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surplus and undivided profits, and total resources of $28,082,841.

The largest of the independent labor banks,
and the one labor bank with the largest capital
and surplus, is the Federation Bank of New York,
in which Peter J. Brady is the dominating spirit.
This has $1,500,000 capital and surplus, and total
resources as of Nov. 15, 1925 of $18,535,000.
Other labor banks are:

Mt. Vernon Savings Bank, Washington, D. C.
United Bank and Trust Company, Tucson, Ariz.
People's Co-operative State Bank, Hammond, Ind
San Bernardino Valley Bank, San Bernardino, Cal.
Amalgamated Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago, Ill.
Amalgamated Bank of New York, New York City.
Telegraphers' National Bank, St. Louis, Mo.
Brotherhood Savings and Trust Company, Pitts-
burgh, Pa.

Brotherhood of Railway Clerks National Bank.
Cincinnati, Ohio.

United Labor Bank and Trust Company, Indian-
apolis, Ind.

International Union Bank, New York City.
First National Bank in Bakersfield, Bakersfield, Cal.
Labor National Bank of Great Falls, Great Falls,
Mont.

Farmers' and Workingmen's Savings Banks, Jack-
son, Mich.

The People's National Bank of Los Angeles, Los
Angeles, Cal.

Labor Co-operative National Bank, Paterson, N. J.
Brotherhood State Bank, Kansas City, Kan.
Amalgamated Bank of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa.
Labor Co-operative National Bank, Newark, N. J.
Labor National Bank of Jersey City, N. J.

The total capital of all these labor banks on June 30, 1926, was $10,435,180: total deposits of $108,531,644; and total resources of $127,368,809. There are ten labor investment companies with a capital of $31,000,000.

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. The American Federation of Labor has its head-| Cigarmakers. uarters in the A. F. of L. Building, Washington, C. The national officers, re-elected Oct. 14, 926, at Detroit, Mich., are:

Executive Council-President, William Green: Secstary, Frank Morrison; Treasurer, Daniel J. Tobin. 22 E. Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind.; First Vice"esident, James Duncan, 25 Gilmore St., Quincy, lass; Second Vice-President, Frank Duffy, Carenters Building, Indianapolis, Ind.; Third ViceTesident, T. A. Rickert, Room 506, 175 W. Washgton St., Chicago, Ill.; Fourth Vice-President, acob Fischer, 222 East Michigan St., Indianapolis, ad. Fifth Vice-President, Matthew Woll, Room 01. 166 W. Washington St., Chicago, Ill.; Sixth Ice-President, Martin F. Ryan, 503 Hall Bldg., insas City, Mo.: Seventh Vice-President, James Vilson, Second Nat. Bk. Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio; ghth Vice-President, James P. Noonan, I. A. of Bldg., Washington, D. C.

In the federation there are 107 national and interational unions representing 29,417 local unions, departments, 49 State branches, 831 city centrals Ah 3,303,966 members.

The receipts for the last fiscal year were $518,51 49: expenditures, $519,113.33. The balance on and was $210,391.96.

Departments Building Trades, Wm. J. Tracy, Sec.Teas, Rins. 500-505 A. F. of L. Bldg., Wash., D. C.; fetal Trades, A. J. Berres, Sec.-Treas., Rms. 40003 A. F. of L. Bldg.; Railroad Employees, J. M. urus, Sec.-Treas., Rm. 402, 844 Rush St., Chicago, : Union Label Trades, John J. Manning, Sec.reas, Rm. 202, A. F. of L. Bldg., Wash., D. C. The national and international unions affiliated "th the American Federation of Labor, with the ames of the several Presidents, (or Secretaryreasurers) and the addresses of the headquarters are follows:

tors and Artists. Paul D. Dullzell, 45 W. 47th
St., N. Y. C.

bestos Workers. Thomas J. McNamara, Sec.-
Treas., 803 United Home Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.
Lakery and Confectionery Workers. Charles F.
Hohmann, 2719 Best Ave., Chicago, Ill.

rbers' International. Jacob Fischer, Sec.-Treas.,
222 E. Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind.
llPosters. William McCarthy, Rm. 821, Long-
acre Bldg., 42d St. and Broadway, New York.
Packsmiths. William F. Kramer, Sec.-Treas.,
2022 Washington Blvd., Chicago, Ill.

llermakers. Joseph Flynn, Sec.-Treas., Suite 504,
Brotherhood Block, Kansas City, Kan.
okbinders. Felix J. Belair. Sec.-Treas., Rm.
308, A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C.
oot and Shoe Workers. C. L. Balne, Sec.-Treas.,
246 Summer St., Boston, Mass.

rewery. John Rader, 2347-51 Vine St., Cincinnati,
Ohio.

