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UNITED STATES ARMY FORTS.

Adams, Newport, R. I.; Allen (Ethan), Vt.; Amador, Balboa, C. Z.; Andrews, Boston, Mass.; Armstrong, Honolulu, T. H.; Baker, Sansalito, Cal.: Banks, Winthrop, Mass.; Barrancas, Fla.; Barry, San Francisco, Cal.; Benning, Ga.

Bliss, Tex.: Brady, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.; Bragg, N. C.; Brown, Brownsville, Tex.; Canby, Ilwaco, Wash.; Casey, Wash.; Clark, Bracketville, Tex.; Clayton, C. Z.; Columbia, Ft. Columbia, Wash.: Constitution, New Castle, N. H.; Crockett. Galveston, Tex.; Crook, Neb.

Delaware, Delaware City, Del.; De Lesseps, Fort Cristobal, C. Z.; De Russy, Honolulu, T. H.; Des Moines, Iowa; Douglas, Utab; Du Pont, Delaware City, Del.

Eustis, Leehall, Va.; Flagler, Port Townsend, Wash.: Frank, Manila, P. L.; Funston, San Francisco, Cal.; Getty, Jamestown, R. I.; Greble, Newport, R. I.; Hamilton, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Hancock, Sandy Hook, N. J.; Harrison (Benj.), Lawrence, Ind.; Hayes, Columbus, Ohio; Heath, Winthrop,

Mass.

Houston (Sam), San Antonio, Tex.; Howard, Baltimore, Md.; Hoyle, Edgewood, Md.; Huachuca, Ariz.; Hughes, Manila, P. I.; Humphreys, Alexandria, Va.; Jay, Governor's Island, N. Y.; Kamehameha, Honolulu, T. H.; Kearny (Philip), Newport, R. I.; Lawton, Seattle, Wash.; Leavenworth, Leavenworth, Kan.

Levett, Portland, Me.; Logan, Col.; Lyon, Portland, Me.: MacArthur, San Pedro, Cal.; McDowell, Angel Island, Cal.; McIntosh, Laredo, Tex.; McKinley, Portland, Me.; McKinley (William), Guadalupe, P. I.; McPherson, Atlanta, Ga.

McRee, Pensacola, Fla.; Mansfield, Watch Hill, R. I.: Mason, San Francisco, Cal.; Meade Sturgis, S. D.; Michie, New London, Conn.; Miley, San Francisco, Cal.; Mills, Cavite, P. I.: Missoula, Mont.; Monmouth (old Camp Vail), N. J.; Monroe, Fortress Monroe, Va.; Mott, Salem. N. J.; Moultrie, Moultrieville, S. C.; Myer, Rosslyn, Va.; Niagara, Youngstown, N. Y.

Oglethorpe, Chattanooga, Tenn.; Omaha, Omaha, Neb.; Ontario, Oswego, N. Y.; Pickens, Pensacola, Fla.; Preble, Portland, Me.; Randolph, Cristobal, C. Z.; Reno, Darlington, Okla.; Revere, Hull, Mass.; Riley, Kan.; Robinson, Neb.

Ringgold, Rio Grande, Tex.; Rodman. New Bedford, Mass.; Rosecrans, Pt. Loma, Cal.; Ruckman, Boston, Mass.; Ruger, Honolulu, T. H.; Russell, Wyo.; San Jacinto, Galveston, Tex.; Saulsbury, Milford, Del.; Schuyler, Westchester, N. Y.; Scott (Winfield), San Francisco, Cal.; Screven, Ga.; Shafter, Fort Shafter, T. H.

Sheridan, Ill.; Sherman, C. Z.; Sill, Okla.; Slocum, New York, N. Y.; Snelling. Minn.; Standish, Boston, Mass.: Stevens, Ore.; Story, Cape Henry, Va.; Strong. Boston, Mass.; Sumter, Charleston, S. C.

