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And what is Edward but a ruthless sea ?
What Clarence but a quicksand of deceit ?
And Richard but a ragged fatal rock?
All these the enemies to our poor bark.
Say you can swim ; alas, 'tis but a while !
Tread on the sand; why, there you quickly

sink :
Bestride the rock ; the tide will wash yea off,
Or else yon fatish ; that's a threefold death.
This speak I, lords, to let you understand,
If case some one of you would fly from us,
That there's no hoped for mercy with the bro-

thers More than with ruthless waves, with sands

and rocks. Why, courage then ! what cannot be avoided 'Tsere childish weakness to lament or fear. Prince, Methinks a woman of this valiant

spirit Skoald, if a coward heard her speak these words,

40 Infase his breast with magnanimity And make him, naked, foil a man at arms. I peak not this as doubting any here ; For did I but suspect a fearful man He diould have leave to go away betimes, Lest in our need he might infect another Ani make him of like spirit to himself. If any such be here-as God forbid ! Let him depart before we need his help. Orf. Women and children of so high a

courage, And warriors faint! why, 'twere perpetual

share. O brave young prince ! thy famous grand

father Dirth live again in thee : long mayst thon live to bear his image and renew his glories ! Som. And he that will not fight for such a

hope, Go home to bed, and like the owl by day, If he arise, be mock'd and wonder'd at. Q. Mar. Thanks, gentle So.nerset; sweet

Oxford, thanks. Prince. And take his thanks that yet hath Bothing else.

Enter a Messenger. Ver Prepare you, lords, for Edward is at hand,

60 Pearly w light; therefore be resolute.

Orf. I thought no less : it is his policy To haste thus fast, to find us unprovided. 8. But he's deceived ; we are in readi


I need not add more fuel to your fire, 70
For well I wot ye blaze to burn them out :
Give signal to the fight, and to it, lords !
Q. Mar. Lords, kuights, and gentlemen.

what I should say
My tears gainsay ; for every word I speak,
Ye see, I drink the water of mine eyes.
Therefore, no more but this : Henry, your

sovereigu, Is prisoner to the foe ; his state usurp'd, His realm a slaughter-house, his subjects

glain, His statutes cancell'd and his treasure spent ; And youder is the wolf that makes this spoil. You fight in justice : then, in God's name, lords,

81 Be valiant and give signal to the fight. [Alarum : Retreat : Excursions. Excunt.

SCENE V. Another part of the field. Flourish. Enter KING EDWARD, GLOUCESTER,

CLARENCE, and soldiers ; with QCEEN MARGARET, OXFORD, and SOMERSET, prisoners. K. Edw. Now here a period of tumultuous

broils. Away with Oxford to Hames Castle straight : For Somerset, off with his guilty head. Go, bear them hence ; I will not hear them

speak. Oxf. For my part, I'll not trouble thee with

words. Som. Nor I, bat stoop with patience to my


[Exeunt Oxford and Somerset, guarded. Q. Mar. So part we sadly in this troublous

world, To meet with joy in sweet Jerusalem. K. Edw. ls proclamation made, that who

finds Edward Shall have a high reward, and he his life? 10 Glou. It is : and lo, where youthful Edward

comes ! Enter soldiers, with PRINCE EDWARD, K. Edw. Bring forth the gallant, let us

hear him speak. What! can so young a thorn begin to prick ? Edward, what satisfaction canst thou make For bearing arms, for stiriing up my subjects, And all the trouble iliou hast turn'd me to? Prince. Speak like a subject, proud am

bitious York ! Suppose that I am now my father's mouth : Resign thy chair, and where I stand knee!

thon, Whilst I propose the selfsame words to thee, Which, traitor, thou wouldst have me answer to.

21 Q. Mar. Ah, that thy father had been so

resolved ! Glou. That you might still have worn the

petticoat, And ne'er have stol'n the breech from Lan

caster. Prince. Let Æsop fable in a winter's night; His currish riddles sort not with this place,


Q. Mar. Tuis cheers my heart, to see your

forwardness. Orf. Here pitch our battle ; hence we will

pot budge. Corish and march. Enter KING EDWARD,

K. Edu Brave followers, yonder stands

the trorny wood, Which, by the heavens' assistance and your

strength, Vust by the roots be hewn up yet ere night,

Glou. By heaven, brat, I'll plague ye for

that word. Q. Mar. Ay, thou wast born to be a plague

to men. Glou. For God's sake, take away this cap

tive scold. Prince. Nay, take away this scolding crookback rather.