J.

ricklayers, Masons and Plasterers. John
Gleeson, 1417 K St., N.W.,
rick and Clay Workers. Washington, D. C.
Tracy, Sec.-
Treas., Rm. 440, 323-331 So. La Salle St., Chicago,
III.
ridge and Structural Iron Workers. W. J. McCain.
1615-20 Syndicate Trust Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.
room and Whisk Makers. Will R. Boyer, Sec.-
Treas, 853 King Place, Chicago, Ill.

ilding Service Employees. Paul David, Sec.-
Treas., 166 W. Washington St., 6th floor, Chicago,

ш.

armen. J. M. Ellis, Sec.-Treas., 508 Hall Bldg.. Kansas City, Mo.

arpenters and Joiners. Frank Duffy, Carpenters' Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind.

arvers. Frank Detlef, 8605 85th St., Woodhaven, L. I., N. Y.

George W. Perkins, Rm. 620, 508
So. Dearborn St., Chicago, Ill.
Clerks, Post Office. Thomas F. Flaherty, 300
A. F. of L. Bldg WC. Coulter, Sec.-Treas., Lock
Washington, D. C.

Clerks, Retail.

Drawer 248, Lafayette, Ind.
Cloth Hat Workers. Max Zuckerman, 621 Broad-
way, New York, N. Y.
Conductors, Sleeping Car. W. O. Murphy, Sec.-
Treas., 360-361 Union Station, Kansas City, Mo.
Coopers. Forrest M. Krepps, Sec.-Treas., Meri-
Diamond Workers.
weather Bldg., Kansas City, Mo.
Andries Meyer, 132 Joralemon
St., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Draftsmen. C. L. Rosemund, 200 A. F. of L.
Bldg., Washington, D. C.

Electrical Workers. G. M. Bugniazet, I. A. of M.

Bldg., Ninth and Mt. Vernon Place, Wash., D. C.
Elevator Constructors. Joseph F. Murphy, Sec.-
Treas., 1210 Central Bldg., 191 Joralemon St.,
Brooklyn, N. Y.

Engineers. Dave Evans, Sec.-Treas., 6334 Yale
Ave., Chicago, Ill.

Engravers, Metal. John Joos, Sec.-Treas., 118
Middlesex Road, Rochester, N. Y.

Engravers, Photo.

Sec.

Henry F. Schmal, Sec.-Treas.,
3136 So. Grand Blvd., St. Louis, Mo.
Federal Employees. Gertrude McNally,
Treas., 10 B St., S. W., Washington D. C.
Fire Fighters. George J. Richardson, Sec.-Treas.,
105 A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C.
Firemen and Qilers. C. L. Shamp, Sec.-Treas.,
3615 No. 24th St., Omaha, Neb.

Foundry Employees. Leonard Holtschult, Sec.-
Treas., 418 Calumet Bldg., 7th and Chestnut
Sts., St. Louis, Mo.

Fur Workers. Isaac Wohl, Sec.-Treas., 9 Jackson
Ave., Long Island City, N. Y.

Garment Workers, United. B. A. Larger, Sec.-
Treas., 619 Bible House, New York, N. Y.
Garment Workers, Ladies. Abe Baroff, Sec.-Treas.,
3 W. 16th St., N. Y. C.

Glass Bottle Blowers. Harry Jenkins, Rm. 1007.
Colonial Trust Bldg., 13th and Market Sts.,
Philadelphia, Pa.

Glass Cutters and Flatteners. Joseph L. Fortune,
Sec.-Treas., 1104 Standard Life Bldg., Pittsburgh,
Pa.

Glass Workers, Flint. Charles J. Shipman, Sec.-
Treas., Rms. 200-10 Amer. Bank Bldg., Huron
St. and Jefferson Ave., Toledo, Ohio.

Glass Workers, Window. George Connell, 712
Park Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio.

Glove Workers. Elizabeth Christman, Sec.-Treas.,
311 So. Ashland Blvd., Chicago, Ill.

Granite Cutters. Sam Squibb, 25 School St.,
Quincy, 69, Mass.

Hatters, United. Martin Lawlor, Sec.-Treas., Rm.
418, Bible House, New York City.

Hod Carriers. A. Persion, Sec.-Treas., 25 School
St., Quincy, 69, Mass.

Horse Shoers. Hubert S. Marshall, Sec.-Treas..
Rm. 605, Second Bank Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Hotel and Restaurant Employees. Jere L. Sullivan,
Sec.-Treas., 530 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Iron, Steel and Tin Workers. David J. Davis,
510 Fourth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Jewelry Workers. J. Eisenberg, Sec.-Treas., 58
W. Washington St., Chicago, Ill.
Lathers. A. D. Yoder, Seo-Treas., Lathers' Bldg.

Detroit Ave. and West 26th St., Cleveland, Ohio. Laundry Workers. Harry L. Morrison, Sec.-Treas., 799 2d Ave., Troy, N. Y

Leather Workers. J. J. Pfeiffer, Sec.-Treas., Rms.
608-610 Walsix Bldg., 6th and Walnut Sts.,
Kansas City, Mo.

Letter Carriers. M. T. Finnan, 405 A. F. of L.
Bldg., Washington, D. C.

Letter Carriers,

Rural.

