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stranded on MAUNA REA. They believe that no one existed n the
beginning except the gods. Hawaji was produced from an enormous
which a bird that could speak laid
the sea.
There is a story
in their Sagus very much resembling the history of Joseph and his
brethren, and another of a person who was swallowed by a fish and after-
wards cast up.


Their religion was full of terrors, punishments in this world and dark threats for that which is to come. Their belief in a future state consisted in this that the souls of common men passed to Po-the abode of nightwhere they were either at once annihilated or were consumed by the gods; while the souls of the chiefs, on the contrary, were carried by the god Kaonohilekala-the pupil of the sun's eye-to a place in heaven, where they were to live to all eternity. Physical power only was worshipped, and every one had his own favourite god, in whom he put his faith both during peace and war. Gods were to be found for everything; gods of the sharks, the volcanoes, the different seasons of the year. The most celebrated among their gods were Popa, Kiha, and Lono, together with the goddess Pele, the most terrible of all, whose dwelling was in the volcano Kilanea, and whose movements occasioned earthquakes, thunder, and lightning; the locks of whose hair flared like flames in the wind, and whose favour was courted with valuable offerings. The images of the evil deities were the most honoured. Many ceremonies attended the choice of the tree from which these gods were to be hewn, and when they were felled either human beings or swine were offered as sacrifices.

Human sacrifices were generally made on great occasions, and it is said that UMI, after a victory, offered up eighty of his bravest warriors. The victims were generally selected beforehand by the priests, but kept in entire ignorance of their doom until the blow was suddenly struck. The priesthood was hereditary, and the priests were as numerous as they were powerful. Every chief had his family priest, and the leading priests were those who had the custody of the national gods. Their persons were sacred, their aid purchased with rich bribes, and they alone had the privilege of practising magic. They had invented a way of strengthening their power, namely, declaring anything Tabu. Tabu signified holy, and was applied to the thing which was set aside for the use of the gods or the priests. Sandal wood, of which a large quantity is exported, was declared tabu when they began to become thin, and then no one, under pain of death, dared touch them. Even the property of the king and the highest chiefs could be declared tabu, and was thenceforth protected from every pillage but that of the priests. A more crafty mode of bringing every one under the yoke of the priesthood could not have been devised. At a later period, lay members of the community also began to make use of tabu, principally with a view of preserving their property, and the system became at length so oppressive, that fear and silence reigned throughout the country.

Polygamy, in its most extended scale, existed in the Sandwich Islands, and no other marriage ceremony was required than that the bridegroom should throw a handkerchief over the bride, and thus espouse her. Morality was at a low ebb among them, therefore have the laws recently promulgated by the Christian rulers principally been applicable to the

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state of their morals, and, with the exception of the craving for strong drink, perhaps nothing has caused so much trouble to reform as the utter want of morality and propriety among the women. To exchange names was a great proof of friendship; and when a person of high rank-for instance a king-bestowed a portion of his clothing on an inferior, that was a sign that the great man took the other under his protection. It is certain that cannibalism prevailed formerly among the aborigines. An intoxicating drink, called Ava, was much used, the frightful effects of which was sometimes a disease resembling the leprosy. Parents were at liberty to destroy their children if they chose; infanticide was, therefore, not unfrequent; and while their dogs and swine were well taken care of, and well fed, their children were often neglected and starved. The position of the woman in the lower classes was exceedingly abject. She dared not eat in the presence of her husband, her food was of the scantiest, and her labour of the hardest. When a chief died there was a general wailing over the island-which rang from dale to dale and hill to hill; beacon-fires were lighted, hair was torn out, pieces of flesh were cut from the body-some even put out their eyes in testimony of their grief. A sort of despair seemed to overwhelm the people, and throw all things into confusion; disorder prevailed everywhere, and drunkenness and all manner of vice had unchecked sway. The skull and legs of the deceased were often preserved, the rest of the body was either buried or burned.