Taylor, Key West, Fla.; Terry, New London, Conn.; Thomas, Newport, Ky.; Tilden, Rockaway Park, N. Y.: Totten, Whitestone, N. Y.; Travis, Galveston, Tex.; Wadsworth, Rosebank, N. Y.; Ward, Seattle, Wash.: Warren, Boston, Mass.: Washington, Md.; Wayne, Detroit, Mich.; Weaver, Honolulu, T. H.

Wetherill, Jamestown, R. I.; Whitman, La Conner, Wash.; Williams, Portland, Me.; Wint, Subic Bay. P. I.: Wood, New York, N. Y.; Wool, Fortress Monroe, Va.; Worden, Port Townsend, Wash.; Wright (George), Spokane, Wash.; Wright (H. G.), Fisher's Island, N. Y.

UNITED STATES ARMY CAMPS.

Custor, Mich.; Devens, Mass.; Dix, Wrightstown, N. J.; Eagle Pass, Tex.; Eldridge, Los Banos, P. I.; Furlong, Columbus, N. M.; Gaillard, Culebra, C. Z.; Grant, Ill.; Hay (John), Baguio Mt., P. I.; Hearn (Lawrence J.), Palm City, Cal.

Jesup, Ft. McPherson, Ga.; Jones (Harry J.). Douglas, Ariz.; Knox, Stithton, Ky.; Lewis, Wash.; Little (Stephen D.), Nogales, Ariz.; McClellan, Anniston, Ala.; Marfa, Tex.; Meade, Md.; Nichols, Maricoban, P. I.: Samfordyce, Tex.; Stanley, San Antonio, Tex.: Stotsenburg, Angeles, P. I.; Upton, N. Y.; Anthony Wayne, Philadelphia, Pa.

MANUFACTURING ARSENALS.

Augusta, Augusta, Ga.; Benicia, Benicia, Cal.; Frankford, Frankford, Pa.; Picatinny, Dover, N. J.; Raritan, Metuchen, N. J.; Rock Island, Rock Island, Ill.; San Antonio, San Antonio, Tex.; Springfield Armory, Springfield, Mass.: U. S. Nitrate Plant No. 1, Sheffield, Ala.; U. S. Nitrate Plant No. 2, Muscle Shoals, Ala.; Watertown, Watertown, Mass.; Watervllet, Watervliet, N. Y.; Edgewood Arsenal, Edgewood, Md.

PROVING GROUNDS.
Ohio; Savanna, Savanna, Ill.
Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Md.; Erie, Port Clinton,

DISCIPLINARY BARRACKS.
U. S. Disciplinary Barracks: F. & S., Hq. Det.,
U. S. D. B., Fort Leavenworth, Kan.
Troops:
1st, 2d and 3d Disciplinary Guard Companies.
Pacific Branch U. S. Disciplinary Barracks:
Bq. Det. U. S. D. B., Alcatraz, Cal. Troops: Pacific
Branch. U. S. D. Guard Co.

Atlantic Branch U. S. Disciplinary Barracks: Hq. Det., U. S. D. B., Governor's Island, N. Y. Troops: 9th Disciplinary Company.

THE RANK OF GENERAL AND LIEUTENANT GENERAL. Seven persons have held the rank of General of the United States Army, and thirteen have held the rank of Lieutenant General. The list (date when Congress conferred the rank in parentheses) is as follows:

General of the Army-George Washington (June 15, 1775): Ulysses S. Grant (July 25, 1866); William T. Sherman (March 4, 1869); Philip_H. Sheridan (June 1, 1888); John J. Pershing (Oct. 6, 1917); Tasker H. Bliss (Oct. 6, 1917); Peyton C. March (May 20, 1918).

Lieutenant General of the Army-George Washington (July 3, 1798); Ulysses S. Grant (March 2, 1864); William T. Sherman (July 25, 1866); Philip H. Sheridan (March 4, 1869); John M. Schofield (Feb. 8, 1895); Nelson A. Miles (June 6, 1900); Samuel B. M. Young (Aug. 8, 1903); Adna R. Chaffee (Jan. 9, 1904); John C. Bates (Feb. 1, 1906); Henry C. Corbin (April 15, 1906): Arthur MacArthur (Sept. 15, 1906); Hunter Liggett (Oct. 16, 1918); Robert L. Bullard (Oct. 16, 1918).