George F. Klinker,

Lafayette, Ind.
Lithographers. James M. O'Connor, Sec.-Treas.,
205 W. 14th St., New York City.
Longshoremen. John J. Joyce, Sec.-Treas., 744
Bramson Bldg. Buffalo, N. Y.
Machinists. E. C. Davison, Sec.-Treas., I. A. of M.
Bldg., 9th and Mt. Vernon Place, Wash., D. C.*
Maintenance of Way Employees. E. E. Milliman,
Sec.-Treas., 61 Putnam Ave., Detroit, Mich.*
Marble Polishers, Sawyers, Tile and Marble Setters'
Helpers. Stephen C. Hogan, 406 E. 149th St.,
New York City.

Masters, Mates and Pilots. John H. Pruett, 24
Moore St., New York, N. Y.
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen.

Dennis Lane,
Sec.-Treas., Rm. 604, 160 No. La Salle St., Chicago,
Ill.
Metal Workers. William L. Sullivan, Sec.-Treas.,
Rms. 635-642 Transportation Bldg., Wash., D. C.
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers. C. H. Moyer,
Sec-Treas., Rm. 502, Mercantile Bldg., 15th
and Arapahoe Sts., Denver, Col.

Mine Workers of America, United. Thomas Kennedy, Sec.-Treas, 1101 Merchants Bank Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind.

Moulders. Victor Kleiber, Edwards Bldg., 530 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Musicians. William Kerngood, 239-241 Halsey St.,
Newark, N. J.

Oil and Field Refinery Workers. J. L. Coulter,
Sec.-Treas., Box 1779, Ft. Worth, Tex.
Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers.

Charles

J. Lammert, Sec.-Treas., Lafayette, Ind. Paper Makers. Matthew Burns, 25 So. Hawk St., Albany, N. Y.

Pattern Makers. James Wilson, Rms. 1008-9 Second National Bank Bldg., 9th and Main Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Pavers. Edward I. Hannah, 336 E. 59th St., New York, N. Y.

Paving Cutters. Carl Bergstrom, Box 130, Rockport, Mass.

Piano and Organ Workers. Jacob Fischer, 260
E. 138th St., New York, N. Y.
Plasterers.

T. A. Scully, Sec.-Treas., 301 Castell
Bldg., Middletown, Ohio.
Plumbers and Steamfitters. Thomas E. Burke,
Sec-Treas., 1138 No. Dearborn St., Chicago, Ill.
Polishers, Metal. Charles R. Atherton, Sec.-
Treas., Neave Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Potters. John McGillvray, Sec.-Treas., Box 6,
East Liverpool, Ohio.

Geo. W.

Powder and High Explosive Workers.
Hawkins, Sec.-Treas., Columbus, Kan.
Printers and Die Stampers. James E. Goodyear,
1630 W. Louden St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Printing Pressmen and Assistants. Joseph C. Orr,
Sec.-Treas., Pressmen's Home, Tennessee.
Pulp and Paper Mill Workers. John P. Burke,
Drawer V, Fort Edward, N. Y.

Quarry Workers. Fred W. Sultor, Sec.-Treas..
Scampint Bldg., Barre, Vt.

Railway Employees. W. D. Mahon, 260 E. High
St.. Detroit, Mich.

Railway Mail. H. W. Strickland, Rms. 506-8
A. F. of L. Bldg., Washington, D. C.
Roofers. Joseph M. Gavlak, Sec.-Treas.,
Coleridge Rd., Cleveland, Ohio.

3091

Seamen's. Victor A. Olander, Sec.-Treas., 3 No. Wells St., Chicago, Ill.

Siderographers. Joseph L. Heffern, 5200 Fifth S N. W., Washington, D. C.

Signalmen. T. A. Austin, Sec.-Treas., 4750 N Kimball Ave., Chicago, Ill.*

Stage Employees. Richard J. Green, Sec.-Trea Suite 1352, 1440 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Stereotypers and Electroty pers. Charles A. Sumne Sec.-Treas., 3110 Olive St., Kansas City, Mo. Stonecutters. Joseph Blasey, Sec.-Treas., Box 76 Indianapolis, Ind.

Stove Mounters. Frank Grimshaw, Sec.-Treas
6466 Jefferson Ave. East, Detroit, Mich.
Switchmen. M. R. Welch, Sec.-Treas., 217 1
North St., Buffalo, N. Y.

Tailors. Thomas Sweeney, 6753 Stony Islan
Ave., Chicago, Ill.
Teachers. Florence C. Hanson, Sec.-Treas., R
512, 327 So. La Salle St., Chicago, Ill.
Teamsters. Thomas L. Hughes, Sec.-Treas., 2
East Michigan St., Indianapolis, Ind.
Telegraphers, Railroad. Leonard Jackson Ros
Sec.-Treas., 3673 West Pine St., St. Louis, Mo
Telegraphers, Commercial. Frank B. Powers, li
So. Ashland Blvd., Chicago, Ill.
Textile Workers.