Their social condition was as miserable as their moral and religious state was savage and shocking. The inhabitants were divided into two distinct classes-the one the idle or consuming, the other the working members of the community. The king had power over the lives, the freedom, and the property of his subjects. He was the judge in all causes, the disposer of everything. Among the landholders, the stronger often expelled the weaker from his possessions. There was no security for life and property, therefore indolence and apathy became the characteristics of the people. Rank was inherited from the female side, for this reason that" one's mother was always known, but it was impossible to be sure of one's father." The lower classes were held in the most abject subjection by the higher class; they dared not approach them unbidden, or pass near their house. Servants, and other inferiors, had to fall on their knees on meeting a chief, and if a Kanak's canoe happened to come in the way of one belonging to a great man, the former was run down and sunk without the least pity. Everything aimed at impressing the bulk of the people with the idea that the monarch and his chiefs were of a higher order of beings than themselves.

This was the state of the islands when discovered by Cook in 1778, and named by him the Sandwich Islands, after Lord Sandwich. There is reason to believe, however, that the islands had been visited by Europeans at a much earlier period. When Cook made his appearance he was at first believed to be a messenger from their god Lono; they received him with all manner of ceremonies as a celestial being, and loaded his ship with provisions. But when quarrels afterwards ensued between his crew and the natives, the visit ended, as is well known, by the murder of Cook in 1779. The unfavourable idea of the inhabitants to which this unfortunate occurrence gave rise, prevented for a long time any Europeans or Americans from visiting these islands.

King Kalaniopuu, in the mean time, had died, and the young Kamehameha I., his nephew, had possessed himself of the island. With him commenced a new dynasty, the introduction of some kind of civilisation, and the foundation of order in society. Endowed with an iron will, and inspired by an ardent desire to improve his people, he subdued all the islands, compelled the chiefs to acknowledge his power, and applied himself diligently to study what could be done for the advantage of his country. In 1789, two American ships came to the island. A person called Young, who landed from one of the ships, was detained by the king; the crew of the other ship dispersed themselves among the natives, and were eventually all murdered, with the exception of one man, named Davis. These two men, Young and Davis, remained with Kamehameha, who made friends and counsellors of them. They taught him the customs of their own country, and their practical knowledge was afterwards very useful to him in developing the mercantile resources of the islands. In the year 1792 arrived Vancouver. His visit was a godsend to the king, whose zeal in the cause of reform he directed into proper channels. Vancouver brought with him the first horses and horned cattle ever seen in the islands, and it is wonderful how these animals have multiplied. The fields are covered with cattle-and horses are now so common that not a Kanak is too poor to own one. Kotzebue visited these islands in 1816, and has given a true account of Kamehameha's undeniable great


After having conquered all his enemies, made good laws for his subjects, established some social order among them, and awakened a desire for the improvements introduced by the whites, Kamehameha, the father and regenerator of his country, died in 1819.

Kamehameha had two lawful wives. The first was of high birth, and the mother of three children; she was his state wife; she was treated with the utmost respect, and his visits to her were conducted with regal pomp. The other was his favourite wife, although she had another husband. She is said to have been a clever and handsome woman. The king had, besides, three secondary wives, one of whom had two daughters, both married to their half-brother, Liholiho, who again was the lover of his stepmother. That such vice was tolerated, shows how low was the standard of morality even among the highest and most cultivated of the islanders.

Liholiho adopted his father's mode of government, and under him commenced a struggle between the Pagan worship and the Christian faith, which ended, for a time, in the overthrow of both, so that the natives were left without any semblance of religion at all. At length some young Sandwich Islanders repaired to North America for education, and through their agency the first missionaries were sent to the island in the year 1820. These men did a great deal of good, but the king was afraid that the English would be offended at his admission of North Americans, which they might construe into a preference for the United States, and he wrote a letter to King William, placing the Sandwich Islands under the protection of Great Britain. In 1823 he and Kamamala made a voyage to London, attended by some of the principal islanders. They were well received by the aristocracy; but both died soon after of the measles. The frigate Blonde conveyed their remains back to their native islands.

The advent to the throne of the present king, Kamehameha III., was speedily followed by religious warfare among the professors of different creeds, and the different sects who wished to make proselytes on the island; and some of the greatest maritime powers of Europe sought at the same time to frighten by their cannon this small, weak, and halfsavage nation into measures which might serve their various interests. The struggles for supremacy between the Roman Catholic priests and the Protestant missionaries who had congregated there, were, to say the least of them, unchristian, and also impolitic, among a people who were just emerging from heathenism and entering on the career of civilisation, and had well-nigh replunged them into paganism and barbarism. However, the Protestant clergy triumphed, for every post under the government was soon occupied by them, and they took almost the whole administration of affairs into their own hands. The French, who had endeavoured to gain a permanent footing in the Sandwich Islands, found themselves obliged to relinquish the scheme; and they indemnified themselves by their success at Otaheite, or Tahiti. The English subsequently made some demonstration against the king; but at length these dramas ended, and since then the native ruler has lived in peace with the European powers, and has been steadily carrying out his plans of constitutional and national reform.

