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V

Preface. plan on which these Handbooks were at first arranged. The Handbook for each Cathedral forms two parts, the first of which embraces the architectural history and details; the second contains a short history of the see, with notices of the principal archbishops, or bishops, who have filled it. The illustrations, with the exception of those of St. Alban’s, which are by Mr. J. W. Whymper, are by the late Mr. Orlando Jewitt. The death of Mr. Jewitt occurred before the series of Cathedral Handbooks was quite completed. His great love for, and knowledge of, medieval architecture rendered him an assistant whose loss is to be much regretted. Few engravers on wood have succeeded in giving the most delicate details with so much accuracy and certainty of hand.

Each Cathedral has been described from careful and, in some cases, long continued personal study and observation. Among general authorities which have been referred to, and sometimes largely used, it may be sufficient to mention here Britton, whose plates are of more value than his descriptions; the monographs of Winchester, Canterbury, and Chichester, by the late Professor Willis, whose practical and historical knowledge of English architecture was unrivalled, and who remains the principal authority on all questions relating to those churches of which he has written the architectural history; and the ‘Handbook of Architecture,' by Mr. James Fergusson. In all cases, dates have been adopted from Mr. Stubbs's invaluable Registrum Sacrum Angli

canum,

To Sir G. G. Scott, under whose direction the restoration of nearly all these Cathedrals has been effected, the Editor's thanks are due for much kind attention and assistance. The help of the Rev. H. T. Armfield, Minor Canon of Salisbury, who, in his · Legend of Christian Art, has supplied a very interesting account of the statues which now decorate the western front of that Cathedral, must also be acknowledged. At Exeter, the Venerable Archdeacon Freemanwhose loss, before the completion of the restoration in which he took so great an interest, that Cathedral has unhappily to deplore—by a thorough examination of the Fabric Rolls, and a comparison of them with the church itself, only rendered possible in all its details by the works which were then in progress, has thrown an entirely new light on the history of the building, Preface.

vii and has been enabled to assign its several portions to their true constructors. To his personal guidance and to his book, the Editor owes much. For much information and for much help, at Canterbury, he has to thank the Rev. Canon Robertson. The History of the Cathedral Church of Wells,' by Mr. E. A. Freeman, is not merely of local importance, but is made to illustrate the general history of the Cathedral Churches of the Old Foundation in a manner, and with suggestions, which all who have to do with those churches should lay to heart. Mr. Irvine, the superintendent, under Sir Gilbert Scott, of a portion of the work of restoration at Wells and of the whole of that at Rochester, has, with very unusual skill and knowledge, brought his necessarily minute acquaintance with every detail of those Cathedrals, to bear on obscure and disputed questions of their architectural history. The results of Mr. Irvine's examination of Wells were communicated by him to the Somersetshire Archæological Society, in a paper read during a Meeting of that Society at Wells, and afterwards printed in their “Transactions.' His discoveries (as they may well be called) at Rochester have not as yet been made public. But the

Editor has to thank Mr. Irvine for a free use of his notes, and for much very valuable information.

The work of restoration at St. Alban's has from the beginning been directed, under Sir Gilbert Scott, by Mr. Chapple, who has also afforded every assistance in his power. The excellent ground-plan of St. Alban's is contributed by him.

RICHARD John King.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

5

Winchester.

TITLE-PAGE-Bowl of the Font.

FRONTISPIECE—The West Front.

I. General View from north-west .

to fuce
This shows the Norman tower and transept, Wyke-
ham's aisle and clcrestory of the nave, De Lucy's work
at the east end, and a small portion of Beaufort's work

over the transept

II. West Porch

III. Interior of the Nave

IV. Transformation of the Nave

The right of this plate shows one compartment of the

Norman nave as it was originally built; the left shows
the commencement of Wykeham’s tran-formation; and
the centre, the completion as it now stands. It is from
Professor Willis's work, and is worth a careful study, as
it shows clearly the ingenious manner in which the ori-
ginal Norman nave was “transformed " into a Perpen-
dicular one without disturbing the original piers which

are encased in Wykeham's work.
V. Panels from Edingdon and Wykeham's work.

Plan of Font, and Tomb of William Rufus

VI. Exterior of North Aisle of Nave

The two windows to the right are the work of Bishop

Edingdon, and the other of Bishop Wykeham.

VII. Font.

This Plate exhibits the four sides of the Font. The

top is shown in the Title-page, and its plan in Plate V.

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