Sara A. Conboy, Sec.-Treas Rms. 108-112 Bible House, New York, N. Y Tobacco Workers. E. Lewis Evans, Sec.-Treas Rms. 50-53, Our Home Life Insurance Bldg Louisville, Ky.

Tunnel and Subway Constructors. John J. Collin
Sec.-Treas., 246 E. 116th St., New York City.
Typographical. J. W. Hays, Sec.-Treas., Meridia
and 28th Sts., Indianapolis, Ind.
Upholsterers.

N. Y. C.

William Kohn, 230 E. 58th St

Wall Paper Crafts. Edwin Gentzler, 727 Wes King St., York, Pa.

Weavers' Amalgamated. Joseph Hurley, 19 We Ashland St., Brockton, Mass.

Weavers' Protective. Charles C. Bradley, Sec. Treas., 9122 89th St., Woodhaven, New York.

*Railway shop craft unions, which with "Bi Four" brotherhoods make up so-called "standar railroad unions."

UN AFFILIATED LABOR ORGANIZATIONS. The Railway Brotherhoods. Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, President William B. Prenter, B. of L. E. Building, Cleveland Ohio. 88,000 members.

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Engine men, President, D. B. Robertson, 901 Guardia Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 108,401 members. Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, President W. G. Lee, American Trust Building. Cleveland Ohio. 200,000 members.

Order of Railway Conductors of America, Pres dent, L. E. Sheppard, O. R. C. Building, Ceda Rapids, Iowa. 60,000 members.

Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 31 Union Square New York, N. Y President, Sidney Hillman Industrial Workers of the World. The Industrial Workers of the World (1915) with headquarters in Chicago, Ill., have a membership of about 30,000. Ch. Gen. Exec. Bd., R. E. Daly Gen. Sec.-Treas., J. Grady.

TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP OF THE WORLD. According to the annual report of the Executive | mated total membership of 600,000, of whi Council of the American Federation of Labor, dues paying membership in the unions affiliated with it during the year ending Aug. 31, 1926, was 3,303,996. This number does not represent the actual membership, in that members out of work or on strike do not as a rule pay dues, though they continue to hold membership cards.

The average membership on which dues were paid to the federation for thirty years beginning in 1897 follows:

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number some 500,000 are credited to the "B Four" Railroad Brotherhoods. This makes total membership of approximately 4,000,000,0 substantially the membership reported by the federation in 1920, when all organizations were a their peak in membership.

The statistical department of the Federation also lists the trade union membership of Mexic at 800,000; of Australia as 684,000; and of Ne Zealand as 83,000: which, with the 4,000,000 in th United States, makes a grand total of 27,558,615

The officials of the International Federation of Trade Unions submitted the membership figure and their report to the Third Ordinary Congress which was held at Vienna, Austria, in June, 1924 The figures are as of Dec. 31, 1923, and but litil change has been reported since then. 1,049,949 | Latvia.. 618,871 Luxemburg

14,803 Poland.

Year

1897.

1898.

278,016 1913.

1899.

349,422 1914.

1900.

548,321 1915.

1901.

787,537 1916.

.2,072,702

1902.

1,024,399

1917.

2,371,434

Austria..

12.65

1903.

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Belgium.

12,10

1904.

1,676,200 1919.

3,260,068

1905.

1,494,300 1920.

Bulgaria..

369,9

4,078,740

Czechoslovakia

388,294

1906.

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Denmark.

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233,116

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Spain..

211,08

France.

1908.

757,847

1,586,885 1923.

Sweden..

313,0

2,926.468

Germany

7,187,251

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Great Britain.. 4,369,268

Switzerland.

Palestine....

155.0

8.00

2.878,297

Holland.

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152.5

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3,303,966

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Hungary..

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10.00

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CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES AND ABROAD.

The co-operative movement as it exists to-day has its forerunner in the Rochdale Ploneer Society founded eighty-one years ago, in 1844. While they did not originate co-operation, they founded the Archetypal Society and inaugurated the co-operative movement in Great Britain in a form that has extended around the globe. The International Co-operative Alliance was founded in 1895. It Bow comprises co-operative organizations in some thirty countries, including Canada and the United

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Total.

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Am't, of
Bus., 1925
Dollars.

Workers' productive
societies (co-oper-
ative workshops)..b 450 1,025,509 4,533,329
Credit societies.....
107.799 10,706,099 20,100,356
Consumers' societies:]
Stove societies....
108,748 5,255,534 40,424.045
Housing societies.. 1.805 827,850 c4,102,600
Other types.
19,541 1,615,696 8,965,178
130.094 7,699,080 53,491,823
Grand total. 238,343 19,430,688 78,125.508
Working members only; does not include 2,346
stockholders not employed in co-operotive work.
cValue of property controlled in 1925.
The average membership of the credit societies
is 612 per society, and the average loan per bor-
rower is $381; the average membership of the con-
sumers' societies is 286, and business done averages
$381 per member; the average number of working
members in each co-operative workshop is 23, and

the average business per working member is
$10.074.
The Co-operative League (the Central Union of
ported that on Jan. 1, 1924, it was composed of
Co-operative Societies of the United States) re
328 affiliated societies with a total membership
of 95,400, embracing about one-tenth of the dis-
tributive societies in the United States. Its Presi-
dent, J. B. Warbusse, said:

"By far the largest number of co-operative stores continues to be among the farmers in small country towns rather than among industrial workers, the farmers continuing to promote co-operative societies with signal success."

