« 上一頁繼續 »
WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY AND
Wireless telegraphy may be said to trace its descent directly from the theoretical work of J. C. Maxwell, who in 1865, as a result of his researches in mathematical physics, was led to make the prediction that visible light consists of electric waves in the ether. For years the importance of Maxwell's prediction was unrecognized because it lay undissoclated from the complicated mathematical reasoning by which he had arrived at it. It was not until 1887 that interest was really aroused in the subject when Heinrich Hertz gave an experimental proof of the truth of Maxwell's prediction. Hertz showed that the ether of space would transmit electric waves, and he showed how these waves might be produced and detected.
In 1890 the remarkable fact was noted by Branly that metal filings when loosely packed in a small glass tube normally formed a very poor conductor of electricity but that they became a good conductor under the influence of a nearby electric spark, the action of the spark apparently being to weld the metal grains lightly together. Branly's device received the name conerer and it was found to be a much more sensitive means of detecting electrie waves than the device which Hertz had used.
Between the years 1894 and 1896 Marconi initiated his experiments which were destined to become famous, first devoting himself to improvements in the conerer. He adopted an idea originating with Popoff of using an electro-magnetic buzzer to decohere the coherer between signals, and also found that the coherer when placed between an earth connection and a wire running to a large metal screen supported in the air became a very sensitive detector of electric waves. At about the same time Marconi modified the original oscillator of Hertz by connecting one terminal of the spark gap to the earth and the other to a large aerial conductor. By this means, which constitutes the first use of what is now known as antenna, he was able to greatly increase the efficiency and amount of energy radiated from the oscillator.
verse magnetic electric field between the electroc
Another form of continuous wave generat which has received much attention is the h frequency alternator. The names best known this field are those of Goldschmidt and Alexande con. In recent years the Alexanderson type alternator has been the object of important devel ments by the General Electric Company and being used extensively by the Radio Corporati of America in its large telegraph stations.
Briefly, the importance of continuous wave rad telegraph lies in the fact that it makes poss the use of larger amounts of power than the spr and it permits the generation of narrower ban of waves, thus tending to reduce interference b tween simultaneous messages. It also led to t introduction of heterodyne reception, by Fessend about 1905.
THE VACUUM TUBE.
Within the past few years the vacuum tube thermionic amplifier has become one of the mo Important types of generator for continuous wave It was introduced in 1906 by De Forest as a d tector and amplifier of electric waves and althous it proved under favorable conditions, to be tremely sensitive in these capacities it was n entirely reliable. The vacuum tube or "audion Marconi tried out his developments in the field as made by De Forest, contained an appreciab of space telegraphy in England in 1896 and by amount of residual gas within the evacuated bu 1898 had succeeded in telegraphing a distance of which proved to be largely responsible for its u 141⁄2 miles. During the same year his apparatus certain behavior. Because it gave promise of co was applied to a lightship and communication taining the germ of a sensitive electric amplifi successfully established over a short stretch of the Bell Telephone System became interest water. By 1901 he had telegraphed from Corn-in developing it, beginning 1912, as a means wall to the Isle of Wight, a distance of 200 miles. attaining transcontinental telephony. The tel At about this time he developed an oscillation trans- phone engineers undertook a thorough study former by means of which the coherer was induc-its electrical characteristics and applied means f tively coupled to the receiving antenna. thoroughly exhausting the gas. The resulting tub acted so satisfactorily as telephone repeaters thr the development of much larger power tubes w immediately undertaken with the object of appl ing them to radio telephony.
In the use of inductive coupling, Marconi was anticipated by Sir Oliver Lodge, who devised a wireless telegraph system in which such coupling was used and in which the natural period of the antenna circuit was made equal to the period of the oscillating circuit. Lodge's antenna was not earth connected like Marconi's but consisted of an upper and lower conducting surface, an arrangement which is coming into quite general use in recent years and is known as an antenna with counterpoise. Patents on inductive coupling and tuning were also taken out by Marconi, Arco and Slaby, Braun, Stone, and others. By the use of an auxiliary oscillating circuit, the capacity of which could be made much larger than the capacity of the antenna, means were provided for greatly increasing the amount of energy radiated as well as sharpening the frequency of radiation. In 1900 both Arco and Slaby and Marconi showed that two messages could be simultaneously received on different wave lengths by one antenna.
