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And then I need not crave his courtesy.
Suf. Sweet madam, give me a hearing in

a cause

Mar. Tush, women have been captivate ere


Suf. Lady, wherefore talk you so?

Mar. I cry you mercy, 'tis but Quid for Quo.

Suf. Say, gentle princess, would you not suppose 110

Your bondage happy, to be made a queen ?
Mar. To be a queen in bondage is more vile
Than is a slave in base servility;

For princes should be free.

And so shall you,
If happy England's royal king be free.
Mar. Why, what concerns his freedom unto

Suf. I'll undertake to make thee Henry's

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Mar. I am unworthy to be Henry's wife. Suf. No, gentle madam; I unworthy am To woo so fair a dame to be his wife, And have no portion in the choice myself. How say you, madam, are ye so content? Mar. An if my father please, I am content. Suf. Then call our captains and our colors forth.

And, madam, at your father's castle walls
We'll crave a parley, to confer with him. 130
A parley sounded. Enter REIGNIER on the

See, Reignier, see, thy daughter prisoner!
Reig. To whom?

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To be mine own attorney in this case.
I'll over then to England with this news,
And make this marriage to be solemnized.
So fare vell, Reignier: set this diamond safe
In golden palaces, as it becomes.
Reig. I do embrace thee, as I would em-
The Christian prince, King Henry, were he
Mar. Farewell, my lord: good wishes,

praise and prayers

Shall Suffolk ever have of Margaret. [Going. Suf. Farewell, sweet madam: but hark you, Margaret;

No princely commendations to my king? Mar. Such commendations as becomes a maid,

A virgin and his servant, say to him.

Suf. Words sweetly placed and modestly


But, madam, I must trouble you again; 180 No loving token to his majesty?

Mar. Yes, my good lord, a pure unspotted heart,

Never yet taint with love, I send the king.

[Kisses her

Suf. And this withal.
Mar. That for thyself: I will not so pre-


To send such peevish tokens to a king.

[Exeunt Reignier and Margaret. Suf. O, wert thou for myself! But, Suffolk, stay;

Thou mayst not wander in that labyrinth;
There Minotaurs and ugly treasons lurk.
Solicit Henry with her wondrous praise: 190
Bethink thee on her virtues that surmount,
And natural graces that extinguish art;
Repeat their semblance often on the seas,
That, when thou comest to kneel at Henry's

Thou mayst bereave him of his wits with won

SCENE IV. Camp of the DUKE OF YORK in Anjou.

Enter YORK, WARWICK, and others. York. Bring forth that sorceress condemn'd to burn.

Enter LA PUCELLE, guarded, and a Shepherd. Shep. Ah, Joan, this kills thy father's heart outright!

Have I sought every country far and near,
And, now it is my chance to find thee out,
Must I behold thy timeless cruel death?

Ah, Joan, sweet daughter Joan, I'll die with thee!

Puc. Decrepit miser! base ignoble wretch ! I am descended of a gentler blood: Thou art no father nor no friend of mine.

Shep. Out, out! My lords, an please you, 'tis not so;


I did beget her, all the parish knows :
Her mother liveth yet, can testify
She was the first fruit of my bachelorship.
War. Graceless! wilt thou deny thy par-
entage ?

York. This argues what her kind of life hath been,

Wicked and vile; and so her death concludes. Shep. Fie, Joan, that thou wilt be so obstacle!

God knows thou art a collop of my flesh;
And for thy sake have I shed many a tear:
Deny me not, I prithee, gentle Joan.


Puc. Peasant, avaunt! You have suborn'd this man,

Of purpose to obscure my noble birth.

Shep. 'Tis true, I gave a noble to the priest The morn that I was wedded to her mother. Kneel down and take my blessing, good my girl.

Wilt thou not stoop? Now cursed be the time

Of thy nativity! I would the milk

Thy mother gave thee when thou suck'dst her breast,

Had been a little ratsbane for thy sake!

Or else, when thou didst keep my lambs afield,

I wish some ravenous wolf had eaten thee!
Dost thou deny thy father, cursed drab ?
O, burn her, burn her! hanging is too good.



York. Take her away; for she hath lived too long,

To fill the world with vicious qualities.

