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You said the enemy would not come down,
But keep the hills and upper regions ;
It proves not so : their battles are at hand;
They mean to warn us at Philippi here,
Answering before we do demand of them.

Ant. Tut, I am in their bosoms, and I know
Wherefore they do it: they could be content
To visit other places ; and come down
With fearful bravery, thinking by this face 10
To fasten in our thoughts that they have cour-

age ; But 'tis not so.

Enter a Messenger.
Mess. Prepare you, generals :
The enemy comes on in gallant show;
Their bloody sign or battle is hung out,
And something to be done immediately.

Ant. Octavius, lead your battle softly on,
Up in the left hand of the even field.
Oct. Upon the right hand I ; keep thou the

left. Ant. Why do you cross me in this exigent? Oct. I do not cross you ; but I will do so.

[March. 20 Drum. Enter BRUTUS, CASsius, and their

Army ; LUCILIUS, TITINIUS, MESSALA, and
others.
Bru. They stand, and would have parley.
Cas. Stand fast, Titinius : we must out and

talk.
Oct. Mark Antony, shall we give sign of

battle ? Ant. No, Cæsar, we will answer on their

charge. Make forth; the generals would have some

words. Oct. Stir not until the signal. Bru. Words before blows : is it so, countryOct. Not that we love words better, as you

do, Bru. Good words are better than bad

strokes, Octavius. Ant. In your bad strokes, Brutus, you give good words:

30 Witness the hole you made in Cæsar's heart, Crying 'Long live ! hail, Caesar!' Cas.

Antony, The posture of your blows are yet unknown ; Bat for your words, they rob the Hybla bees, And leave them honeyless. Ant.

Not stingless too. Bru. O, yes, and soundless too; For you have stol'n their buzzing, Antony, And very wisely threat before you sting Ant. Villains, you did not so, when your

vile daggers Hack'd one another in the sides of Cæsar : 40 You show'd your teeth like apes, and fawn'd

like hounds, And bow'd like bondmen, kissing Cæsar's feet; Whilst damned Casca, like r, behind Struck Cæsar on the neck. O you flatterers ! Cas. Flatterers ! Now, Brutus, thank your

self

This tongue had not offended so to-day,
If Cassius might have ruled.
Oct. Come, come, the cause : if arguing

make us sweat,
The proof of it will turn to redder drops.
Look ;

50 I draw a sword against conspirators ; When think you that the sword goes up again? Never, till Caesar's three and thirty wounds Be well avenged ; or till another Cæsar Have added slaughter to the sword of traitors. Bru. Cæsar, thou canst not die by traitors'

hands, Unless thou bring'st them with thee. Oct.

So I hope ; I was not born to die on Brutus' sword. Bru. O, if thou wert the noblest of thy

strain, Young man, thou couldst not die more honor. able.

60 Cas. A peevish schoolboy, worthless of such

honor,
Join'd with a masker and a reveller !

Ant. Old Cassius still !
Oct.

Come, Antony, away!
Defiance, traitors, hurl we in your teeth:
If you dare tight to-day, come to the field ;
If not, when you have stomachs.

(Exeunt Octavius, Antony, and their army. Cas. Why, now, blow wind, swell billow

and swim bark ! The storm is up, and all is on the hazard.

Bru. Ho, Lucilius ! hark, a word with you. Lucil.

[Standing forth] My lord ? [Brutus and Lucilius converse apart. Cas. Messala ! Mess. [Standing forth] What says my general ?

70 Cas. Messala, This is my birth-day; as this very day Was Cassius born. Give me thy hand, Meg.

sala :
Be thou my witness that against my will,
As Pompey was, am I compell’d to set
Upon one battle all our liberties.
You know that I held Epicurus strong
And his opinion : now I change my mind,
And partly credit things that do presage.
Coming from Sardis, on our former ensign 80
Two mighty eagles fell, and there they perch'd,
Gorging and feeding from our soldiers' hands;
Who to Philippi here consorted us :
This morning are they fled away and gone ;
And in their steads do ravens, crows and kites,
Fly o'er our heads and downward look on us,
As we were sickly prey : their shadows seeni
A canopy most fatal, under which
Our army lies, ready to give up the ghost.

Mes. Believe not so.
Cas.

I but believe it partly ; 90
For I am fresh of spirit and resolved
Tu meet all perils very constantly.

Bru. Even so, Lucilius.
Cas.

Now, most noble Brutus, The gods to-day stand friendly, that we may, Lovers in peace. lead on our days to age !

men ?

