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surpassed. If it be an operation of reason, do not those perfect mathematical forms involve in their formation, a knowledge of geometrical principles ?

The spider is also an admirable mathematician. Brush away his labours day after day, and yet unable to perceive that a change of place becomes necessary, he weaves his tissue of circles, and lines, and angles, with unwearied patience and skill. Do the bee and spider learn the arts they practice ? Are they not born with the skill which a man would require a lifetime to attain ?

Many of the arguments in favour of brutes possessing the reasoning faculty, are founded on the adaption of circumstances observable in many of their actions. But their more important and complicated operations exhibit such indications as to prove that they arise from some other principle. Are we to conclude then that they reason on matters of minor importance, and exercise another and a stronger principle in their more complicated contrivances.

If accommodation to circumstances--the adaptation of means to an end, necessarily and without further investigation, prove a comparison of ideas, what shall we do with the phenomena exhibited by plants? It is well known that a plant in a cellar, will direct its growth to that part of it, where a portion of light may be admitted. If it be placed in a flower-pot, and turned down, it recovers its natural direction, and grows upward. The leaves and flowers of the pond-lilly, are never above or below the surface of every rise and fall of the water. Doctor Darwin describes the Diona Muscipula, as possessing leaves thick set with spikes surrounding the fruit and flowers. If an insect attempts to invade its treasures, the guardian leaves close on him, and destroy the intruder. Do not these plants indicate the adaptation of means to an end ? We may call them machines, indeed, and refer their operations to irritability and stimuli ; but let us not forget that more than one Physiologist has converted man into a kind of nervous machine, impelled by the same convenient agents. Are we then to believe, that vegetables are sentient, but extenuated and weakened to the proper standard ? Or, is it not much safer to conclude, that we can form no correct infer

ence from the various and irreconcileable appearances in the actions of inferior animals. We see that they are actuated by an intelligent principle-a ştate of mind of which we can form no conception. By patient observation we may learn some of the laws, by which that principle is regulated. But here we must stop, the Rubicon can not be passed.

Amuse ourselves we may with theory and conjecture, supported by slight or plausible analogies; but let us not forget the vast difference between conjecture and knowledge. Similar boundaries limit the march of the human understanding in every direction. Newton could perceive the existence of gravity, and demonstrate the laws by which it is regulated, but neither his, nor any other human mind, was competent to explain its nature.


By Dr. Drennan.

“ SEE !” said the mother of the Gracchi to a Roman ladyshe happened to be a lady of high distinction, of a patrician family; so indeed was Cornelia, but she married a plebeian. The lady had called on Cornelia for the single purpose of dazzling her eyes with the display of a diamond neck-lace she had that morning received from her husband. She was the childless wife of the Ædile Lucretius Vespillo. Cornelia at the time had two boys, Tiberius and Caius. The neck-lace had been disclosed. Cornelia requested her to stop for a little. The boys were sent for; they entered without bowing their heads; they ran to their mother. Tiberius took her by the hand, and Caius clasped his arms around her neck. She pressed him to her happy heart, and “ See,” said the mother of the Gracchi, “ these are my jewels. Lo! this is my neck-lace." The lady put up hers in the casket, and, with a sort of smile, hastily took her leave. Cornelia remained at home.

Happy, or hapless mother! which shall I call thee! Daughter of Scipio, the first Africanus, mother-in-law of Scipio, the second Africanus, and, better than both, as the wish of thy heart is to be called, “ Mother of the Gracchi;” but of thy twelve children, nine have died in infancy or early youth-and of those remaining, Tiberius shall be the buckler of the people, and thy Caius, now caressing thee, shall be the sword of the people-in

Vol. I.-No. 1.




vain ; for the people will, in the last extremity, desert them. They shall be murdered by Romans. Their mangled bodies shall float upon the Tiber. Hapless mother! was I about to say; but thy awful magnanimity, thy matron majesty, have repressed me. I still see thee happy, and when thou hearest of the sanctuaries in which thy darling sons were slain, I see thee elevating thy arms, and exclaiming, THEY WERE TOMBS WORTHY OF THE GRACCHI!"

For what were those men slain? They were slain, for attempting to preserve the genuine spirit of the constitution, and for wishing to make the happiness of the mass of the people, the foundation for the safety of the state. Rome was split into two parties; parties which divide the world at this moment—the rich and the poor ; all other distinctions are nominal—this alone is real. Strange as it ought to sound, the people were obliged. to act as a party, and the commonwealth was a monopoly. The rich, by various means, got possession of the lands destined by the constitution and the law for the subsistence of the and purchased by the sweat of blood. They were not only dispossessed of their property, but were not suffered even to cultivate as labourers, the ground they had held as proprietors ; slaves were preferred to citizens-aliens to natives.

