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thou to beard me? in Denmark ?-What! my young lady and mistress! By-'r-lady, your ladyship is nearer to heaven, than when I was you last, by the altitude of a chopine. 3

to beard me -] To beard, anciently signified to set at de. fiance. So, in King Henry IV, P. I:

“ No man so potent breathes upon the ground,
" But I will beard him.” Steevens.

by the altitude of a chopine.] A chioppine is a high shoe, or rather, a clog, worn by the Italians, as in T. Heywood's Chal. lenge of Beauty, Act V, Song:

“ The Italian in her high chopeene,

“ Scotch lass, and lovely froe too;
The Spanish Donna, French Madame,

“ He doth not feare to go to." So, in Ben Jonson's Cynthia's Revels :

“ I do wish myself one of my mistress's cioppini.” Another demands, why would he be one of his mistress's cioppini ? a third answers,

“ because he would make her higher.Again, in Decker's Match me in London, 1631: “ I'm only taking instructions to make her a lower chopeene; she finds fault that she's lifted too high." Again, in Chapman’s Gæsar and Pompey, 1613:

and thou shalt
“ Have chopines at commandement to an height

“ Of life thou canst wish.” See the figure of a Venetian courtezan among the Habiti Antichi &c. di Cesare Vecellio, p. 114, edit. 1598: and (as Mr. Ritson observes) among the Diversarum Nationum Habitus, Padua, 1592.

Steevens. Tom Coryat, in his Crudities, 1611, p. 262, calls them chapineys, and gives the following account of them: “ There is one thing used of the Venetian women, and some others dwelling in the cities and townes subject to the signiory of Venice, that is not to be observed (I thinke) amongst any other women in Chris. tendome: which is common in Venice, that no woman whatsoever goeth without it, either in her house or abroad, a thing inade of wood and covered with leather of sundry colors, some with white, some redde, some yellow. It is called a chapiney, which they wear under their shoes. Many of them are curiously painted ; some also of them I have seen fairely gilt: so uncomely a thing (in my opinion) that it is pitty this foolith custom is not cleane banished and exterminated out of the citie. There are many of these chapineys of a great height, even half a yard high, which maketh many of their women that are very short, seene much taller than the tallest women we have in England. Also I have heard it observed among them, that by how much the nobler a woman is, by so much the higher are her chapineys. All their gentlewomen and most of their wives and widowes that are of any wealth, are assisted and supported eyther by men or women, when they walke VOL. XV.


Pray God, your voice, like a piece of uncurrent gold, be not cracked within the ring. --Masters, you are all welcome. We'll e'en to 't like French falconers, fly at any thing we see: We 'll have a speech straight: Come, give us a taste of your quality; come, a passionate speech.

i Play. What speech, my lord ?

abroad, to the end they may not fall. They are borne up most commonly by the left arme, otherwise they might quickly take a fall.” Reed.

Again, in Marston's Dutch Courtezan, 1605: “ Dost not weare high corked shoes, chopines ?

The word ought rather to be written chapine, from chapin, Span. which is defined by Minsheu in his Spanish Dictionary:

a high cork shoe." There is no synonymous word in the Ita. lian language, though the Venetian ladies, as we are told by Lassels, “ wear high heeld shoes, like stilts," &c. Malone.

be not cracked within the ring.] That is, cracked too much for use. This is said to a young player who acted the parts of women. Johnson.

I find the same phrase in The Captain, by Beaumont and Fletcher :

“ Come to be married to my lady's woman,

“ After she's crack'd in the ring? Again, in Ben Jonson's Magnetick Lały:

“ Light gold, and crack'i within the ring." Again, in Your Five Gallants, 1608: “Here's Mistresse Rose. noble has lost her maidenhead, crackt in the ring.” Again, in Ram-Alley, or Merry Tricks, 1611:

not a penny the worse “ For a little use, while within the ring." Again, in Decker's Honest Whore, 1635: “ You will not let my oaths be cracked in the ring, will you?" Steevens.