The International Co-operative Alliance in 1925 was composed of co-operative unions and wholesales from thirty-six countries and represented an individual membership of fifty million co-operators. The International Co-operative Wholesale Committee drew up a set of rules for an international co-operative wholesale and the national wholesales of twentysix countries have subscribed to these rules. Thus there is now virtually established an International Co-operative Wholesale Society; it will not immediately undertake any production enterprises but will confine its early activities to the exchange of commodities, coffee being the first item given serious attention. The International Co-operative Barking Committee, presided over by Mr. E. Poisson, has made an intensive study of the banking situation in every country and has in preparation a set of model rules for a co-operative bank which may help to standardize the banking practices in the various countries.

CO-OPERATIVES IN GREAT BRITAIN. (Figures in parentheses are those of the preceding year.)

The Co-operative Union of the United Kingdom consisted, in 1924, of 1,445 societies (1,441 in 1923), of which 1,314 were distributive societies (1,314), ten distributive federations (9), 105 productive societies (105), four supply associations (4), eight special societies (6), and four wholesale societies (3).

The total membership of the union comprised 4,752,636 persons (4,618,819 in 1923), share and loan capital £140,770,676 (£126,903,883); sales, £281.950.901 (£258,449,666); net surplus, £21,396,596 (£17,521,001); number of employees, 207,211 (186,500); wages and salaries, £25,596,987 (£24,218,709).

Of the 4,702,868 membership of the 1,314 retall distributive societies in 1924 there were 3,995,534 in England and Wales (3,869,825 in 1923): 661,752 in Scotland (653,474); and 45,582 in Ireland (45,957). The sales of the distributive societies in 1924 were £175,077,825 (£165,490,038 in 1923); those of the ten distributive federations were £282,677 in 1924 (£186,123).

There are two classes of productive societies, one including consumers, the other mainly workers. Together, the productive societies in 1924 on a capital of £3,071,873 did a trade of £5,425,660 (£5,104,600 in 1923).

The English Wholesale Society in 1924 did a distributive trade of £72,888,064 (£66,205,566 in 1923); the Scottish Wholesale did a distributive trade of £17,312,194 (£17,261,828); the Irish Agricultural Wholesale showed a deficit of £14,460 on its distributive trade of £440,275, as compared in 1923 with a deficit of £24,011 on trade of £353,350.

Of the co-operative employees, 83,614 were engaged in 1924 in the production and 111,820 in distribution, together earning £25,524,152, compared in 1923 with 77,691 and 108,809, respectively, earning £24,218,709.

as

IN OTHER FOREIGN COUNTRIES. The following is a brief summary from the latest available reports of the co-operative activities in other foreign countries:

Australia-There are 137 distributive societies with a total membership of 110,979, according to Their sales in 1923 amounted, the census of 1922. to £6,563,598. South Australia has its regional union and New South Wales Its Co-operative Wholesale Society, which has a turnover of £500.000. During 1924-25 the Farmers' Co-operative Organization handled nearly 15,000,000 bushels of wheat.

Austria-The Union of German-Austrian Consumers' Societies had in Austria 128 retail societies In 1924 with 475,520 members. The reduction of 6,429 in membership from 1923 was due to the erasure from membership lists of non-purchasers. The total sales of the retail societies in 1924 were 93,387,402 gold crowns (71,849,961 in 1923). The Austrian Co-operative Wholesale Societies in 1924 sold goods to the value of 618,259,740,000 crowns (466,564.208.779 in 1923). The value of realty

owned by them is placed at thirty-five milliard

crowns.

Belgium-The Belgian Co-operative Union embraced eighty-nine affiliated societies in 1924, seventy-nine of which had a total turnover of 330,327,152 francs. The Federation of Co-operative Societies in 1924 had a sales turnover of 124,343,475 francs, as compared with 94,810,988 in 1923. It has a hostery factory and a creamery. Co-operative bakeries are the chief feature.

Canada-The Co-operative Union had fourteen affiliated societies in 1924 with 7.047 members, as compared with seven societies with 4,646 members in 1923, with total sales of $2,675,851 ($2,249,379 in 1923). The United Grain Growers, Ltd. (Manitoba), had 35,671 members and did a distributive business of $1,804,743.

Czechoslovakia-The Central Union of Czechoslovak Co-operative Societies had 1,299 affiliated societies in 1924, with a membership of 487,225, with a turnover of 1,041,098,271 crowns, as compared with 1,345 societies in 1923 with a membership of 522,542 with a turnover of 987,574,582 crowns. The Co-operative Wholesale Society in 1924 sold articles to the value of 543,990,220 crowns (440,592,670 crowns in 1923). It manufactures foodstuffs, underclothing, preserved meats and chicory. The Union of German Co-operative Soclettes had a membership of 269,591 in 1924 (286.004 in 1923), and a turnover of 461,600,000 crowns (490,027,409 crowns). The Co-operative Wholesale Society had a turnover of 271,542,369 crowns, as compared with 282,374,834 crowns for 1923.