30 K. Ev. Peace, wilful boy, or I will charm

your tongue. Clar. Untutor'd lad, thou art too malapert. Prince. I know my duty; you are all un

dutiful : Lascivious Edward, and thou perjured George, And thou mis-shapen Dick, I tell ye all I am your better, traitors as ye are : And thou usurp'st my father's right and mine. K. Ed. Take that, thou likeness of this railer here.

[Stabs him. Glou. Sprawl'st thou ? take that, to end thy agony.

Stabs him. Clar. "And there's for twitting me with perjury.

[Stabs him.. 40 2. Mar. 0, kill me too ! Glou. Marry, and shall. [Offers to kill her. K. Edw. Hold, Richard, hold ; for we have

done too much. Glou. Why should she live, to fill the

world with words? K. Edv. What, doth she swoon? use means

for her recovery. Glou. Clarence, excuse me to the king my

brother ; l'll hence to London on a serious matter : Ere ye coine there, be sure to hear some news.

Clar. What? what?
Glou. The Tower, the Tower. [Esit. 50
Q. Mar. 0 Ned, sweet Ned! speak to thy
mother, boy!

Canst thou not speak? O traitors! murder-
They that stabbd Casar shed no blood at all,
Did not ofiend, nor were not worthy blame,
If this foul deed were by to equal it :
He was a man ; this, in respect, a child :
And men ne'er spend their fury on a child.
What's worse than murderer, that I may

name it? No, no, my heart will burst, an if I speak : And I wil speak, that so my heart may burst. Butchers and villains ! bloody cannibals! 61 How sweet a plant have you untimely cropp'd! You have no children, butchers! if you had, The thought of them would have stirr'd up re

morse : But if you ever chance to have a child, Look in his youth to have him so cut off As, deathsmen, you have rid this sweet young

prince ! K. Edo. Away with her; go, bear her

hence perforce. Q. Mar. Nay, never bear me hence, dis

patch me here ; Here sheathe thy sword, I'll pardon thee my death :

70 What, wilt thou not ? then, Clarence, do it


Clar. By heaven, I will not do thee so

much ease. Q. Mar. Good Clarence, do; sweet Clar

ence, do thou do it. Clar. Didst thou not hear me swear I would

not do it? Q. Mar. Ay, but thou usest to forswear

thyself : 'Twas sin before, but now 'tis charity. What, wilt thou not? Where is that devil's

butcher, Hard-favor'd Richard ? Richard, where art

thou ? Thou art not here : murder is thy alms-deed; Petitioners for blood thou ne'er put'st back. 80 K. Edw. Away, I say ; I charge ye, bear

her hence. Q. Mar. So come to you and yours, as to

this prince ! [Erit, led out forcibly. K. Edw. Where's Richard gone ? Clar. To London, all in post; and, as i

guess, To make a bloody supper in the Tower. K. Edu. He's sudden, if a thing comes in

bis head. Now march we hence : discharge the common

sort With pay and thanks, and let's a way to Lon

don And see our gentle queen how well she fares : By this, I hope, she hath a son for me.

[Ereunt. SCENE VI. London. The Torder. Enter King Henry and GLOUCESTER, with

the Lieutenant, on the walls. Glon. Good day, my lord. What, at your

book so hard ? K. llen. Ay, my good lord :-my lord, I

should say rather ; 'Tis sin to Hatter ; 'good' was little better : Good Gloucester and “good devil' were

alike, And both preposterous ; therefore, not · good

lord, Glou. Sirrah, leave us to ourselves : we must confer.

[Exit Lieutenant. K. llen. So tlies the reckless shepherl from

the wolf ; So first the harmless sheep dotlı yild his

fleece And next his throat unto the butcher's kuue. What scene of death hath Roscius now to act? Giou. Suspicion always haunts the guilty mind ;

11 The thief doth fear each bush an officer. K. llen. The bird that hath been limed in a

bush, With trembling wings misdoubteth

every bush ; And I, the hapless male to one sweet bird, Have now the fatal object my eye Where my poor young was limed, was caught

and kill'd. Glou. Why, what a peevish fool was that of


That taught his son the office of a fowl ! 19
And yet, for all his wings, the fool was drown'd.
K. Hen. I, Dædalus; my poor boy, Icarus ;
Thy father, Minos, that denied our course ;
The sun that sear'd the wings of my sweet boy
Tbs brother Edward, and thyself the sea
WEose envious gulf did swallow up his life.
Ah, kill me with thy weapon, not with words!
My breast can better brook thy dagger's point
Than can my ears that tragic history.
Bat wherefore dost thou come ? is't for my

29 Glou Think'st thou I am an executioner ? K. Hen. A persecutor, I am sure, thou art : li murdering innocents be executing, Why, then thou art an executioner.