Tiberius, one of the jewels of Cornelia, had then attained manhood—and a man he was, most pure in private life, ripe in the powers of his mind, fixed in the purposes of his heart; adorned with every virtue which nature in her bounty, and education in her care, could pour down on the head of humanity: “ Antistia ?" said the president of the senate, on entering his house, -" I have just now promised our daughter Claudia in marriage. Why in such haste ?" said the astonished mother, “ have you promised her to Tiberius Gracchus?”. This young man had just returned from the siege of Numantia, where the great Scipio (accursed be such greatness !) had, with the help of sixty thousand men, cooped up and starved four thousand brave men, for only refusing to be slaves, for fighting in defence of their wives, their children, and their liberty; which, in despair of maintaining, they set fire to their own houses, and every living creature dying by famine, fire, or the sword, left the victor of Numantia nothing to triumph over, but a name. Scipio felt as a Roman; Tiberius as a man. “ Joyless triumph!" said he to himself, “ Wo to that glory which can boast only of its battles! Scipio has acquired a name for destroying men who would die rather than be slaves; let my better ambition be the emancipation of slaves who long to be men.” He had crossed Hetruria. He had seen the fields without other husbandmen and labourers than aliens and slaves, without affection for the

republic, without interest in its preservation, without encouragement to have children, without means of educating them. He returned to Rome; he ascended the rostrum

“ The wild beasts of Italy,” said he, (virtue took her seat on his majestic brow, and he began in the high tone of strenuous liberty) — the wild beasts of Italy have at least the shelter of the den and the cave. The people, who have exposed their lives in your defence, are allowed nothing but the light and the air; these were gifts of Heaven-on earth, I swear, they have nothing. They wander up and down, with their wives and little ones, without a house, without the comfort and consolation of a home. And our generals mock the soldiery; they exhort them, before battle, to fight for their sepulchres, and household gods. Where are they? Among all this number of Romans, who has a domestic altar? Who, at this hour, possesses the burialplace of his fathers ? They live, they fight, they die, to maintain you and yours in superfluities that satiate, in luxury that sickens; and the Roman people are stiled conquerors of the globe in which they have not a single foot of ground, except that on which they stand in the field of battle. I wish to revive those regulations which may, in one stroke, destroy ambition and indigence, the power of corrupting on the one part, the inclination to be corrupted on the other. I wish to crush the heads of that monstrous aristocracy, which sooner or later will conduct us once more to monarchic despotism.

" It is the equalized distribution of lands, which raises a nation to power, and gives strength to its armies. Every individual has then an interest in the defence of his country. The avarice of some, and the profusion of others, has made our country a property of the few. Our soldiers are therefore few our citizens are few; the slaves and artificers of luxury to the new proprietors, occupy the whole-a cowardly and abject population, corrupted by a luxurious city, corrupted by the arts they profess, without any country, with little to keep, and little to lose.

“I wish not to make poor men rich, but to strengthen the Republic by an increase of useful members : I wish not an equality. but an “equability" of property, that the laws should not complot with the wealthy against the weak, but should tend in an opposite direction to balance against excessive wealth; to promote the circulation of happiness through the whole community; to put a staff in the hand of indigence, to support it under its burthen. If property be in itself power, why add to it the power of government? A republic of the rich ! A country for the ædile, the quæstor, the knight, the senator, the consuls! Liberty for the civil mercenary! As such I account these finger

ing artists, these hireling labourers of the land. The milk of our common mother is bitter in their mouths. We have aliens from other countries; we are become aliens in our own country. He who has not soine land, has no country. Sweet is the least spot of cultivated ground; sweet to say, Here is a fixed fortune for my family. planted those trees, I trained up these vines; there, in that hallowed spot, is the burial place of my fathers—there shall I one day repose by their side! Yes! I say it loudly, it is the cultivator of his own ground, and he alone it is, who has properly a country; who is tied to it by the heart-strings ; who is always as able as willing to defend it; and who alone can maintain you all in the impotence of pecuniary opulence, by the superfluity of his substantial wealth. These miserable artizans, these heart-broken hirelings, are-men; as such, I pity them, their fate 1 deplore, but I will never call them Romans. Their morals are to sell themselves to the highest bidder ; their health is poisoned by confinement, or excessive and irregular labour: their happiness is precarious and fortuitous ; their touch is contamination, and their suffrage is infamy.

“ Ï demand the enforcement of the Licinian law, limiting the possession of the conquered lands to five hundred 'acres. I demand it for the sake of the rich, as well as the poor; for the honour, interest, and stability of the republic, and (why should I conceal it!) for my own glory. Octavius, my colleague and friend, you are a wealthy man, you possess much of these lands, you resist my purpose; will you accept of my personal fortune (I wish now it were larger,) as a compensation for what you may lose by the execution of the law? O! believe me, you travel in a clandestine path to power. I wish to travel the high road with my equals. Virtue is the strength, as well as the glory of manhood. It is the courageous and unconquerable soul of the Ro man Republic !"

In such manner spoke the Jewel of Cornelia, and the law was re-enacted.

The faction of the rich behaved like the wife of Vespillo; Calumny distilled her poison upon him. It is the lot of him who dares be singularly good, “It is envy of Scipio,” says one ; " It is his mother's ambition,” said another;“ He is a disturber of the public peace," said Nasica; “He is seditious, for he has rebelled from the party of the senate," whispered Cicero— Cicero, that fine genius, that common soul, that tongue of a man, always agitated about hiinself, and who would save the republic, only to boast of the action." Let us assassinate his character !" said those of high distinction; " Let us assassinate himself!" said these hirelings. He heard of their intention, he carried a

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