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5 4 Haiti.

By Central ¡Against Cen- Duration
Powers. tral Powers. of War.

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San Marino.
Roumania..
Greece...

10 Honduras

June 6, 1915 3
Aug. 29, 1916 Aug. 27, 1916 1 6
Nov. 23, 1916 1 11 18

The joint resolution of Congress, approved April 6, 1917, provides "That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared."

The existence of a state of war between the United States of America and the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government was declared by Joint resolution of Congress approved Dec. 7, 1917.

Russia surrendered to Central Powers Dec. 16, 1917; Roumania, May 6, 1918.

Bulgaria surrendered to the Allies Sept. 29,

1918; Turkey, Oct. 30. 1918; Austria-Hungary, Nov. 3, 1918, Germany, Nov. 11, 1918.

Peace treaties (1918) March 3, at Brest-Litovsk. between Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey; (1918) March 7, between Germany and Finland: (1919) June 28, at Versailles, between Germany and Allies; (1919) Sept. 10, at St. Germain, between Austria and Allies; (1919) Nov. 27, at Neuilly, between Bulgaria and Allies; (1920) June 4, at the Grand Trianon, between Hungary and Allies; (1920) Aug. 10, at Sevres, between Turkey and Allies.

1

Corps
Area.

1st Corps

Area:

Conn....

NATIONAL QUARD STRENGTH.

(Revised by the Militia Bureau of U. S. War Dept., June 30, 1926.)

Infantry Cavalry Corps Special Other &
Divis'ns Divis'ns Troops. All'tm't Total.

Corps
Area.

Inf'ntry Cavalry Corps Special Other &
Divis'ns Divis'ns Troops. All'tm't Total

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Me.....

1,191

1,753 Mich.

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500

4.223

Mass..

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9,862 Wis

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N. H.

988

994 7th Corps

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1,256 Area:

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1,078 Ark...

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2d Corps

Iowa..

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3,500

Area:

Kan..

2,656

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748 Minn..

2,558

2,154

4.724

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4,503 Mo.

3,142

762

4,616

N. Y..

10,806

995

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20,883 Neb.

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P. Rico..

1,752

1,780 N. D..

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3d Corps

8. D.

585

Area:

8th Corps

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886 Area:

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2,845 Arlz...

813

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1,488 1,390

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3,922 N. M..

360

630

1,017

4th Corps

Okla..

4,255

Area:

Tex.

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2,831 9th Corps

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2,287 Area:

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1,167

3,532 Cal....

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1,919 Idaho.

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305

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1,576 Mont..

1,054

894

1,059

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3,336 Nev..

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2,113 Ore..

2,669

Tenn.

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2,590 Utah.

717

5th Corps

Wash..

2,082

Area:

Wyo

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4,438 Hawaiian

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Total. 122,186 11,828 11,127 14.695 174.969
General Headquarters Reserves, 1,991:

In addition to the classified troops shown in Coast Defense, 8,388; and State Staffs, 911. the table, the total includes "other army troops,"

UNITED STATES MILITARY The United States Military Academy is situated | on the Hudson River, at West Point, N. Y., a place rich in historical interest and made memorable by the treason of Benedict Arnold. The massive stone buildings rising grandly above the broad, winding river harmonize beautifully with the background of blue hills to form an ideal location for this, the greatest military school in the world. The buildings and grounds represent a money value of approximately $25,000,000.

The maximum authorized strength of the Corps of Cadets is 1,378, selected from candidates between the ages of seventeen and twenty-two years, nominated as follows: two by each United States Senator, two by each Representative in Congress and Territorial Delegate, two by the Vice President, 100 by the President, twenty selected from among honor graduates of "honor military schools," two from natives of Porto Rico, four from natives of the Philippine Islands, four from the District of Columbia, and one hundred and eighty from among enlisted men of the Regular Army and National Guard. Those from the last mentioned class are required to be between the ages of nineteen and twenty-two years and must have served in their respective organizations for at least one year.