The next important development in spark sets came in 1908 with the invention by Wien of the quenched spark. The use of the quenched spark narrowed materially the band of wave lengths radiated from a transmitting station and made sharper tuning possible.
In 1902 Castelli, an officer in the Italian Navy. invented the first self-restoring coherer. This permitted the use of the ordinary telephone receiver as a receiving instrument and thereby very greatly improved the sensitiveness of the receiving set. Shortly afterward the magnetic and electrolytic detectors were developed, but while they were self-restoring they were never generally used because the crustal detectors, introduced in 1906 as a result of the work of Dunwoody and Picard in America, proved far more satisfactory in practically every respect.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARC. In 1903, Poulson, of Denmark, developed a form of are which was characterized by a hydrogen atmosphere surrounding the electrodes and a trans
These developments produced vacuum tubi which were used successfully as continuous way generators and speech modulators and led, in th year 1915, to a successful trial of transoceani radio-telephony. The development of a vacuu tube in very large sizes is still in its infancy, but i already taking its place beside the arc and alter nator for the handling of very large amounts e energy, both for radio telegraphy and telephony. The use of the vacuum tube detector and am plifier for receiving purposes, by making possibl the detection of very faint signals, is at presen giving rise to extensive use of the loop antenns for directive reception, and this in turn is leading to the erection of many radio compass stations and radio beacons for the supplying of ships' bearings to navigators at sea.
The vacuum tube has also been generally re sponsible for the rapid development during th past few years of radio-telephony for ship-to-shore communication, for military purposes especially for guiding aircraft-and for radio broadcasting.
In the last few years increased attention has beet devoted to antenna design, and two types of note worthy merit, one for transmitting purposes and one for receiving, have been developed. These are com monly known as the multiple tuned antenna and the wave antenna, respectively.
The multiple tuned antenna provides several parallel paths to ground, thereby lowering the re sistance offered to the ground currents and raising the radiating efficiency. The increase in efficiency under favorable conditions may be several times.
The wave antenna now coming into use for receiv ing purposes partakes of the nature of a telephone of telegraph transmission line. The length usually runs between one and two wave lengths of the signals being received.
The antenna is terminated to ground at the end nearest the transmitting station by a characteristi
impedance, and is terminated at the other end by the receiving set whose input impedance is made Identical with the characteristic impedance of the antenna. The advantage of a wave antenna lies in its directive property, being highly selective for signals coming head on. It therefore tends to increase the signal-to-interference and signal-to-static ratios..
Among the fundamentals of radio involved in patents during the last thirty years, the following are the most Important:
1. Inductive coupling of circuits and tuning theory. (Sir Oliver Lodge.)
2. Elevated antenna (Marconi).
3. Crystal detector.
4. Electrolytic detector.
5. Two-electrode valve detector (Fleming).
6. Electric arc for production of continuous waves (Poulson).
7. Three-electrode vacuum tube (De Forest). 8. High frequency alternator for production of continuous waves (Alexanderson).
9. Heterodyne receiver (Fessenden). 10. Vacuum tube oscillator.
11. The regenerative circuit.
12. Methods of modulation for radio transmission.
13. Single side-band suppressed carrier systems. 14. Electric wave filters (Campbell).
15. The wave antenna.
16. High power water-cooled vacuum tubes.
The outstanding popular development in radio is the broadcasting of music and other entertainment from radio telephone stations. Broadcasting is a most natural use for radio in that radio waves spread out in all directions. Stations have been installed in most of the larger cities in the country and are transmitting programs of music, speeches, etc.
In 1922 the wire lines were first used as an adjunct to broadcasting, thereby adding events to broadcasting programs which took place many miles from the station. This marked a distinct advance in the broadcasting field in that it took the studio to the artist, the speaker and the event, thereby greatly enlarging the field of material to be broadcast. The Chicago-Princeton football game held in Chicago, Ill., and connected by telephone lines to a New York broadcasting station, was the first event of major interest utilizing this development.
Illustrations of this type are the broadcasting of a wide variety of musical and sporting events and addresses by prominent speakers. The extended networks of long distance telephone lines have been employed for the transmission of programs, and the large number of radio stations to which these programs have been transmitted simultaneously has ushered in what is known as nation-wide broadcasting.