Glore Thy son I kill'd for his presumption. K. Hen. Hadst thou been kill'd when first

thou didst presume, Thou hadst not lived to kill a son of mine. And tàus I prophesy, that many a thousand, Which now mistrust no parcel of my fear, And many an old man's sigh and many a widow's,

39 And many an orphan's water-standing eyeMen for their sons, wives for their husbands, Andorphans for their parents' timeless death Slal rue the hour that ever thou wast born. The owl shriek'd at thy birth,-an evil sign ; The night-crow cried, aboding luckless time; Dogs howld, and hideous tempest shook

down trees; The raven rook'd her on the chimney's top, And chattering pies in dismal discords sung. Thy mother felt more than a mother's pain, And yet brought forth less than a mother's hope,

50 To wit, an indigested and deformed lump, Not like the fruit of such a goodly tree. Testh badst thou in thy head when thou wast

born, To signify thou camest to bite the world : And, if the rest be true which I have heard, Th01 CamestGlou. I'll hear no more : die, prophet, in thy speech :

[Stabs him. For this, amongst the rest, was I ordain’d. K. Hen. Ay, and for much more slaughter

after this. 0, God forgive my sins, and pardon thee!

[Dres. 60 Glou. What, will the aspiring blood of Lan

caster Sink in the ground ? I thought it would have

mounted See how my sword weeps for the poor king's

death! O, may ench purple tears be alway shed Froin those that wish the downfall of our

house! If any spark of life he yet remaining, Down, down to hell ; and say I sent thee thither :

[Stabs him again. I that have neither pity, love, nor fear. Indeed, 'tis true that Henry told me of; Yor I have often heard my mother say 70

I came into the world with my legs forward :
Had I not reason, think ye, to make haste,
And seek their ruin that usurp'd our right?
The midwife wonder'd and the women cried
.0, Jesus bless us, he is born with teeth!'
And so I was ; which plainly signified
That I should snarl and bite and play the dog.
Then, since the heavens have shaped my body

Let hell make crook'd my mind to answer it.
I have no brother, I am like no brother ; 80
And this word ‘love,' which greybeards call

divine, Be resident in men like one another And not in me : I am myself alone. Clarence, beware ; thou keep'st me from the

light : But I will sort a pitchy day for thee ; For I will buiz abroad such prophecies That Edward shall be fearful of his life, And then, to purge his fear, I'll be thy death. King Henry and the prince his son are gone : Clarence, thy turn is next, and then the rest, Counting myself but bad till I be best. 91 I'll throw thy body in another room And triumph, Henry, in thy day of doom.

[Exit, willi the body. SCENE VII. London. The palace. Flourish. Enter King EDWARD, QUEEN

TINGS, a Nurse with the youny Prince, and
K. Edu. Once more we sit in England's

royal throne,
Re-purchased with the blood of enemies.
What valiant foemen, like to autumn's corn,
Have we mow'd down in tops of all their

pride! Three Dukes of Somerset, threefold renown'd, For hardy and undoubted champions ; Two Cliffords, as the father and the son, And two Northumberlands ; two braver men Ne'er spurr'd their coursers at the trumpet's

sound ; With them, the two brave bears, Warwick and

Montague, That in their chains fetter'd the kingly lion And made the forest tremble when they roar'd. Thus have we swept suspicion from our seat And made our footstool of security. Come hither, Bess, and let me kiss my boy. Young Ned, for thee, thine uncles and myself Have in our armors watch'd the winter's

night, Wont all afoot in summer's scalding heat, That thou mightst repossess the crown in

peace; And of our labors thou shalt reap the gain. 20 Glou. (Aside) I'll blast his harvest, if your

head were laid ; For yet I am not look'd on in the world. This shoulder was ordain'd so thick to heave; And heave it shall some weight, or break my

back : Work thou the way,-and thou shalt execute

K. Edv. Clarence and Gloucester, love my

lovely queen ; And kiss your princely nephew, brothers both. Clar. The duty that I owe unto your ma

jesty I seal upon the lips of this sweet babe. Q. Eliz. Thanks, noble Clarence; worthy