1

But since the affairs of men rest still incertain,
Let's reason with the worst that may befall.
It we oo lose this battle, then is this
The very last time we shall speak together :
What are you then determined to do? 100

Bru. Even by the rule of that philosophy
By which I did blame Cato for the death
Which he did give himself, I know not how,
But I do find it cowardly and vile,
For fear of what might fall, so to prevent
The time of life : arming myself with patience
To stay the providence of some high powers
That govern us below.
Cas.

Then, if we lose this battle, You are contented to be led in triumph Thorough the streets of Rome ?

110 Bru. No, Cassius, no : think not, thou noble

Roman, That ever Brutus will go bound to Rome ; He bears too great a mind. But this same day Must end that work the ides of March begun; And whether we shall meet again I know not. Therefore our everlasting farewell take : For ever, and for ever, farewell, Cassius! If we do meet again, why, we shall smile ; If not, why tien, this parting was well made.

Cas. Forever, and for ever, farewell, Brutus! If we do meet again, we'll smile indeed ; 121 If not, 'tis true this parting was well made. Bru. Why, then, lead on. O, that a man

might know The end of this day's business ere it come! But it sufficeth that the day will end, And then the end is known. Come, ho! away!

[Eceunt. SCENE II. The same. The field of battle.

Alarum. Enter BRUTUS and MESSALA. Bru. Ride, ride, Messala, ride, and give these

bills Unto the legions on the other side.

[Loud alarum. Let them set on at once ; for I perceive But cold demeanor in Octavius' wing, And sudden push gives them the overthrow. Ride, ride, Messala : let them all come down.

[Exeunt. SCENE III. Another part of the field. Alarums. Enter CASSIt's and TitiniUS.

Cas. 0, look, Titinius, look, the villains fly! Myself have to mine own turu'd enemy : 'This ensign here of mine was turning back ; I slew the coward, and did take it from him. Tit. O Cassius, Brutus gave the word too

early ; Who, having some advantage on Octavius, Took it too eagerly : his soldiers fell to spoil, Whilst we by Antony are all enclosed.

Enter PINDARUS. Pin. Fly further off, my lord, fly further Mark Antony is in your tents, my lord : 10 Fly, therefore, noble Cassius, fly far oft.

Cas. This hill is far enough. Look, look,

Titinius;
Are those my tents where I perceive the fire ?

Tit. They are, my lord.
Cas.

Titinius, if thou lovest me, Mount thou my horse, and hide thy spurs in

him, Till he have brought thee up to yonder troops, And here again ; that I may rest assured Whether yond troops are friend or enemy: Tit. I will be here again, even with a thought.

[Erit. 19 Cas. Go, Pindarus, get higher on that hill; My sight was ever thick ; regard Titinius, And tell me what thou notest about the field.

(Pindarus ascends the hill.
This day I breathed first : time is come round,
And where I did begin, there shall I end ;
My life is run his compass.

Sirrah, what
newg ?
Pin. (Above] O my lord !
Cas. What news ?
Pin. [Above] Titinius is enclosed round

about With horsemen, that make to him on the spur; Yet he spurs on. Now they are almost on him.

30 Now, Titinius ! Now some light. O, he lights too.

(for joy. He's ta’en. [Shout.] And, hark! they shout

Cas. Come down, behold no more. 0, coward that I am, to live so long, To see my best friend ta'en before my face !

PINDARUS descends. Come hither, sirrah : In Parthia did I take thee prisoner ; And then I swore thee, saving of thy life, That whatsoever I did bid thee do, Thou shouldst attempt it. Come now, keep thine oath ;

40 Now be a freeman: and with this good sword, That ran through Cæsar's bowels, search this

bosom. Stand not to answer : here, take thou the

hilts; And, when my face is cover'd, as 'tis now, Guide thou the sword. (Pindarus stabs him.)

Cæsar, thou art revenged, Even with the sword that kill'd thee. [Dies. Pin. So, I am free; yet would not so have

been, Durst I have done my will. 0 Cassius, Far from this country Pindarus shall run, Where never Roman shall take note of him. 50

(Erit. Re-enter TITINIUS with MESSALA, Mes. It is but change, Titinius ; for Octa

vius
Is overthrown by noble Brutus' power,
As Cassius' legions are by Antony.
Tit. These tidings will well comfort

Cassius.
Mes. Where did you leave him ?
Tit.

All disconsolate, With Pindarus his bondman, on this hill,

off ;

Mes. Is not that be that lies upon the

ground ? Tit. He lies not like the living. O my

heart ! Mes. Is not that he ? Tit.