As an outstanding broadcast of this sort, reference may be made to the recent address of Vice President Dawes at the Radio Industries banquet held in New York Sept. 15, 1926. On this occasion thirty-eight stations covering the entire United States and representing the largest number ever broadcasting a single event, were interconnected in two telephone line networks involving 6,000 miles. WEAF in New York almost nightly broadcasts entertainment over a chain of sixteen stations to a potential audience of about 15,000,000 people. this audience the average number of listeners per receiving set is estimated to be about five. Sixtytwo per cent. of the radio set owners own their own homes, pleasure cars are owned by 46 per cent., planos by 50 per cent., phonographs by 74 per cent. and more than 81 per cent. have electricity in the home. Seventy per cent. of the people listening live in cities and 30 per cent. on farms.
Public interest in broadcasting is attracting much attention to the subject of radio receiving sets. One of the most meritorious designs from many points of view is the super-heterodyne or double-detection
In spite of the fact that great attention is now being given to receiving sets, and great numbers of the radio audience are interested in reception over 38 great distances as possible, there are good signs that this is a passing phase in the progress of broadcasting.
As programs steadily improve in quality a demand will naturally arise for increased accuracy of reception, along with decreased interference from other radio signals and static. This demand will probably result in the use of broadcasting stations of greater power, and receiving sets designed not for sensitivity but for high selectivity and high quality of reproduction.
The broadcasting stations in the United States, which daily and nightly send out music, lectures, news and other entertainment, on Sept. 1, 1926, numbered 571; of which Illinois had 56; New York, 45; California, 44; Pennsylvania, 37; Texas, 28; Ohio, 24; Missouri, 23; Massachusetts, 17. There are about 350 broadcasting stations now operating in other parts of the world. During last year the Government classification of broadcasting stations as A, B or C was practically discontinued. A great majority of broadcasting transmitters are now over 500 watts and practically no phonograph music is sent out.
There are probably between 12 and 15 million radio sets in operation throughout the world, according to a survey made at the Electrical Equipment Division of the Department of Commerce. these, the United States has nearly half or over 5,500,000 sets, costing an average of $60 each without tubes and batteries, representing a total investment of approximately $330,000,000. It is estimated that the radio industry in all its branches will do $500,000,000 worth of business in 1926.
In the number of sets per 100 population, the United States leads with 4.8, followed in order by the United Kingdom with 3.6, Sweden with 3.0 and Union of South Africa, 2.7.
Data collected at the biennial census of manufacturers, 1925, showed that the value of radio apparatus manufactured during the year was $170,390,572, an increase of 215.5 per cent., as compared with $54,000,470 in 1923. The number of tubetype receiving sets manufactured increased from 190,374 in 1923 to 2,180,622 in 1925, valued at $88,800,538, and the number of radio tubes increased from 4,687,400 to 23,934,658, valued at $20,437,285, the rates of increase being 1,045.4 per cent. and 410.6 per cent., respectively; crystal type sets fell from 223,303, valued at $669,906 in 1923, to 112,656 in 1925, worth $344,079 in 1925; loud speakers increased from 623,146 in 1923 to 2,606,866 in 1925, an increase of 318.3 per cent.. valued at $19,162,591; head sets decreased from 1,781,793 to 1,397,443, a decrease to 21.3 per cent., valued at $2,264,527; transmitting sets from 1,082 to 1,076, a decrease of 0.6 per cent.; and radio tubes increased from 4,687,400 to 23,934,658, an increase of 410.6 per cent., valued at $20,437.285.
Exports of radio equipment to foreign countries during the last five years, as announced by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce at Washington, have been valued at $1,000,000, $3,000,000, $3,500,000, $6,000,000 and $10,000,000.
OTHER RECENT DEVELOPMENTS. During 1921-24 announcements were made of notable developments in facilities for extending the wire telephone service of a land system to ships at sea by means of radio. This permits of two-way conversation exactly as carried on in ordinary telephone practice.
On January 15, 1923, an important demonstration of trans-Atlantic radio telephony was given when officials of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company talked to an assemblage of sixty people located in London. The radio apparatus and system used during this test was made possible by co-operation between the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and the Radio Corporation of America.
Messages were continued without interruption for about two hours. The necessary high power for this work was made available economically by the development of a vacuum tube in which the plate element of anode can be cooled by direct contact with circulating water. These new tubes are capable of generating from twenty to 200 times as much power as hitherto possible.
A method of single side band transmission was employed whereby greatly increased efficiency is secured and also more speech channels become available in any given wave length band.