Denmark-The Co-operative Wholesale Society bad 1,804 member societies with a 1924 sales turnover of 169,585,369 crowns (146,958.840 in 1923). For the four previous years the membership was steady at about 337,500. The net surplus for 1924 was the largest recorded in the society's history. During the year it produced goods valued at 46,186,675 crowns (40,555,914 crowns in 1923), comprising hosiery, clothing, bicycles, boots and shoes, spices, coffee, tobacco, rope, soap, mustard, technochemicals, and margarine. It has a seed growing

and testing estate.

Finland-The General Co-operative Union in 1924 comprised 478 societies with 185,600 members, with a turnover of 1,230,000,000 marks, as compared with 484 societies with 179,893 members and a turnover of 1,063,488,633 marks in 1923. The total savings deposits were 37,800,000 marks. The Co-operative Wholesale Society had 461 member societies in 1924 with a turnover of 630,320,183 marks, as compared with 464 societies in 1923 with a turnover of 517,308,204 marks. In the Central Union of Consumers' Societies, 110 societies were affiliated in 1924 with 185,302 members and sales amounting to 966,574,718 Finnish marks. The 112 co-operative wholesale societies belonging to the Central Union had total sales of 550,392,605 Finnish marks and a net surplus of 7,200,000 Finnish marks. The Fire Insurance Society had 422,000,000 Finnish marks outstanding.

France The National Federation of Consumers Societies is said to comprise nearly half (1,716) of the distributive co-operative organizations in that country. In 1923 1,545,000 members were reported with sales amounting to 1,350,000,000 francs. The co-operatives make boots and shoes, canned goods, chocolate, coffee, clothing and perfume. They have a bank with 48,000 accounts. Sales of the French Co-operative Wholesale Society (1,581 affiliated) in 1924 amounted to 354,000,000 francs as compared with 270,000,000 in 1923.

Germany-The Central Union of Consumers' Societies in 1924 was composed of 1,163 societies, with a membership of 3,505,180, and with a sales turnover of 380,673,618 gold marks, as compared with 1,275 societies with a membership of 3,447,286 In 1923, with a turnover of 244,223,970 gold marks. Employees numbered 37,825. The German Cooperative Wholesale Society reduced the number of affiliated societies in 1924 from 1,049 to 821, but produced goods (foodstuffs, cigars and tobacco, textiles and clothing, soap, matches, brushes, furniture, boxes, malt-coffee and weaving) with a sales turnover of 168,466,278 gold marks, as compared with 71,321,741 in 1923.

Holland-The Central Union of Distributive Co-operative Societies had 132 affiliated societies with a membership of 117,702 in 1924 (135 societies and 126,725 members in 1923). The Co-operative Wholesale Society embraced at the close of 1924, 345 societies with a membership of 151,808 and had sales valued at 11,304,306 gulden as compared with 11,188,576 gulden in 1923.

Hungary-The Farmers' Co-operative Wholesale Society (the Hangya) has 900,000 members in 1.962 branches with a 1923 sales turnover of 135,000,000,000 crowns, as compared with 900,000 members in 1,945 branches and a sales turnover

of 3,000,000,000 crowns in 1921. The Hangya makes soap, chemicals, ropes and twine, matches. brushes, cutlery and liqueurs.

India, British-There are nearly 60,000 (54,600 being agricultural) co-operative Institutions with a membership of about 2,000,000, as compared with 42,000 societies with 1,400,000 members for the previous year.

Italy-The National League of Co-operative Societies, established for forty years, was dissolved by the Fascist authorities in November, 1925. In 1921 it was composed of 3,000 distributive, 2.700 labor and productive, 700 agricultural and 1,000 miscellaneous co-operative societies, with abou 2,000,000 members.

Japan-In 1924 there were 14,444 co-operative societies with 3,341,008 members, of which about 40,000 belong to consumers' co-operatives. Total deposits were 490,000,000 yen; total advances to members, 440,000,000 yen.

Jugo-Slavia-The General Federation of Со operative Unions comprises about 4,130 credit. agricultural and handicraft societies.

Latvia, Lithuania and Esthonia (the Baltk States)-In Esthonia the Co-operative Wholesale Society comprises 268 societies with 78,547 mem bers, with total sales of societies valued at 2,423.144,000 marks; in Latvia, 382 societies with 80,000 members, with a wholesale turnover of 24,951,631 lats; Lithuania, in 1923, had 255 societies with 59,358 members, and a total turnover of the societies of 13,323,476. The union has a pig slaughtery and a manufactory of meat products.

New Zealand-The Co-operative Union and Wholesale of New Zealand was obliged to cease operations owing to inadequate support.