No, this was he, Messala, But Cassius is no more. O setting sun,

60 As in thy red rays thou dost sink to-night, So in his red blood Cassius' day is set ; The sun of Rome is set! Our day is gone; Clouds, dews, and dangers come ; our deeds

are done! Mistrust of my success hath done this deed. Mes. Mistrust of good success hath done

this deed. O hateful error, melancholy's child, Why dost thou show to the apt thoughts of men

(ceived, The things that are not? O error, soon conThou never comest unto a happy birth, 70 But kill'st the mother that engender'd thee ! Tit. What, Pindarus ! where art thou, Pin

darus ?
Mes. Seek him, Titinius, whilst I go to

meet
The noble Brutus, thrusting this report.
Into his ears ; I may say, thrusting it ;
For piercing steel and darts en venomed
Shall be as welcome to the ears of Brutus
As tidings of this sight.
Tut.

Hie you, Messala,
And I will seek for Pindarus the while.

(Exit Messala. Why didst thou send me forth, brave Cassius? Did I not meet thy friends ? and did not they Put on my brows this wreath of victory, And bid me give it thee? Didst thou not

hear their shouts ? Alas, thou hast misconstrued every thing ! But, hold thee, take this garland on thy brow; Thy Brutus bid me give it thee, and I Will do his bidding. Brutus, come apace, And see how I regarded Caius Cassius. By your leave, gods :--this is a Roman's part: Come, Cassius' sword, and find Titinius' heart

(Kılls himself. 90 Alarum. Re-enter MESSALA, with BRUTUS,

young CATO, STRATO, VOLUMNIUS, and Lu-
CILIUS.
Bru. Where, where, Messala, doth his

body lie ?
Mes. Lo, yonder, and Titinius mourning it
Bru, Titinius' face is upward.
Cato.

He is slain. Bru, O Julius Cæsar, thou art mighty Thy spirit walks abroad, and turns our swords In our own proper entrails. (Low alarums. Cato.

Brave Titinius! Look, whether he have not crown'd dead Cas

sius! Bru. Are yet two Romans living such as

these ? The last of all the Romans, fare thee well ! It is impossible that ever Bome

100

Should breed thy fellow. Friends, I owe more

tears To this dead man than you shall see me pay. I shall find time, Cassius, I shall find time. Come, therefore, and to Thasos send his body: His funerals shall not be in our camp, Lest it discomfort us. Lucilius, come; And come, young Cato ; let us to the field. Labeo and Flavius, set our battles on : 'Tis three o'clock; and, Romans, yet ere

night We shall try fortune in a second fight

[Exeunt. SCENE IV. Another part of the field. Alarum. Enter fighting, Soldiers of both

armies; then BRUTUS, young Caro, LU-
CILIUS, and others.
Bru. Yet, countrymen, O, yet hold up

your heads!
Cato. What bastard doth not? Who will

go with me?
I will proclaim my name about the field :
I am the son of Marcus Cato, ho !
A foe to tyrants, and my country's friend ;
I am the son of Marcus Cato, ho !

Bru. And I am Brutus, Marcus Brutus, I ; Brutus, my country's friend ; know me for Brutus !

[Exit. Lucil. O young and noble Cato, art thou

down? Why, now thou diest as bravely as Titinius ; And inayst be honor'd, being Cato's son. 11

First Sold. Yield, or thou diest.
Lucil.

Only I yield to die : There is so much that thou wilt kill mo straight;

[Offering money. Kill Brutus, and be honor'd in his death.

First Sold. We must not. A noble prisoner! Sec. Sold. Room, ho! Tell Antony, Brutus is ta'en.

(the general. First Sold. I'll tell the news. Here comes

Enter ANTONY.
Brutus is ta'en, Brutus is ta’en, my lord.

Ant. Where is he?

Lucil. Safe, Antony; Brutus is safe enough: I dare assure thee that no enemy

21 Shall ever take alive the noble Brutus : The gods defend him from so great a shame! When you do find him, or alive or dead, He will be found like Brutus, like himself. Ant. This is not Brutus, friend ; but, I

assure you, A prize no less in worth : keep this man safe ; Give him all kindness : I had rather have Such men my friends than enemies. Go on, And see whether Brutus be alive or dead ; 30 And bring us word unto Octavius' tent How every thing is chanced. (Exeunt.

SCENE V. Another part of the field. Enter BRUTUS, DARDANIUS, CLITUS, STRATO,

and VOLUMNIUS. Bruto Come, poor remains of friends, rest

on this rocks

it

yet!

Cli. Statilius show'd the torch-light, but,

my lord, He came not back : he is or ta'en or slain. Bru. Si thee down, Clitus : slaying is the

word ;
is a deed in fashion. Hark thee, Clitus.

( Whispers. Cli. What, I, my lord ? No, not for all the

world.
Bru. Peace then ! no words.
Cli.