The British General Post Office completed the erection of a radio telephone transmitting station early in 1926 and tests in two-way conversation were begun. On March 7, 1926, New York and London conversed with one another by telephone over the intervening 3,000 miles of sea, which presents an impressive contrast to the conversation held between Alexander Graham Bell and his associate, Thomas A. Watson, over two miles of wire in Boston on March 10, 1876. During the test of last March, representatives of the press in New York talked to fellows news gatherers in London with ease and highly satisfactory clearness of reception.
Experiments on short waves, reported in 1925, have continued. Most surprising results have been achieved in long distance communication. Through surveys made by the United States Navy and others, extending over wide areas of land and sea, some quantitative ideas of short wave phenomena have
been made. Wave lengths as short as 20 metres have been used. One of the most surprising phenomena is that of the "skip effect." Instead of the signal strength decreasing with distance, as is usually the case, signals at long distances are found to be strong, while at intermediate distances, signals are faint or even inaudible. The "skipped" areas vary with the frequencies used and geographical regions involved. Though the transmission varies greatly with the time of day because of changes in atmospheric conditions, it is still too early to determine to what extent the skip phenomena will limit the practical application of short waves.
WIRELESS AND RADIO CHRONOLOGY. Following are a few of the more important dates relating to the application of the radio-telegraph and telephone to commercial and other uses, notably
military and broadcasting:
1901-Marconi first succeeded in telegraphing certain signals across the Atlantic and in 1903 a complete message was sent.
1904-A regular telegraph service to handle press news and private messages was begun from Poldhu and Cape Breton to Atlantic liners. This led to the publication of small daily newspapers on board many of the trans-Atlantic steamships.
1906 The use of radio-telegraphy by steamships had so demonstrated its value as a means of increasing the safety of travel at sea that an International Radio Convention was called in Berlin to consider the desirability of establishing certain uniform international practices. The articles of this convention, which dealt largely with the International use of the radio telegraph, particularly as concerned its use by ships at sea, were subscribed to by practically all nations. 1907--Press despatches were being handled by radio-telegraphy across the Atlantic.
1909-Collision between the steamships Republic and Florida occurred, and by summoning aid the radio-telegraph was instrumental in saving the lives of all on board. The first wireless shipping report was published at Lloyd's in 1910.
1912-The second international Radio-Telegraph Convention was signed at London; like the first one signed at Berlin it had to do especially with safety at sea.
1915-Experimental transoceanic telephony was first achieved, speech being transmitted by the Bell Telephone System engineers from Washington, D. C., to Paris and to Honolulu, the latter distance being nearly 5,000 miles. During the demonstration a telephone message was sent by wire from New York to Washington and then radiated from Washington to San Francisco, thus establishing the radio-telephone as a supplement to the wire system.
1914-19-During the World War the value of the radio-telegraph and telephone for many milltary and naval purposes was thoroughly established. The wireless telephone proved particularly useful as a means of directing aircraft.
1920-Following the close of the war, the development of the radio art in the United States was in danger of being seriously retarded because of the diversified ownership of essential patents. At the suggestion of the United States Government, the leading holders of these patents, namely, the American Telephone & Telegraph Company, the General Electric Company, the Radio Corporation of America and the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, entered into a crosslicensing agreement permitting each company to avail itself of the patents of the others in its particular fields.
1923-New York talked to London for a period of two hours at a pre-arranged time and with a uniformity not previously accomplished.
1926 Newspaper men in London and New York engaged in conversation on a simultaneous two-way basis for a period of four hours. Photoradiogram service was established between New York and London, San Francisco and Honolulu.
By far the outstanding accomplishment of the Fourth National Radio Conference held in Washington in November, 1925, was the recognition that the public interest and the public service should be the dominant consideration.
The year 1926 saw a breakdown in the regulation of radio by the Department of Commerce. Pertinent to this matter, the report of the Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce reads:
"The present law of 1912 was passed by Congress for the purpose of regulating wireless telegraphy. Broadcasting was not only unknown then but not even contemplated. When broadcasting developed to the point where broadcasters asked for licenses
the Secretary of Commerce issued such licenses under the terms of the existing law. This permitted the development of the art of radio broadcasting in such. a manner as not to interfere with the continued use of commercial telegraphy.