The following passage in Lyly's Woman in the Moon, 1597, as well as that in Fletcher's Captain, might lead us to suppose that this phrase sometimes conveyed a wanton-allusion: “Well, if she were twenty grains lighter, refuse her, provided always she be not clipt within the ring.T. C.

like French falconers,] The amusement of falconry was mucii cultivated in France. in All's IVell that Ends Well, Shak. ssea e has introduced an astringer or falconer at the French court. Mr. Tollet, who has mentioned the same circumstance, likewise adds that it is said in Sir Thomas Browne's Tracts, p. 116, that “the French seem to have been the first and noblest falconers in the western part of Europe ;” and, “ that the French king sent over his falconers to show that sport to King James the First.” See Weldon's Court of King James. Steevens.

like French falconers,] Thus the folio. Quarto :---like friendly falconers. Malone.

Ham. I heard thee speak me a speech once,—but it was never acted; or, if it was, not above once: for the play, I remember, pleased not the million; 'twas caviare to the general :6 but it was (as I received it, and others, whose judgments, in such' matters, cried in the top of mine,?) an excellent play; well digested in the scenes, set down with as much modesty8 as cunning. I remem


caviare to the general :] Giles Fletcher, in bis Russe Commonwealth, 1591, p. 11, says in Russia they have divers kinds of fish 66 very good and delicate: as the Bellouga & Bellougina of four or five elnes long, the Ositrina & Sturgeon, but not so thick nor long. These four kind of fish breed in the Wolgha and are catched in great plenty, and served thence into the whole realme for a good food. Of the roes of these four kinds they make very great store of Icary or Caveary." See also, Mr. Ritson's Remarks, &c. on Shakspeare, (edit. 1778) p. 199. Reed.

Ben Jonson has ridiculed the introduction of these foreign de. licacies in his Cynthia's Revels: “ He doth learn to eat Anchovies, Macaroni, Bovoli, Fagioli, and Caviare,&c. Again, in The Muses' Looking Glass, by Randolph, 1638:

the pleasure that I take in spending it,
“ To feed on caviare, and eat anchovies."
Again, in The White Devil, or Vittoria Corombona, 1612:

one citizen
“ Is lord of two fair manors that call'd you master,

Only for caviare."
Again, in Marston's What you will, 1607:

a man can scarce eat good meat, “ Anchovies, caviare, but he's satired.” Steevens. Florio, in his Italian Dictionary, 1598, defines, Caviaro," a kinde of salt meat, used in Italie, like black sope; it is made of the roes of fishes."

Lord Clarendon uses the general for the people, in the same manner as it is used here: “And so by undervaluing many par. ticulars, (which they truly esteemed) as rather to be consented to than that the general should suffer, —,” Book V, p. 530. Malone.

cried in the top of mine,] i. e. whose judgment I had the highest opinion of. Warburton.

I think it means only, that were higher than mine. Johnson.

Whose judgment, in such matters, was in much higher vogue than mine. Heath.

Perhaps it means only-whose judgment was more clamourously delivered than mine. We still say of a bawling actor, that he speaks on the top of his voice. Steevens.

To over-top is a hunting term applied to a dog when he gives more tongue than the rest of the cry. To this, I believe, Hamlet refers, and he afterwards mentions a cry of players. Henley.

set down with as much modesty -] Modesty, for simplicity. Warburton.


Salt ber, one said there were no salletsø'in the lines, to make

the matter savoury; nor no matter in the phrase, that might indite the author of affection:1 but called it, an honest method, as wholesomes as sweet, and by very much more handsome than fine. One speech in it I chiefly loved : 'twas Æneas' tale to Dido; and thereabout of it especially, where he speaks of Priam's slaughter: If it live in your memory, begin at this line; let me see, let me see ;

The rugged Pyrrhud, like the Hyrcanian beast, 4 'lis not so; it begins with Pyrrhus.



there were no sallets &c.] Such is the reading of the old copies. I know not why the later editors continued to adopt the alteration of Mr. Pope, and read, -no salt, &c.

