, When those that gave the thane of Cawdor

to me Promised no less to them ? Ban.

That trusted home 120 Might yet eukindle you unto the crown, Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange: And oftentimes, to win us to our harm,

The instruments of darkness tell us truths,
X Win us with honest trifles, to betray's

In deepest consequence.
Cousins, a word, I pray you.

Macb. [Asidej Two truths are told,
As happy prologues to the swelling act
Of the imperial theme. -I thank you, gentle-

men. (Aside] This supernatural soliciting 130 Cannot be ill, cannot be good : if ill, Why hath it given me earnest of success, Commencing in a truth ? I am thane of Caw

dor: If good, why do I yield to that suggestion Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair And make my seated heart knock at my ribs, Against the use of nature ? Present fears Are less than horrible imaginings : My thonght, whose murder yet is but fantas

tical, Shakes so my single state of man that function Is sinother'd in surmise, and nothing is

141 But what is not. Ban.

Look, how our partner's rapt. Macb. [4 side] If chance will have me king,

why, chance may crown me, Without my stir. Ban.

New honors come upon him Like our strange garments, cleave not to their

mould But with the aid of use,

Macb. (Aside] Come what come may, Time and the hour runs through the roughest

day. Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your

leisure. Macb. Give me your favor : my dull brain

was wrought With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your pains

150 Are register'd where every day I turn The leaf to read them. Let us toward the

king. Think upon what hath chanced, and, at more

time,
The interim having weigh'd it, let us speak
Our free hearts each to other.
Ban.

Very gladly. Mucb. Till then, enough. Come, friends.

[Exeunt. SCENE IV. Forres. The palace. Flourish. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONAL

BAIN, LENNOX, and Attendants. Dun. Is execution done on Cawdor? Are

not Those in commission yet return'd ? Mal.

My liege, They are not yet come back. But I have spoke With one that saw him die : who did report That very frankly he confess'd his treasons, Implored your lighness' pardon and set forth A deep repentance : nothing in his life Became him like the leaving it; he died As one that had been studied in his death To throw away the dearest thing he owed, 10 As 'twere a careless trifle. Dun.

There's no art To find the mind's construction in the face : He was a gentleman on whom I built An absolute trust. Enter MACBETH, BANQUO, Ross, and Angus.

O worthiest cousin ! The sin of my ingratitude even now Was heavy on me : thou art so far before That swistest wing of recompense is slow To overtake thee. Would thou hadst less de

served, That the proportion both of thanks and payment

19 Miglit have been mine! only I have left to say, More is thy due than more than all can pay.

Macb. The service and the loyalty I owe, In doing it, pays itself. Your highness' part Is to receive our duties ; and our duties Are to your throne and state children and

servants, Which do but what they should, by doing

every thing Safe toward your love and honor. Dun.

Welcome hither : I have begun to plant thee, and will labor To make thee full of growing. Noble Ban

quo, That hast no less deserved, nor must ha

known

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