From the beginning of radio broadcasting the Secretary of Commerce has urged Congress to pass affirmative legislation on the subject. A decision by the Federal District Court of the Northern D'strict of Illinois, Eastern Division, United States of America v. Zenith Radio Corporation et al.. dated April 14, 1926, dismissing the criminal charge brought by the Secretary of Commerce against the Zenith Radio Corporation for using a wave length other than the one assigned it by the Secretary in the license that had been issued to the company, makes the need of affirmative legislation on the subject imperative at the earliest possible date."
It is to the credit of this new industry that very few of the radio broadcasting stations have changed their wave lengths without sanction by the Department of Commerce and, in the absence of regulatory legislation, are making honest efforts to live ar peace with their neighbors. Such action on the part of broadcasting stations is undoubtedly in the best interests of the radio audience.
The broadcasting at present carried on in the United States is estimated to cost the owners of broadcasting stations in the neighborhood of $7,000,000 a year. A direct return on the service given by stations owned by manufacturers of radio apparatus is received in the form of increased sales of radio apparatus. Practically the only return received by newspapers, department stores, and other owners of broadcasting stations, outside the radio industry. is of an advertising character. Some stations (notably WEAF) have secured some revenue from the sale of program time for advertising purposes. A recent event of interest in this connection was the sale of the New York station, WEAF, to the Radio Corporation of America. This station and its business becomes a subsidiary of that company known as "The National Broadcasting Company."
The Radio Corporation of America in the conduct of its international radio-telegraph business operates transoceanic high-power transmitting stations at Rocky Point, L. I.; New Brunswick, N, J.; Tuckerton, N. J.; Marion, Mass.; Bolinas, Cal.; Kahuku, T. H., and Manila, P. I.; Receiving stations are located at Riverhead, L. I.; Belfast, Me.; Chatham, Mass.: Marshall, Cal.; Koko Head, T. H., and Manila, P. I. These stations maintain continuous direct communication with Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Poland, the Argentine and Brazil across the Atlantic and with Hawall, Japan, the Philippine Islands, the Dutch East Indies and French Indo China across the Pacific. This extensive network makes the United States the centre of international radio-telegraph communication and handles a considerable portion of the total number of messages to and from the United States. These comprise the only high-power radic stations in the United States except those operated by the Government.
Marine transmitting stations for communicating with ships on the Atlantic are located at Chatham, Mass.; Tuckerton, N. J., and New York, N. Y.. and at San Francisco and Los Angeles for ships in the Pacific. Stations are also operated at Galveston. Tex., for boats in the Gulf of Mexico, and at Chicago for those in the Great Lakes trade. Pacific steamers in the vicinity of the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands are reached by stations located at Honolulu and Manila respectively.
Photoradiogram service is in operation between New York and London and between San Francisco and Honolulu. News pictures, portraits, fashion sketches and documents of all kinds are transmitted in fac-simile form over these circuits.
The United States Lighthouse Service now has twenty-eight radio fog-signal stations in operation, with twelve lightships equipped, and is proceeding with the establishment of other stations. This aid to navigation has met with great favor with mariners. as evidenced by the demand for additional installstions, and the equipment of vessels with radio compasses. The United States was the first to estabfish successful radio fog signals and now has more stations in operation than all the countries of Europe combined. Canada has also made important progress in the establishment of radio aids to navigation.
RADIO BROADCASTING ABROAD. The latest statistics show that the United Kingdom follows America in radio development with 35.6 sets per thousand of her population. Sweden has 30.3 sets per thousand population and is followed by the Union of South Africa, Denmark, Austria, Germany and France.
In the early stages of the radio's development in Great Britain the transmission of messages through the ether was declared by the British Parliament to be a matter of communication falling under the jurisdiction of the British Post Office. All de velopment of broadcasting has been under the observation of the postal authorities and subject to their control. The British Government permitted the formation of a private corporation, the British Broadcasting Company, to which was granted the exclusive right to operate broadcasting stations in the British Isles under Government supervision. For the support of this corporation fees are collected upon the sale of every piece of radio apparatus and for every outside aerial. These fees bring in large sums annually, which are expended in providing programs. The corporation maintains a large symphony orchestra and various salaried artists. No commercial propaganda or advertising is broadcast in Great Britain.
With the advent of 1927 and the expiration of the license agreement granting this right to the British Broadcasting Company, there is a great deal of speculation as to the outcome of events. The British Broadcasting Commission, appointed to investigate the situation, has submitted its recommendation
that the Government assume direct control of
radio broadcasting. Their motive is being actively sponsored by others and it is to be anticipated that in 1927 the control of radio will pass from private to public ownership.
