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264 Percival's Poems, A Review of 231
Podagræ Leramen, 152: 4.319.410.505
20 Poetry, Good--Good Versification
25 Poetical Soul, Lord Byron's 289
487 Rambler, Adventures of a 426
350 Skeiches, Domestic 65.166.259.
Social Affections, on the
295 Songs and Melodies, National 385
229 St. Lawrence, Wreck of a Barge
Henry IV. of France, Laconic
457 Innovation, a thorough paced
Self-conceit, Ludicrous Instance of 58
315 War, an Old Warrior's estimate of 59
42 Address for the opening of Chat.
ham Garden Theatre, New York, 557
365 Voice from Leather Stocking, . 554
535 American Literary Intelligence, 380.476
466 American Publications, New 189 285
176 America, Foreign Works Re.
published in 190.286.381.478
273 Correspondents, 96.192.288.384
365 Explanation of Eng'aving of No.4. 375
177 Great Britain, Recent Publica.
559 Intelligence, Literary and Sci.
It is now upwards of a century since the reading world began to experience the benefits of periodical literature. Under this term we do not include newspapers, the origin of which is dated more than two centuries back, during that memorable period of Elizabeth's reign, when the immense preparations of Spain to invade England, induced the government to communicate to the people, frequent intelligence of what was going forward. The avidity with which these fleeting records of public transactions were received, rendered them an object of profit to publishers; and, except at certain times, when the despotic mandates of the Stuart government prohibited their circulation, they have continued ever since to carry political information to the fire-sides of the British people. It is but just, therefore, to consider them one of the chief causes of the great superiority of political intelligence manifested by the English, during the pe. riod under consideration, over the other nations of Europe. In every other species of intellectual improvement, they were, at least, equalled by the French. In the fine arts, in classical taste, and in general philology, the latter were indisputably their superiors; and, if we except that inspired species of literature given to us by Shakespeare and Milton, the ability to produce which depends less on the cultivation, than on the original structure of the mind, in political science alone, did the people of Britain surpass their neighbours, and they did so chiefly beVol. I.No. 1.
cause they surpassed them in the number and excellence of their newspapers.
It was not till after the revolution of 1688, which was accomplished by a manifestation of popular feeling, that demonstrates the science of civil government to have been attentively studied, and accurately understood by all classes of the community, that the nation possessed any periodical establishment of a purely literary character. To the celebrated Dean Swist, and Sir Richard Steele, the honour of originating such a convenient mode of disseminating a taste for literary enjoyment throughout society belongs. The Tatler, which was the first regular production of the kind, was established in Queen Anne's reign; and it is a circumstance which may be noticed as creditable to the softer sex, that under the government of females, the two most effectual methods of enlightening mankind were first attempted, and found successful.
After the Tatler, appeared the Spectator, the Guardian, the Examiner, and several other works of a similar character, which served to polish and enlighten the age, and, at this day, form a body of elegant literature, to which the mind delights to recur as a reservoir, from which, not only the purest lessons of morality and taste, but the most satisfactory information of the manners and customs of our ancestors can be obtained.
Those works, however, were all of a light structure, each number consisting of no more than one small sheet; and it was only their superior literary excellence that preserved them from the oblivion into which the political periodicals of the day have irretrievably fallen.
There were several disadvantages attending the diminutive size of those works, the principal of which was, the impossibility of introducing into any one number more than one subject, and, at the same time, doing that subject justice. It is true that this was partially atoned for, by the frequency with which the numbers were issued; yet, there was still wanting that combination of compactness with variety, which the invention of the Magazine afterwards afforded.
For this improvement in the mode of disseminating knowlcdge, the republic of letters is indebted to Edward Cave,
printer, whose memory deserves the attention and gratitude of posterity much more than that of many who have been more successful in obtaining both. He was, for several years, aware of the advantages that the world would derive from a miscellaneous collection of literature, published monthly, before he ventured to make the experiment. This, it is believed, was owing to his straitened circumstances, which rendered it imprudent for him to embark in any expensive undertaking, of which the success was in the least doubtful. He, however, fairly communicated his ideas to others; but could meet with none willing to advance money on a project, the novelty of which caused it to appear hazardous. At length, in the year 1731, he found means to establish the Gentleman's Magazine on his own account; and, was so successful, that in little more than a year afterwards, a number of booksellers and printers, combined to follow his example, and established the London Magazine. Both of these were sufficiently encouraged, and were followed by the establishment of others, which met with different degrees of success, according to the influence and capital of their proprietors, and the merit with which they were conducted.
In spite of all opposition, however, the Gentleman's Magazine flourished most, and Cave soon became rich. His successors seem to have conducted it with equal good fortune ; for, it has been continued, we believe, without any interruption to the present day, and is still a highly respectable journal. Since its first appearance, upwards of eleven hundred numbers of it have been circulated; which, probably, contain as vast and varied an assortment of intellectual riches as any work in existence.
The benefits which Cave anticipated would result to society from publications of the description he projected, have been amply realized, not only in Great Britain, but throughout the whole civilized world: for there are no countries, at the present time, that have any pretensions to civilization, according to the common application of the word, to which their influence has not more or less extended. In some countries, it is true, despotism, which trembles at enlightening mankind, has taken care to limit their circulation; but, in proportion to the free ad