I'll rather kill myself.
Bru, Hark thee, Dardanius. [Whispers
Dar.

Shall I do such a deed ?
Cli. O Dardanius !
Dar. 0 Clitus !

10 Cli. What ill requesi did Brutus make to

thee ? Dar. To kill him, Clitus. Look, he

meditates.
Cli. Now is that noble vessel full of grief,
That it runs over even at his eyes.
Bru. Come hither, good Volumnius ; list

a word.
Vol. What says my lord ?
Bru.

Why, this, Volumnius :
The ghost of Cæsar hath appear'd to me
Two several times by night ; at Sardis once,
And, this last night, here in Philippi fields :
I know my hour is come.
Vol.

Not so, my lord. 20 Bru. Nay, I am sure it is, Volumnius. Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes; Our enemies have beat us to the pit :

(Low alarums. It is more worthy to leap in ourselves, Than tarry till they push us. Good Volum

nius, Thou know'st that we two went to school to

gether : Even for that our love of old, I prithee, Hold thou my sword-hilts, whilst I run on it. Vol. That's not an office for a friend, my lord.

[Alarum stili. Cli. Fly, fly, my lord ; there is no tarrying

; here.

30 Bru. Farewell to you ; and you ; and you,

Volumnius. Strato, thou hast been all this while asleep ; Farewell to thee too, Strato. Countrymen, My heart doth joy that yet in all my life I found no man but he was true to me. I shall have glory by this losing day More than Octavins and Mark Antony By this vile conquest shall attain unto. So fare you well at once ; for Brutus' tongue Hath almost ended his life's history : 40 Night hangs upon mine eyes ; my bones

would rest,

That have but labor'a to attain this hour.

[Alarum. Cry within, 'Fly, fly, fly!'' Cli. Fly, my lord, fly. Bru.

Hence ! I will follow [Ereunt Clitus, Dardunius, and Volumnius I prithee, Strato, stay thou by thy lord : Thou art a fellow of a good respect; Thy life hath had some smatch of honor in it :: Hold then my sword, and turn away thy face, While I do run upon it. Wilt thou, Strato ? Stra. Give me your hand first. Fare you:

well, my lord. Bru. Farewell, good Strato. [Runs on his

sword.] Cæsar, now be still : 50 I kill'd not thee with half so good a will.

[Dies. Alarum. Retreat. Enter OCTAVIUS, ANTONY,

MESSALA, LUCILIUS, and the army. Oct. What man is that? Mes. My master's man. Strato, where is

thy master ? Stra. °Free from the bondage you are in,

Messala : The conquerors can but make a fire of him ; For Brutus only overcame himself, And no man else hath honor by his death. Lucil. So Brutus should be found, I thank

thee, Brutus, That thou hast proved Lucilius' saying true. Oct. All that served Brutus, I will entertain them.

60 Fellow, wilt thou bestow thy time with me?

Stra. Ay, if Messala will prefer me to you.
Oct. Do so, good Messala.
Mes. How died my master Strato ?
Stra. I held the sword, and he did run on

it. Mes. Octavius, then take him to follow

thee, That did the latest service to my master.

Ant. This was the noblest Roman of them

all :

All the conspirators save only he
Did that they did in envy of great Cæsar; 70
He only, in a general honest thought
And common good to all, made one of them.
His life was gentle, and the elements
So mix'd in him that Nature

might stand up, And say to all the world This was a man

Oct. According to his virtue let us use him, With all respect and rites of burial. Within my tent his bones to-night shall lie, Most like a soldier, order'd honorably. So call the field to rest; and let's away, 80 To part the glories of this happy day.

Exeunt.

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(WRITTEN ABOUT 1602.)