Norway-The Co-operative Wholesale Society has over 100,000 in 432 societies, in which in 1924 the total sales amounted to 134,327,400 kroner, as compared with 96,401 members in 416 societies, with sales of 108,981,300 kroner in 1923. Produc tion included tobacco, soap, coffee, roasteries and margarine.

Portugal-The National Federation of Co operative Societies comprises about 200 societies with about 95,000 members.

Russia-The first Russian Co-operative Society was established in 1865. The movement moved slowly, as it was regarded with suspicion by the Government, only 186 being approved up to 1891 In that year, faced with famine, the poorer classes to improve their intolerable condition, turned in great numbers toward the co-operatives. This added strength and pressure resulted in more liberality in the government's attitude, 517 societies being approved by 1900 and legislation passed to facilitate organization. The All-Russian Central Union of Consumers' Societies (Centrosoyuz") was formed in 1898. Smooth and steady progress followed. In June, 1926, total membership in co-operatives in the U. 8. S. R. was about 25,000,000. On Jan. 1 1926, the system of consumers co-operatives (Centro soyuz) embraced 26,479 societies with 53,466 stores and 10.163,109 members. The turnover for 1924 25 (fiscal year ending Sept. 30) was $2,008,500,000 and for 1925-26, from estimates of ten months, promised to be well over three billion dollars. A the beginning of 1926 the agricultural co-operatives (Selskosoyus) included 31,000 in the federal system and about 20,000 independent co-operatives of local or specialized scope. The membership included 6,500,000 peasant farms, or 28 per cent. of all the peasant farms in the Soviet Union. The annual turnover was estimated at upwards of $600,000,000 for 1925-26. The industrial or home-craft co operatives at the beginning of 1926 included 12,000 artels and societies with a membership of 500,000 In addition to the above there are housing, building and renting co-operatives which numbered 25,000 with a membership of 12,000,000 in 1925. During 1925 co-operative organizations accounted for 10.1 per cent of the foreign trade of the U. S. S. R.

Sweden-The Co-operative Union had, in 1924. 876 societies with 292,474 members and sales amounting to 234,052,103 kroner, in addition to which there are two mutual fire and life insurance societies with a collective membership of 251,665, as compared in 1923 with 886 societies with 274, 269 members and total sales of 208,528,868 kroner. It has a bank, a margine factory and a

corn mill.

Switzerland-The Union of Consumers' So cieties in 1924 had 519 affiliated societies with 352,399 members and total sales of 272.785,915 francs, as compared with 516 societies in 1923 with a membership of 357,208, with total sales of 264. 310,086 rancs. It makes boots and shoes, prints binds books, roasts coffee, grinds spices, grinds corn, refines fat, makes yeast, makes sauerkraut and charcoal, furniture and barrels; has a dairy a "garden village" and an insurance company.

The Tariff Act of 1922.

The Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act was signed by President Harding Sept. 21, 1922, and it went to effect at 12.01 A. M., Sept. 22.

The bill passed the House (210 to 90) on Sept. 14, and was adopted by the Senate (43 to 28) on Bot. 19.

Customs receipts for the fiscal year 1922-23

were $561,928,867; for the fiscal year 1923-24 they were $545,637,504; for the year ended June 30, 1925, they were $547,561,226; and for the year ended June 30, 1926, they were $579,430,000.

The Underwood-Simmons law yielded in 1921-22 $308,025,125.17. The Payne-Aldrich law brought $318,891,395.86 into the Treasury in 1913, the last year of its operation.

FLEXIBLE TARIFF PROVISIONS.

The power of the President to alter rates of duty as provided for under Title III. Section 315 vides that:

a) Whenever the President, upon investigation of the differences in costs of production of articles the growth or product of the United States, and of like or similar articles the growth or product of competing foreign countries, finds it thereby own that the duties fixed in the act do not equalize ach differences, he shall ascertain the differences and determine and proclaim a rate of duty which will equalize the same.

Sach changed rate or rates of duty become effective thirty days after the date of the President's proclamation.

The right to change any rate of duty is restricted to total increase or decrease of 50 per centum the rate specified in the act. These rates of buty are to be based upon foreign valuation.

b) Whenever the president upon investigation fods it thereby shown that the cost differences anot be equalized by proceeding under subvision (a) he is empowered to proclaim a change to the American selling price as the basis of the ad valorem duty fixed in the act.

When action is taken by the President to base My rate of duty upon the American selling price 30 such rate shall be decreased more than 50 per ent, nor shall any such rate be increased.

Such rate or rates of duty become effective fifteen ays after the proclamation of the President.

e) In ascertaining the differences in costs of production under subdivisions (a) and (b) the President, in so far as he finds it practicable, shall ke into consideration:

(1) The differences in conditions in production, hduding wages, costs of material, and other items costs of production of such or similar articles the United States and in competing foreign 2)The differences in the wholesale selling prices If domestic and foreign articles in the principal markets of the United States.

untries.