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ACADEMY AT WEST POINT.
History. However, graduates of first class
schools and students at universities and colleges of
recognized standing may submit educational cer
tificates which will be considered by the Acaderule
Board, and if satisfactory may be accepted in lieu
of the mental examination.

The course of study is four years, during which time the cadets are under strict military discipline. The In September of each year and ends the following summers are spent in camp. Academic work begins June. Cadets of the first, second and third classes not undergoing examinations are allowed abors leaves of absence at Christmas, and those who have successfully completed the third class course are allowed leaves of absence from about the middle of June to August 28. The course is largely mathe matical and professional. The principal subjects taught are Mathematics, English, French, Spanish, Drawing, Drill Regulations of all arms of the service, Natural and Experimental Philosophy, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Geology, Electricity, History, International, Constitutional and Military Law, Civil and Military Engineering, Art and Science of War, Economics and Government, and Ordnance and Gunnery.

The pay of a cadet is $780 per year and commutation of rations, at present fixed at 80 cents per day. The total is $1.072, which, with proper ecos omy, is sufficient to meet his actual needs at the Academy.

Appointments to the Academy are made only to fill vacancles as they may occur, and candidates Each cadet when admitted to the Academy signs may be designated one year in advance of admission. an agreement to serve for a period of eight years. For each vacancy from a State or Congressional unless sooner discharged by competent authority. district three candidates may be nominated, a Upon graduation cadets are commissioned second principal, a first alternate, who is entitled to ad-leutenants in the United States Army, with the mission only in the event of the failure of the prin- exception of the Filipino cadets, who are eligible for cipal, and a second alternate, who is entitled to commission only in the Philippine Scouts. admission only in the event of the failure of both the principal and the first alternate. The selection of these candidates is left entirely with the Senator or Representative who has the vacancy at his disposal and may be either by competitive examination or direct choice at the option of the Congressman.

Each candidate must pass a rigid physical examination and none is accepted who has any defect or infirmity which renders him unfit for military service. In addition cach candidate must pass an examination in the subjects of Algebra, Geometry, English Grammar, Composition and Literature, and

The total number of graduates, including foreigners receiving instruction under special Acts of Copgress, from 1802 to June 12, 1926, inclusive, is 8,022. The number of cadets in the Corps on July 31, 1926, was 1,170. The Superintendent is Brig Gen. March B. Stewart, U. 8. A., and there are 200 officers and instructors at the Academy.

Detailed information as to the appointment and admission of cadets is contained in an attractively illustrated pamphlet, a copy of which will be fur nished, without cost, upon application to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D. C.

UNITED STATES TROOPS IN THE WORLD WAR, BY STATES.
(Figures, which are official, cover the Army, the Navy, and the Marine Corps.)

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Of these interments about 10,700 are those of | Jefferson Barracks, Little Rock, Philadelphia, Confederates, being mainly in the National Ceme- Springfield, and Woodlawn. teries at Arlington, Camp Butler, City Point, Number of overseas soldiers returned and inCypress Hills, Finns Point, Fort Smith, Hampton, terred in National Cemeteries, 6,567.

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U. S. WORLD WAR SOLDIERS BURIED IN EUROPE (AS OF JUNE 30, 1926).
Meuse-Argonne (Romagne), France..
14,094 | St. Mihiel (Thiaucourt), France..
Alsne-Marne (Belleau Wood), France. ...2,212 Olse-Aisne (Serenges-et-Nesles), France.
Suresnes American Cemetery (Paris), France. 1,506 Flanders Field (Waereghen), Belgium.
Somme American Cemetery (Bony), France.. 1,820
Brookwood American Cemetery, England.... 437

Total....

CONDITION OF GRAVES OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS ABROAD.
There was a controversy in 1926 as to the
condition of the graves of American soldiers in
Europe.

Travelers from the United States asserted on

4.141

5,938

365 30,513

their return to this country that many of the graves had been desecrated or carelessly treated.

These charges were denied by those in charge of the cemeteries and also by officers of the army.

WAR.