Enthusiasm for radio broadcasting among foreign peoples is growing very rapidly. The countries of Europe are among the most conspicuous and everywhere adequate provision and legislation are being injected to further its success abroad. Each country in the entire Continent maintains a broadcasting station. A license fee imposed by the Government for the right to operate a receiving set does not seem to meet with any serious objections and in some countries subscription rates are charged by the broadcasters. Regular program schedules have become as common as in America among the larger broadcasting stations.
In South America, Argentina still leads in the progress of broadcasting. Chile, Peru and Brazil have installed several high-power stations and the enthusiasm for radio is beginning to take more formulative proportions. The situation in Cuba and Mexico has grown rapidly mostly due to Amerlcan contact, and this lends an encouraging influence for radio development in Central America.
Australia and New Zealand are actively engaged in radio broadcasting. China and Japan have erected a few high-power stations with all purposes of entering the radio field. India and Ceylon are perhaps the least interested and have shown very little progress in broadcasting development though there are stations operating irregularly.
COURSE OF CABLE QUOTATIONS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE FOR 1926. Month, Britain France Belgium Holland Denmark Sweden Norway Italy Poland 1926. |(£ Sterl'g) (Francs). (Francs). (Guilders) (Kroner). (Kroner). (Kroner).
Y'rly Av 1925.. $0.1434 $0.2380 $0.1406 $0.0297 $0.9996 $0.4104 $0.9138 $0.1220 $0.1160 *On Oct. 26, 1926, Belgian Government adopted the "belga" (=5 francs) as unit of currency.
METHODIST BOARD OF TEMPERANCE, PROHIBITION, ETC.
The Board of Managers is made up of: Active
Md.: Dr. Arthur C. Christle, Washington, D. C.;
Big Problems of 1926-1927.
ENFORCEMENT OF THE NATIONAL PROHIBITION ACT.
The Eighteenth (Prohibition) Amendment to the Constitution was submitted to the States by Congress
on Dec. 18, 1917. The first State (Mississippi) ratified it on Jan. 8, 1918, and on Jan. 16, 1919,
the thirty-sixth State (Nebraska) ratified it, whereupon, by proclamation of the Secretary of State, Jan. 29. 1919. it became effective one year from that date. Jan. 16, 1920. By Feb. 25, 1919, the Legislatures of forty-five States had ratified it; the forty-sixth State, New Jersey, ratified in on March 9, 1922. It was not ratified by Connecticut and Rhode Island. In nearly all the ratifying States the vote was decisive and in the majority overwhelming. New York, Maryland and Nevada
have no State enforcement acts.
The Wartime Prohibition Law, designed as a measure to conserve grain during the war, was enacted in November, 1918, and became effective June 30, 1919.
The Volstead act (the National Prohibition Act) was drawn up to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment when it came into effect, Jan. 17, 1920, and was passed by Congress early in October, 1919. It was vetoed by President Wilson, and was immediately passed over his veto on Oct. 28-the vote in the House being 176 to 55, and in the Senate 65 to 20. The Willis-Campbell act strengthening the Prohibition act became a law on Nov. 23, 1921.
On the date the Eighteenth Amendment was de clared ratified there were six States that were "bone dry" by popular vote. These were Washington, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, Utah and Arizona, with 4.2 per cent. of the total population of the United States. There were six States "bone dry" by legislative act-Idaho, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Georgia and Florida-with 7.6 per cent. of the total population. There were eighteen States with State-wide restrictions but affording some method for residents to obtain alcoholic beverages lawfully. There were Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia, with 32.5 per cent. of the total population. The remaining eighteen StatesVermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, Louisiana, Wyoming and California-with 55.7 per cent. of the total population were "wet," that is, without any State-wide "dry" law. All the States which had "bone dry" laws had acquired them after the World War began in 1914.
SUMMARY OF THE VOLSTEAD ACT.
The word "liquor" as used in the law includes alcohol, brandy, whiskey, rum, gin, beer, ale, porter. and wine, or other beverages containing one half of one per cent. or more of alcohol. All persons are forbidden to manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except under the provisions of the act. The law permits under regulation denatured alcohol and denatured rum: medicinal preparations made according to regular formulas, patent medicines, toilet articles, antiseptic preparations, flavoring extracts and syrups, provided these are unfit for beverage uses; vinegar and sweet cider. In the manufacture of cereal beverages, the production of high-proof beer is permitted as a part of the process but it must be de-alcoholized before offered for sale. Liquor for non-beverage purposes and sacramental wine may be manufactured. &c., under certain regulations. Manufacturers of exempt articles may purchase and keep liquor for such purposes under certain conditions, but may not sell It or use it, except as ingredients of the articles manufactured. No more alcohol may be used in articles which may be used as beverages than the necessary amount for solution of certain elements and for preservation of the articles.