3) Advantages granted to a foreign producer by foreign Government, or by a person, partnership, mrporation, or association in a foreign country. (4) Any other advantages or disadvantages in mpetition. Investigations to assist the President under this tion are required to be made by the United States Tariff Commission, and no proclamation tall be issued until such investigation shall have been made.

President shall increase the duties upon the article or articles in question by not less than 10 per centum ad valorem or more than 50 per centum ad valorem; or the articles may be excluded from entry into the United States. The President's decision is conclusive, but he can modify it thereafter as the facts may warrant.

RETALIATORY PROVISIONS.

Section 317 provides that when any foreign country discriminates against articles wholly or in part the product or products of this country, by imposing, directly or indirectly, by any unreasonable charge, fee, duty, exaction, regulation or limitation, or other method of discrimination and the commerce in them, and the President finds in fact that said foreign country has done and continues so to do, and that the American public interest will be served thereby, he shall by proclamation declare such new and additional rates of duty as will offset the burdens placed upon our commerce, not exceeding 50 per centum ad valorem on the commodities from the offending country or countries named in his proclamation; or he may by proclamation exclude the articles named. The provisions of a proclamation become effective thirty days after its date. It is the duty of the Tariff Commission to continually make investigation concerning the welfare of our commerce abroad and to bring to the attention of the President any discrimination.

In order to give prompt effect to the flexible tariff and retallatory provisions of the act. the Tariff Commission, under Section 318, is among other things directed to obtain and compile and have ready for prompt use the conversion costs, costs of production, import costs, growers', manufacturers' or producers' selling prices at home and in the manufacturing, producing and growing centres of foreign countries which export to the United States competitive articles.

TWELVE-MILE LIMIT.

The act continues the zone of search and seizure at sea at twelve miles. The chief application of this provision, now, is in prohibition enforcement.

The more important rates in the tariff law are given below, with the corresponding rates in the Payne-Aldrich (Republican) tariff law of 1911. and in the Underwood (Democratic) law of 1914:

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS.

Cattle, from 1% to 2 cents a pound; PayneAldrich, from $2 a head to 27% ad valorem; Underwood, free.

Sheep and goats, $2 a head; Payne-Aldrich, from 75 cents to $1.50; Underwood, free. Fresh lamb, 4 cents a pound: Payne-Aldrich, 1: Underwood, free.

PUBLIC HEARINGS REQUIRED The commission is required to give reasonable Fable notice of its hearings and to give reasonable pportunity to parties interested to be present, to produce evidence, and to be heard. The commis- Hogs, cent a pound; Payne-Aldrich, $1.50 a na is authorized to adopt such reasonable pro-head: Underwood, free. redure, rules, and regulations as it may deem necesary

Whenever the President determines that the ferences in costs of production which led to a proclamation have changed or no longer exist, he empowered to modify or terminate the same. The President cannot transfer a dutiable article to the free list, or an article on the free list to the dutiable list, or substitute an ad valorem rate for A specific rate, or a specific rate for an ad valorem ate. Nor can he increase a rate beyond the maxitum ad valorem rate as provided in the Tariff of 1922.

Section 316 makes unlawful unfair methods of competition and unfair acts of importation which Aare the effect or tendency to injure or destroy an industry in the United States efficiently and economically operated, or to prevent the establishment of such industry. The Tariff Commission is Authorized to investigate and report upon such methods and acts, and its findings are to be conlusive If supported by evidence; the offending artles may be given a rehearing by the commission; appeal may be taken to the United States Court of Customs Appeals and its decision shall be final, 1cept that the subject may be reviewed by the 'nited States Supreme Court. In such cases the

Bacon and hams, 2 cents a pound: PaynoAldrich, 4 cents a pound: Underwood, free.

Lard, 1 cent a pound; Payne-Aldrich, 11⁄2 cents: Underwood, free; fard compounds and substitutes, 4 cents a pound; Payne-Aldrich (no provision); Underwood, free.

Milk, fresh, 24 cents a gallon: Payne-Aldrich, 2 cents; Underwood, free; buttermilk, 1 cent a gallon; Payne-Aldrick and Underwood (no corresponding provision); cream, 20 cents a gallon; Payne-Aldrich, 5 cents; Underwood, free.

Milk, condensed or evaporated, unsweetened. 1 cent a pound; sweetened, 11⁄2 cents a pound; PayneAldrich, 2 cents in each case; Underwood, free.

Butter and oleomargarine, and other butter substitutes, 8 cents a pound; increased to 12 cents per pound by proclamation of President under Section 315 of Tariff Act of 1922, effective April 5, 1926 (TD41388); Payne-Aldrich, 6 cents; Underwood, 21⁄2 cents.

Cheese and substitutes, 5 cents a pound, but not less than 25% ad valorem; Payne-Aldrich, 6 cents; Underwood, 20%.

Poultry, live, 3 cents a pound; Payne-Aldrich, 3 cents: Underwood, 1 cent; poultry, dead, 6 cents a pound; Payne-Aldrich, 5 cents; Underwood, 2 cents.

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