Revolutionary War.. War of 1812

TROOPS ENGAGED IN UNITED STATES WARS.
(Prepared by Adjutant-General's Office, U. S. Army.)

From

DATES.

To

TROOPS ENGAGED.

Regulars.

Volun

teers. Drafted.

Total Troops.

b

56,652 34,287

471,622 73.344

c 528.274 107,631

Active Hostilities Ceased. April 19, 1775 Jan. 14. 1784 aApril 19, 1783 June 18, 1812 Feb. 17, 1815 Jan. 8, 1815 War with Mexico...dApril 25, 1846 May 30, 1848 Sept. 14, 1847 Civil War (Union). April 15, 1861 Aug. 20, 1866 April 9, 1865 75.215 1,933,779 9119,954 2.128.948 War with Spain. April 21, 1898 April 11, 1899 Aug. 10, 1898 57,329 223,235 280.564 World War. April 6, 1917 July 2, 1921 Nov. 11. 1918 544.663

a Proclamation of Congress read to Army at 12 o'clock noon on April 13, 1783.

b Estimates on total troops run from 250,000 to 395,858. Greatest strength of Continental Army was about 35.000, in November, 1778.

c Evidently represents enlistments and not individual soldiers, hence is considerably in excess of actual number of troops employed, as it is known that a large proportion of the men rendered more than one term of service and are counted that number of times.

d Hostilities began on this date. The Act of Congress approved May 13, 1846, declared the existence of a state of war.

616,779 2.890.164 4.051.606

e Capture of the City of Mexico. f Date of Gen. Lee's surrender.

Of this number only 46,347 were actually drafted, the remaining 73,607 having served as substitutes.

h Army only, does not include Marines who served with the Army in France.

The Continental Army was organized by the Continental Congres June 15, 1775, under George Washington as Major-Gen. and Commander-inChlet. The so-called Continentals in the Revolu tlon totaled 231,462. The War Department was established Aug. 7. 1789. The standing army organized September, 1790.

UNION ARMY LOSSES IN THE CIVIL WAR.

(From "Regimental Losses in the American Civil War," by William F. Fox, Lieutenant-Colonel, U. 8. V.)

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Northern writers usually estimate the total number of Confederate troops in the Civil War at 1,400,000, based on a population of 5,000,000 whites, Southern historians estimate the total number of Confederate troops at 600,000. R. H. McKim puts the total at 621,800. On March 1, 1862, by Confederate records, the total was 340,250. Woodrow Wilson, in his "History of the American People," estimated the Confederate troops at 900,000.

The Confederate losses in particular engagements were as follows: Bull Run (first Manassas), July 21, 1861, killed, 387; wounded, 1,582; captured and missing, 13; aggregate, 1,982. Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 14-16, 1862, killed, 466; wounded, 1,534; captured and missing, 13,829; aggregate, 15,829. Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7, 1862, killed, 1,723; wounded, 8,012; captured and missing, 959; aggre gate, 10,694. Seven Days' Battle, Virginia, June 25-July 1, 1862, killed, 3,478; wounded, 16,261; captured and missing, 875; aggregate, 20,614. Second Manassas, August 21-September 2, 1862, killed, 1,481: wounded and missing, 7,627; captured and missing, 89; aggregate, 9,197. Antietam campaign, September 12-20, 1862, killed, 1.886; wounded, 9,348; captured and missing, 1,367: aggregate, 12,601. Fredericksburg, December 13, 1882, killed, 596; wounded, 4.068: captured and missing, 651; aggregate, 5,315. Stone River, Tenn.,

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December 31, 1862, killed, 1,294: wounded. 7,945 captured and missing, 1,027; aggregate, 10,268 Chancellorsville, May 1-4, 1863, killed, 1,665 wounded, 9,081: captured and missing, 2,018 aggregate, 12,764. Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863 killed, 2,592; wounded 12,706; captured and missing 5,150: aggregate, 20,448. Chickamauga, September 19-20, 1863, killed, 2,268; wounded, 13.613; captured and missing, 1,090; aggregate, 16,971. Franklin, Nov. 3, 1864, killed, 6,252.