brother, thanks. Glou. And, that I love the tree from whence

thou sprang'st, Witness the loving kiss I give the fruit. (Aside] To say the truth, so Judas kiss'd his

master, And cried 'all hail !' when as he meant all

harm. K. Edw. Now am I seated as my soul de


Having my country's peace and brothers'

loves. Clar. What will your grace have done with

Margaret ? Reignier, her father, to the king of France Hath pawn’d the Sicils and Jerusalem, And hither have they sent it for her ransom. K. Edw. Away with her, and waft her hence

to France. And now what rests but that we spend the

time With stately triumphs, mirthful comic showe, Such as befits the pleasure of the court ? Sound drums and trumpets ! farewell sour an

noy ! For here, I hope, begins our lasting joy.


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INTRODUCTION. This play, because among other alleged reasons it exhibits so much smaller a proportion of piyue tban Richard II., is held by some crities to be the later of the two in chronological order; butlere Shakespeare was working, though not in the presence, yet under the intiuence and in the niamber of the great master of dramatic blank verse, Marlowe. Richard III. carries on with the higurst energy, and we may suppose, after brief delay on Shakespeare's part, the subject of the fortunaof the bouse of York from the point when it was dropped in 3 Itury 17. It would harılly be pike that Shakespeare should subsequently continue to write in a manner so Marlowesque as that of Richard N11., he was not yet in comedy or tragedy delivered from rhyme. What more natand than that he should pass in Richard 11. to a manner perhaps inferior but more his own, more Faried, more subtle, and marked by finer if less forcible characterization ? Richard III, can hardly bet later in date than 1593. Shakespeare was indebteil little, if at all, to the old play The Trie Tregelie of Richard 111., and certainly not at all to Dr. Legge's Latin play upon the saine subject. A lizhly popular subject with Elizabethan audiences this was-the fall of the Yorkist usurper, and the stression of the iinst Tudor king as champion of justice. Shakespeare's play was printed in quaroin seren editions between 1597 and 16.0. His materials the dramatist found in the chronicles of Honshed and Hall. The entire play may be said to be the exhibition of the one central character of Rielard ; all subordinate persons are created that he may wreak his will upon them. This is qaite in the manner of Marlowe. Like Marlowe also is the fierce energy of the central character, untempered hr moral restraints, the heaping up of violent deels, the absence of all reserve or mystery in the characterization, the broaul and bold iouches, the demoniac force and intensity of the whole. There is something sublime and terrible in so great and fierce a human energy as that of Richard, concentrace within one withered and distorted body: This is the evil offspring and flower of thé long and cruel civil wars--this distorted creature, a hater and scorner of man, an absolute cynic, lorelers and alone, disregarding all human bonds and human arrections, yet full of intellect, of tire, of power. The accumulated crimes of civil war are at last atoned for, and the evil which culmimate in Richard falls with Richard from its bad eminence.


Sir WILLIAM CATESBY. EDWARD, Prince of Wales, after


sons to the wards King Edward V.,


1 King

Sir WALTER HERBERT. GEORGE, Duke of Clarence, I brothers to

Sir ROBERT BRAKENBURY, Lieutenant of the RICHARD, Duke of Gloucester,

Torer. afterwards King Richard III., I the King.

CHRISTOPHER URSWICK, a priest. Another A rung son of Clarence.

Priest. HexBr. Earl of Richmond, afterwards King TRESSEL and BERKELEY, gentlemen attendHenry VII.

ing on the Lady Anne. CARDISAL 'BOURCHIER, Archbishop of Cau- Lord Mayor of London. Sheriff of Wiltshire. terbury.

ELIZABETH, queen to King Edward IV.. THOLAS RUTIERHAM, Archbishop of York.

MARGARET, widow of King Henry VI. Joux VORTOX, Bishop of Ely.



LADY ANNE, widow of Edward Prince of EARL OF SURREY, his son.

Wales, son to King Henry VI. ; afterEARL RIVERS, brother to Elizabeth.

wards married to Richard. MARQUIS OF DORSET and LORD GREY, sons

A young Daughter of Clarence (MARGARET to Elizabeth.


Ghosts of those murdered by Richard III., LORD STANLEY, called also EARL OF DERBY.

Lords and other Attendants ; a Pursuivant, Logo LOVEL.

Scrivener, Citizens, Murderers, Messengers, Sir THOBIAS VAUGHAN.

Soldiers, &c. Sie RICHARD RATCLIFF,

SCENE : England.

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