Puc. First, let me tell you whom you have condemn'd:

Not me begotten of a shepherd swain,
But issued from the progeny of kings;
Virtuous and holy; chosen from above,
By inspiration of celestial grace,
To work exceeding miracles on earth.
I never had to do with wicked spirits:
But you, that are polluted with your lusts,
Stain'd with the guiltless blood of innocents,
Corrupt and tainted with a thousand vices,
Because you want the grace tnat others have,
You judge it straight a thing impossible
To compass wonders but by help of devils.
No, misconceived! Joan of Arc hath been
A virgin from her tender infancy,
Chaste and immaculate in very thought;
Whose maiden blood, thus rigorously effused,


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Use no entreaty, for it is in vain.

Puc. Then lead me hence; with whom I leave my curse :

May never glorious sun reflex his beams Upon the country where you make abode ; But darkness and the gloomy shade of death Environ you, till mischief and despair 90 Drive you to break your necks or hang yourselves! [Exit, guarded. York. Break thou in pieces and consume to ashes,

Thou foul accursed minister of hell!

Winchester, attended.

Car. Lord regent, I do greet your excellence
With letters of commission from the king.
For know, my lords, the states of Christendom,
Moved with remorse of these outrageous


Have earnestly implored a general peace

Betwixt our nation and the aspiring French;
And here at hand the Dauphin and his train
Approacheth, to confer about some matter. 101
York. Is all our travail turn'd to this effect?
After the slaughter of so many peers,
So many captains, gentlemen and soldiers,
That in this quarrel have been overthrown
And sold their bodies for their country's bene-

Shall we at last conclude effeminate peace?
Have we not lost most part of all the towns,
By treason, falsehood and by treachery,
Our great progenitors had conquered?
0. Warwick, Warwick! I foresee with grief
The utter loss of all the realm of France.


War. Be patient, York: if we conclude a peace,

It shall be with such strict and severe cove

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Car. Charles, and the rest, it is enacted thus:

That, in regard King Henry gives consent,
Of mere compassion and of lenity,

To ease your country of distressful war,
And suffer you to breathe in fruitful peace,
You shall become true liegemen to his crown:
And, Charles, upon condition thou wilt swear
To pay him tribute, and submit thyself,
Thou shalt be placed as viceroy under him,
And still enjoy thy regal dignity.


Alen. Must he be then as shadow of him-

Adorn his temples with a coronet,
And yet, in substance and authority,
Retain but privilege of a private man?
Tais proffer is absurd and reasonless.

Char. 'Tis known already that I am pos-

With more than half the Gallian territories, And therein reverenced for their lawful king: Shall I, for lucre of the rest unvanquish'd, 141 Detract so much from that prerogative, As to be call'd but viceroy of the whole? No, lord ambassador, I'll rather keep That which I have than, coveting for more, Be cast from possibility of all.

York. Insulting Charles! hast thou by secret means

Used intercession to obtain a league,
And, now the matter grows to compromise,
Stand'st thou aloof upon comparison?
Either accept the title thouusurp'st.


Of benefit proceeding from our king
And not of any challenge of desert,
Or we will plague thee with incessant wars.
Reig. My lord, you do not well in obstinacy
To cavil in the course of this contract :
If once it be neglected, ten to one
We shall not find like opportunity.

Alen. To say the truth, it is your policy
To save your subjects from such massacre 160
And ruthless slaughters as are daily seen
By our proceeding in hostility;

And therefore take this compact of a truce, Although you break it when your pleasure

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Is but a preface of her worthy praise;
The chief perfections of that lovely dame
Had I sufficient skill to utter them,
Would make a volume of enticing lines,
Able to ravish any dull conceit :
And, which is more, she is not so divine,
So full-replete with choice of all delights,
But with as humble lowliness of mind
She is content to be at your command;
Command, I mean, of virtuous chaste intents,
To love and honor Henry as her lord. 21
King. And otherwise will Henry ne'er pre-

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To try his strength, forsaketh yet the lists
By reason of his adversary's odds:
A poor earl's daughter is unequal odds,
And therefore may be broke without offence.
Glou. Why, what, I pray, is Margaret more
than that?

Her father is no better than an earl,
Although in glorious titles he excel.


Suf. Yes, my lord, her father is a king, The King of Naples and Jerusalem; And of such great authority in France As his alliance will confirm our peace And keep the Frenchmen in allegiance. Glou. And so the Earl of Armagnac may do.

Because he is near kinsman unto Charles.

Exe. Beside, his wealth doth warrant a liberal dower,

Where Reignier sooner will receive than give. Suf. A dower, my lords! disgrace not so your king.