The number of casualties in the volunteer and regular armies of the United States during the war of 1861-65, according to a statement prepared by the Adjutant-General's office, was as follows Killed in battle, 67.058; died of wounds, 43,012 died of disease, 224,586; other causes, such a accidents, murder, etc., 24,822; total died. 359,528 total deserted (estimated), 117,247. Number of soldiers in the Confederate service who died of wounds or disease (partial statement), 133,821; deserted (partial statement), 104,428. Number of United States troops captured during the war, 211,411; Confederate troops captured, 462,634 Number of United States troops paroled on the field, 16,668: Confederate troops paroled on the fleld, 247,769. Number of United States troops who died while prisoners, 30.218; Confederate troops who died while prisoners, 25.976.

NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS, There are branches of the National Home at Dayton, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wis.: Togus, Me.: Hampton. Va.; Leavenworth, Kan.; Santa Monica, Cal.: Marlon, Ind; Danville, Il; Johnson City, Tenn, and Het Springs, 8. D. The aggregate number of members cared for is about 28,000.

STATE HOMES FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS.

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ORIGIN OF THE FLAG OF THE UNITED STATES. (From an article by William Elliot Griffis, D. D., in the Independent.) Europeans knowing only the theory of the heraldic | origin of the American flag have made merry over the absurdity (from their point of view) of the Stars and Stripes. If, however, the basis of our national standard is derived from the Dutch Republic. then much is clear.

Paintings made after the Revolutionary War are untrustworthy as witnesses, especially those having six-pointed stars, for the reason that no proof yet exists to show that any regimental flag in the Con inental Army had stars in its field, unless possibly toward the end of the war. Scores of British prints representing flags captured from or seen on Continental ships or regimental staves have only stripes.

Our fathers, of the thirteen colonies united as one, made "an appeal to Heaven" by uniting on their first flag, raised at Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 1, 1776, the "Unions" of the two countries, Netherlands and Great Britain, that had held sovereignty of the land they lived on.

Of European national flags daily seen in our harbors, two are prominent above all. One, the Dutch, was made in 1579, the other, the British, in 1707. From 1609 to 1664, a tri-colored republlcan flag of a federal union of states had floated over New Netherland, or the soil cf the four middle colonies, later called New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware, as the flag of the home land.

after Oct. 4, 1776, is known. Abundance of exact documentary proof shows that the thirteen stripes were ever present, but there is no proof that the stars were. In the book of photographs of extant flags used, or alleged to be used in the American Revolution (made by Gherardi Davis, New York, 1908), the field of stars is rarely seen and in none with absolute surety, before 1780, but the stripes are always in evidence.

The collection of British prints of our flag, now in Fraunces Tavern, gives the same testimonystripes always, stars never until 1780. In the Journal of William Russell, American prisoner in the Forton prison, near Plymouth, England, we read the entry made on July 4, 1780: "To-day being the anniversary of American Independence the American prisoners wore the thirteen stars and stripes drawn on pieces of paper on their hats, with the motto, Independence, Liberty or Death."

The record of the Continental Congress, June 14,1777, reads as follows: "Resolved, that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, that the Unton be thirteen stars, white in a blue fleld, representing a new constellation."

The entry in the journal of Capt. Abraham Swarthout of Col. Gansevoort's New York regiment, written Aug. 3, 1777, in Fort Schuyler, shows beyond cavil, where the first flag of stars and stripes, of which we have record, was made and hoisted; but this was in a fort, not in the field, or at the

The seven alternate red and white stripes re-head of a regiment. called to our fathers, in 1776, the successful revolt against "taxation without representation," or, as the Dutch Parliament of 1477 put it, "no taxation without consent"; the union of seven states In a republic; a July declaration of independence, published in 1579, with the abjuring, in 1581, of an oppressive monarch.

In the Pennsylvania "State House" (the very name and use of the words are Dutch), the Declaration of Independence was signed under the British flag and the arms of King George, and not until July 9 were the British unlon jack and the royal arms taken down from the building now called Independence Hall. Not until Sept. 9, 1776, did Congress order that their "commissions and instruments" be made to read "United States" where heretofore the words "United Colonies" had been used.