No one may manufacture, &c., liquor without a permit, but liquor prescribed by a physician may be bought without a permit. A person conducting a bona fide hospital or sanatorium for alcoholics may under certain regulations purchase and use liquor for the treatment of patients under physician's direction.
Any one having a permit to manufacture, &c., wine for sacramental purposes may sell it only to a rabbi, minister, priest, or officer authorized by congregation on special application.
Only licensed active physicians holding permits may prescribe liquor and then only if they believe
that the use of liquor as medicine by the person is necessary.
prescribe only spirituous and vinous liquors but may prescribe a quart for use within ten days.
Under the 1921 amendment physicians may
Various types of records are prescribed for manufacturers, wholesale and retail druggists, and common carriers.
It is unlawful for a person to ship liquor without for the carrier to accept for shipment a package notifying the carrier of the contents of the package; label; to receive, ship or transport a package of of liquor unless certain information appears on the liquor bearing false statements; to give carrier an order for delivery of liquor to a person who has no right to receive it; to advertise in any way liquor, its manufacture or sale or where it may be secured except that manufacturers or wholesale druggists holding permits may furnish price lists and advertise in trade journals and foreign newspapers mailed to this country; to advertise, manufacture, sell or possess any utensil, recipe, etc., for the unlawful manufacture of liquor; to solicit or permit one's employees to solicit orders for liquor or information how it may be secured.
Any one injured by an intoxicated person snall have right of action for damages against the person who sold the liquor unlawfully to the intoxicated
for the personal consumption of the owner, his family Possession of liquor in one's private dwelling only and bona fide guests is legal.
A good deal of misunderstanding has arisen over the exemptions made in the interest of home manufacture and consumption of liquor. As for liquors having more than the designated alcoholle content a person may possess, use and serve to guests any such liquors but may not sell or transport them. Non-intoxicating cider and fruit juices," may be manufactured, exclusively for use in the home and here the Prohibition Unit interprets the word "non-intoxicating" to mean non-intoxicating in fact without reference to an exact percentage of alcoholic content. Fruit juices, except cider, thus manufactured are subject to tax if they exceed onehalf of 1 per cent. in alcoholic content under the revenue laws. However, the Bureau of Internal Revenue has made a ruling by which the "head of a family" who has properly registered under the Bureau's regulations may make 200 gallons of such fruit juices without payment of the tax.
EIGHT STATE REFERENDUMS.
Eight States on Nov. 2, 1926, voted on the "wetdry" question. The question submitted on refer endum to the people of New York by the State Legislature was:
Should the Congress of the United States modify the Federal act to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment so that the same shall not prohibit the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation or exportation of beverages which are not in fact intoxicating as determined in accordance with the laws of the respective States?
The vote was "Yes" by about three to one. (1,760,070 to 598,484).
In Illinois the question submitted was identical and was also carried there. Illinois in November. 1922, voted 1,065,242 to 512,111, in favor of modification permitting 4 per cent. beer and light wines for home consumption.
In Wisconsin the question submitted Was modification permitting the manufacture and sale of 2.75 per cent. beer under governmental supervision providing it is not consumed on the premises where sold. It was carried by an overwhelming vote.
Montana voted to repeal the State Prohibition
law except that forbidding sale to minors. referendum in 1916 the people approved a "bonedry" State law by 102,776 to 73,800.
Nevada voted "Yes" on two questions: Is Prohibition a failure? and should Congress call a Constitutional Convention to amend the Eighteenth Amendment. In 1918 the people adopted an initiative measure forbidding the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors by a vote of 13.248 to 9,060.
California voted against the repeal of the Wright State enforcement act. It had approved by referendum a "bone-dry" State law by 102,770 to 73,860.
Colorado voted 115,183 to 87,671 against a proposition to provide for the manufacture and sale of liquor whenever it does not conflict with the Federal laws. Colorado had in 1914 adopted a Prohibition amendment to the State Constitution by a vote of 129,589 to 118,017; and on initiative in 1918 had