That he should be so abject, base and poor,
To choose for wealth and not for perfect love.
Henry is able to enrich his queen

And not to seek a queen to make him rich:
So worthless peasants bargain for their wives,
As market-men for oxen, sheep, or horse.
Marriage is a matter of more worth
Than to be dealt in by attorneyship;
Not whom we will, but whom his grace affects,
Must be companion of his nuptial bed:
And therefore, lords, since he affects her most,
It most of all these reasons bindeth us,
In our opinions she should be preferr'd.
For what is wedlock forced but a hell,
An age of discord and continual strife ?
Whereas the contrary bringeth bliss,
And is a pattern of celestial peace.


Whom should we match with Henry, being a king.

But Margaret, that is daughter to a king?
Her peerless feature, joined with her birth,
Approves her fit for none but for a king :
Her valiant courage and undaunted spirit, 70
More than in women commonly is seen,

Will answer our hope in issue of a king :
For Henry, son unto a conqueror,
Is likely to beget more conquerors,
If with a lady of so high resolve

As is fair Margaret he be link'd in love.
Then yield, my lords; and here conclude with


That Margaret shall be queen, and none but she.

King. Whether it be through force of your



My noble Lord of Suffolk, or for that
My tender youth was never yet attaint
With any passion of inflaming love,
I cannot tell; but this I am assured,
I feel such sharp dissension in my breast,
Such fierce alarums both of hope and fear,
As I am sick with working of my thoughts.
Take, therefore, shipping; post, my lord, to

Agree to any covenants, and procure
That Lady Margaret do vouchsafe to come
To cross the seas to England and be crown'd 90
King Henry's faithful and anointed queen :
For your expenses and sufficient charge,
Among the people gather up a tenth.
Be gone, I say; for, till you do return,
I rest perplexed with a thousand cares.
And you, good uncle, banish all offence:
If you do censure me by what you were,
Not what you are, I know it will excuse'
This sudden execution of my will.
And so, conduct me where, from company, 100
I may revolve and ruminate my grief. [Erit.
Glow. Ay, grief, I fear me, both at first and
last. [Ereunt Gloucester and Exeter.
Suf. Thus Suffolk hath prevail'd; and thus
he goes,

As did the youthful Paris once to Greece,
With. hope to find the like event in love,
But prosper better than the Trojan did."
Margaret shall now be queen, and rule the

But I will rule both her. the king and realm.




This play is supposed to be wholly of Shakespeare's own invention, no source of the plot hav ing been discovered. It is precisely such a one as a clever young man might imagine, who had come ely from the country-with its daisies pied and violets blue," its "merry larks," its maidens who Reach their summer smocks," its pompous parish schoolmaster, and its dull constable (a great pable official in his own eyes)-to the town, where he was surrounded by more brilliant unrealities, and affectation of dress, of manner, of language, and of ideas. Love's Labour's Lost is a dramatic plea on behalf of nature and common sense against all that is unreal and affected. It maintains, La gay and witty fashion, the superiority of life, as a means of education, over books; the superirity of the large world into which we are born over any little world we can construct for ourselves, into which we may hedge ourselves by rule; and, while maintaining this, it also asserts that we zust not educate ourselves only by what is mirthful and pleasant in the world, but must recognize its sorrow, and that we cannot be rightly glad without being grave and earnest. Thus, with its ap parent lightness, there is a serious spirit underlying the play; but the surface is all jest, and stir, d sparkle. It is a comedy of dialogue rather than of incident, and in the persons of Don Adriano Armado, a fantastical Spaniard, of Sir Nathaniel the curate, and of Holofernes the schoolmaster, re caricatured various Elizabethan absurdities of speech, pseudo-refinement, and pseudo-learning. The braggart soldier and the pedant are characters well known in Italian comedy, and perhaps it was from that quarter that the hint came to Shakespeare, which stirred his imagination to create these ridiculous figures, Holofernes, some persons have supposed to be a satirical sketch of John Rozio, author of an Italian dictionary, but Shakespeare did not in any ascerned instances satirize Edividual persons, and there is little evidence in this case to warrant the supposition. The play con ains nothing which serves to indicate its precise date, but it certainly belongs to Shakespeare's iniest dramatic period. The first quarto edition was published in 1598, "as it was presented be-for her Highness (Queen Elizabeth] this last Christmas [probably the Christmas of 1598], Newly corpected and augmented." Two traces of the alterations from the original play may still be observed. In Act V se. II., the lines 827-832 ought not to appear, being almost certainly the fragment of the play in its first form which was afterwards marked out in the lines 833-879. Similarly, in great speech, Act IV. sc. III., the lines 296-317 contain passages which are repeated or altered in the lines which follow (318-354), and obviously some of the lines in the original version have here been retained through a mistake.


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