INTRODUCTION. Hamlet represents the mid period of the growth of Shakespeare's genius, when comedy and his tory ceased to be adequate for the expression of his deeper thoughts and sadder feelings about life, and when he was just entering upon his great series of tragic writings. In July, 1602, the printer Roberts entered in the Stationers' register, " The Revenge of Hamlett, Prince of Denmark, as ye latelie was acted by the Lord Chamberlain his servantes," and in the next year the play was printed. The true relation of this first quarto of Hamlet to the second quarto, published in 1604—" newly imprinted, and enlarged to almost as much againe as it was "—is a matter in dispute. It is believed by Bome critics that the quarto of 1603 is merely an imperfect report of the play as we find it in the edi. tion of the year after; but there are some material differences which cannot thus be explained. In the earlier quarto, instead of Polonius and Reynaldo, we find the names Corambis and Montano : the order of certain scenes varies from that of the later quarto; "the madness of Hamlet is much more pronounced, and the Queen's innocence of her husband's murder much more explicitly stated." We are forced to believe either that the earlier quarto contains portions of an old play by some other writer than Shakespeare-an opinion adopted on apparently insufficient grounds by some recent editor -or that it represents imperfectly Shakespeare's first draught of the play, and that the difference between it and the second quarto is due to Shakespeare's revision of his own work. This last opinion seems to be the true one, but the value of any comparison between the two quartos, with a view to understand Shakespeare's manner of rehandling his work, is greatly diminished by the fact that numerous gaps of the imperfect report given in the earlier quarto seem to have been filled in by a stupid stage hack. That an old play on the subject of Hamlet existed there ean be no doubt; it is referred to in 1589 (perhaps in 1587) by Nash, in his Epistle prefixed to Greene's Menaphon, and again in 1596 by Lodge (Wit's Miserie and the World's Madnesse), where he alludes to "the vizard of the Ghost which cried so miserably at the Theator, like an oister wife, *Hamlet, revenge'.". A German play on the subject of Hamlet exists which is supposed to have been acted by English players in Germany in 1603 ; ihe name Corambus appears in it; and it is posbible that portions of the old pre-Shakespearean drama are contained in the German Hamlet. The old play may have been one of the bloody tragedies of revenge among which we tind Titus Andronicus and The Spanish Tragedy, and it would be characteristic of Shakespeare that he should refine the motives and spirit of the drama, so as to make the duty of vengeance laid upon Hamlet a painful burden which he is hardly able to support. Besides the old play of Hamlet, Shakespeare bad probably before him the prose Hystorie of Hamblet (though no edition exists earlier than 160s), translated from Belleforest's Histoires Tragiques. The story had been told some hundreds of years previously in the Historia Danica of Saxo Grammaticus (about 1180-1208). The Hamlet of the Tlystorie, after å fierce revenge, becomes King of Denmark, marries two wives, and finally dies in battle.

No play of Shakespeare's has had a higher power of interesting spectators and readers, and none has given rise to a greater variety of confticting interpretations. It has been rightly named a tragedy of thought, and in this respect, as well as others, takes its place beside Julius Cæsar. Neither Brutus nor Hamlet is the victim of an overmastering passion as are the chief persons of the later tragedies-e.g. Othello, Macbeth, Coriolanus. The burden of a terrible duty is laid upon each of them, and neither is fitted for bearing such a burden. Brutus is disqualified for action by his moral idealism, bis student-like habits, his capacity for dealing with abstractions rather than with men and things. Hamlet is disqualified for action by his excess of the retlective tendency, and by his unstable will, which alternates between complete inactivity and fits of excited energy. Naturaily sensitive, he receives a painful shock from the hasty second marriage of bis mother; already the springs of faith and joy in his nature are embittered ; then follows the terrible discovery of his father's murder, with the injunction laid upon him to revenge the crime; upon this agaili follow the repulses which he receives from Ophelia. A deep melancholy lays hold of his spirit, and all of life grows dark and sad to his vision. Although hating his father's murderer, he has little heart to pash on his revenge. He is aware that he is suspected and surrounded by spies. Partly to battle them, partly to create a veil behind which to seclude his true self, partly because liis whole moral nature is indeed deeply disordered, he assumes the part of one whose wits have gone astray. Except for one loyal friend, he is alone among enemies or supposed traitors. Ophelia he regards as no more loyal or honest to him than his mother had been to her dead husband. The ascertainment of Claudius's guilt by means of the play still leaves him incapable of the last decisive act of vergeance. Not so, however, with the king, who now recognizing his foe in Hamlet, does not delay to despatch him to a bloody death in England. But there is in Hamlet a terrible power of sudden and desperate action. From the melancholy which broods over hinn after the burial of Ophelia le rouses himself to the play of swords with Laertes, and at the last, with strength which leaps up before its final extinction, he accomplishes the punishment of the malefactor. Horatio, with his fortitude, his seifpossession, his strong equanimity is a contrast to the Prince. And 'Laertes, who takes violent measures at the shortest notice to revenge his father's murder, is in another way a contrast ; but Laertes is the young gallant of the period, and his capacity for action arises in part from the absence of those moral checks of which Hamlet is sensible. Polonius is owner of the shallow wisdom of this world, and exhibits this grotesquely while now on the brink of dotage; he sees, but cannot see through Hamlet's ironical mockery of him. Ophelia is tender, sensitive, affectionate, but the reverse of heroic ; she fails Hamlet in his need, and then in her turn becoming the sufferer, gives way under the pressure of her aillictious. We do not honor, we only commiserate her.

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