Thus, in the course of thirty years, has a state arisen under our eyes, as it were. Thirty years ago, heathen darkness obscured all truth and knowledge, and fettered every resource; idols were worshipped, human sacrifices were offered up to them, and despotism paralysed every one. By the civilised world the Sandwich Islands were looked upon merely as some bare rocks, whose dangerous bays brought death to the shipwrecked mariner-the fire from the volcano of Mauna Loas alone indicating the situation of these inhospitable islands. Now, there exists there a wellregulated state, where freedom and the rights of mankind are recognised, It has been often asserted, that notwithstanding the much boasted civilisation of the inhabitants, these islands have but changed masters; that the natives have become slaves of foreign intruders; that the ancient barbarism is not extinct; and that religion is merely on the lips. But there is no truth in these assertions; and the missionaries have not laboured in vain. That the projected improvements have not yet been fully carried out, should not surprise those who recollect how slow is the progress of reform in their own superior native lands. There is now scarcely an individual in these islands who cannot read, write, and count; what rapid strides has not agriculture made. The islands produce a quantity of sugar of excellent quality, coffee that can bear comparison with that of Mocha, tobacco as good as that which grows in the West Indies, rice, maize, and various fruits. And when it is remembered how short a time has elapsed since these islands lay almost uncultivated, it may be asked, what may they not become situated as they are half-way between New Holland, China, and America-when foreign capital and foreign speculation shall have developed those resources which the indolence of the natives have hitherto left unemployed?



MARKED by the usual premonitory symptoms on the part of the satisfied and dissatisfied divisions of the public, or, as some call them, of the "masses," the season of parliamentary action recommenced. The party writers out of place treated the world, for some time antecedently to the royal speech, with luminous expositions of the sins of omission and commission by the minister and his friends; and the same kind of censures were echoed from the other side of the Channel, though from different motives. Here the motive cause was the desire of place; on the other side of the Channel, jealousy of England, and a hatred of free institutions. The attacks of the Conservative party at home were supposed to be moderated by the apprehension that they might be led into a track tending to their disadvantage, should a freak of fortune "pitchfork" them into office again. They appeared not to have forgotten their indiscretion in handing over Peel to all the malignities of party rage for supporting free trade, and the ill-effect of following the example they denounced before their anathemas had cooled. They foolishly dreamed that they should thus succeed in clinching the rotten nail they had driven to fix themselves in place. They had no qualms of conscience upon their shameless tergiversation. It was an unlucky affair for them, too, that they blundered about the short-sightedness of the people. The wisdom acquired from this morsel of experience made them careful. Until the session opened, they confined their hostility to the discreet choice and use of common-place. Mr. Disraeli's old clothes-bag, emptied and replenished over and over to support his latest change, and the demand for antique fashions in trade and creed, however ragged and timeworn, came to be accompanied with a cry so subdued, that the honourable gentleman's portion of his party had to sustain the rebuke of Major Beresford, the unflinching denizen of the anti-ministerial Monmouth-street, for laxity in his calling. The contracted monosyllable came too faintly upon the ear of that chieftain, before whom even the illustrious Earl of Derby trembled as the rebellious lieutenant played the cat in the dove-house. The living head of the Stanleys must have more than once wished, from his talk, that the contumacious major had been troubled with a sore throat, sooner than have thrown division into a party once so united in inconsistency. The reconcilement which has since crusted over the difference is, we suspect, only chagrin baptised with the name of friendship. Even where the desire of mischief may be common, real cordiality may not always exist. The contumacy of which we speak was a folly without a temptation; as frail an affair as the major's old disciple of that name was as a man. With these considerations we do not anticipate a hundredth part of the injury to the ministry from the Opposition that its intentions warrant. There must be something of the popular element in the shaft that is to prostrate an administration in England. The two Conservative factions glued together anew and varnished up, after celebrating their re-alliance, before parliament met, over turtle, until it might be imagined

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