Mr. Pope's alteration may indeed be in some degree supported by the following passage in Decker's Satiromastix, 1602: “ prepar'd troop of gallants, who shall distaste every unsalted line in their fly-blown comedies.” Though the other phrase was used as late as in the year 1665, in A Banquet of Fests, &c." for junkets, joci; and for curious sallets, sales." Steevens.

indite the author of affection:] Indite, for convict. Warburton.

indite the author of affection:) i. e. convict the author of being a fantastical affected writer. Maria calls Malvolio an affectioned ass: i. e. an affected ass; and in Love's Labour's Lost, Nathaniel tells the Pedant, that his reasons “have been witty, without affection.

Again, in the translation of Castiglione's Courtier, by Hobby, 1556:“ Among the chiefe conditions and qualityes in a waitinggentlewoman," is, “ to flee affection or curiosity."

Again, in Chapman's Preface to Ovid's Banquet of Sense, 1595: “ Obscuritie in affection of words and indigested concets, is pe. danticall and childish.” Steevens.

but called it, an honest method,] Hamlet is telling how much his judgment differed from that of «thers. One said, there was no sallets in the lines, &c. but called it an honest method. The author probably gave it,--But I called it an honest method, &c.

Johnson, an honest method,] Honest, for chaste. Warburton.

as wholesome &c.] This passage was recovered from the quartos by Dr. Johnson. Steevens.

“ Fabula nullius veneris, morataque recte.” M. Mason. 4 The rugged Pyrrhus, &c.] Mr. Malone once observed to me, that Mr. Capell supposed the speech uttered by the Player before Hamlet, to have been taken from an ancient drama, entitled, Dido Queen of Carthage." I had not then the means of justify: ing or confuting his remark, the piece alluded to having escaped


The rugged Pyrrhus-he, whose sable arms,

the hands of the most liberal and industrious collectors of such curiosities. Since, however, I have met with this performance, and am therefore at liberty to pronounce that it did not furnish our author with more than a general hint for his description of the death of Priam, &c. ; unless with reference to

the whiff and wind of his fell sword “ The unnerved father falls,we read, ver. * :

“ And with the wind thereof the king fell down;" and can make out a resemblance between

“ So as a painted tyrant, Pyrrhus stood ;" and ver. **:

So leaning on his sword, he stood stone still.” The greater part of the following lines are surely more ridiculous in themselves, than even Shakspeare's happiest vein of burlesque or parody could have made them:

“ At last came Pirrhus fell and full of ire,
“ His harnesse dropping bloud, and on his speare
“ The mangled head of Priams youngest sonne;
“ And after him his band of Mirmidons,
" With balles of wild-fire in their murdering pawes,
" Which made the funerall flame that burnt faire Troy:
“ All which hemd me about, crying, this is he.

Dido. Ah, how could poor Æneas scape their hands?

Æn. My mother Venus, jealous of my health,
“ Convaid me from their crooked nets and bands :
So I escapt the furious Pirrhus wrath,
“ Who then ran to the pallace of the King,
“ And at Jove's Altar finding Priamus,
“ About whose withered neck hung Hecuba,
“ Foulding his hand in hers, and joyntly both
“ Beating their breasts and falling on the ground,
“ He with his faulchions point raisde up at once ;
“ And with Megeras eyes stared in their face,
“ Threatning a thousand deaths at every glaunce.
“ To whom the aged king thus trembling spoke : &c.
“ Not mov'd at all, but smiling at his teares,
s« 'This butcher, whilst his hands were yet held up,

Treading upon his breast, stroke off his hands.
Dido. O end, Æneas, I can hear no more.

An. At which the franticke queene leapt on his face,
“ And in his eyelids hanging by the nayles,
A little while prolong'd her husband's life:
“ At last the souldiers puld her by the heeles,
“ And swong her howling in the emptie ayre,
“ Which sent an echo to the wounded king:
" Whereat he lifted up his bedred lims,
“ And wuld have grappeld with Achilles sonne,
Forgetting both his want of strength and hands ;

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