The stripes have never left the flag, because they represent a vital fundamental idea. They have been from first to last the one permanent element in our national standard.

When unfurled, Jan. 1, 1776, the first Union flag raised over the first American army mirrored true history. Flags, many of astonishing variety of color, inscription and emblem came into view and use. There were pine trees, rattlesnakes, beavers, threefold knotted cords, with their thirteen ends free, a chain or circle of thirteen rings linked together, and other objects notably American, with some borrowed from heraldry, or from British or Dutch history. In the latter case, the sheaf of arrows, the hat of liberty, and the Netherlands lion were ancestral.

Meanwhile, officers of the seventeen Continental men-of-war and of scores of privateers kept clamoring for something significant to display in foreign ports, especially while buying munitions of war. These calls for a "distinctive standard" increased in volume even to indignant remonstrance. there was nothing, until June 14, 1777, except local or colonial symbols and "the Congress flag" of the thirteen stripes.

Still

No evidence of any use of the British "Union"

The vote of Congress on the flag was not officially published until Sept. 3, 1777. There is no record that the Stars and Stripes were carried at Brandywine, Pa., at Gooch's Bridge, Del., or that even the "Quiberon" French salute of Nov. 1, 1777, to the U. S. 8. "Ranger," commanded by Paul Jones, was given to any but the striped flag without stars.

On land, the most prominent of all the many symbols on the regimental flags on the Continental Army throughout the war was the rattlesnake, which is oftenest referred to by both native and foreign witnesses. In fact the resolution of Congress of June 14, 1777, was not heeded, even by Washington himself, or even by the Board of War.

One Continental officer wrote with surprise on Aug. 3, 1777: "It appears by the papers that Congress resolved on the 14th of June last," &c.

As late as May 10, 1779, Washington in correspondence with the Board of War, states that applications came to him repeatedly for drums and colors, but there were many varying flags for particular regiments, and "it is not yet settled what is the standard of the United States." The War Board replied, through Richard Peters, that if "Gen. Washington would favor the Board with his opinion on the subject as to what was the one common flag of the United States," a recommendation to Congress would be made and they would get the materials and "order a number for the

army.

Replying on Sept. 3, 1779, Washington says nothing about stars, but recommended that the number belonging to the regiments from each State should be "inserted within the curve of the serpent."

In 1847 the Dutch Government politely made the inquiry, "What is the American flag?" In 1857, in the harbor of New York, nine different styles of arrangement of stars were noted in one day. On March 16, 1896, the Secretary of War, Daniel Lamont, ordered that the constellation should be in six rows.

"OLD GLORY" IN FIRST BATTLE AT FORT STANWIX, N. Y.?

Army historians have unearthed evidence that I shirts; the blue out of the camulet cloak taken the Stars and Stripes got its baptism of fire in a land battle in the defense of Fort Stanwix, N. Y., on Aug. 2, 1777.

The colors improvised by the garrison appear to have shown both the alternate stripes of red and white and the "stars of glory" set upon a field of blue cut from a "camulet cloak taken from the enemy at Peekskill."

At the request of historical societies, the War Department began a search which has brought to light a work entitled "A Narrative of the Milltary Actions of Col. Marinus Willett," who was a member of the garrison. It describes the necessity for making a flag when the enemy invested the fort and adds that "a decent one was soon contrived."

"The white stripes were cut out of ammunition

from the enemy at Peekskill, while the red stripes were made of different pieces of stuff procured from one and another of the garrison," the narrative says.

Quoting a letter written by Lieut. Col. Willett at Hartford, Conn., on Aug. 21, 1777, the narrative adds, speaking of the final action at Fort Stanwix on Aug. 6:

"We totally routed two of the enemy's encampments, brought off upwards of five colours, the whole of which on our return to the fort were displayed on our flagstaff under the Continental flag."

In view of these first-hand statements, War Department historical authorities are satisfled that the Continental flag mentioned was, in fact, the Stars and Stripes in its original form.

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