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Quite as numerous are the instances in which he reverses the apparent rule of the foregoing, and uses who, which, whose, whom, for merely restrictive constructions, and that for co-ordinating constructions.

How thoroughly the Latin qui, quæ, quod had been incorporated into Milton's English, for restrictive as well as for co-ordinating constructions, may be seen from the following handful of examples. They are all in accordance with our present mixed practice; but every who, whose, or whom in them, and nearly every which, would in Shakespeare's syntax have been resolved into that. “Or wert thou that just Maid who once before

Forsook the hated Earth?"-D. F. I. 50, 51.
“Here lieth one who did most truly prove
That he could never die while he could move." —Hobson, II. 1, 2.

“that same lot, however mean or high,
Toward which Time leads me, and the will of Heaven.”-Sonnet II.

“ This, this is she
To whom our vows and wishes bend."-Arc. 5, 6.
“I shall appear some harmless villager

Whom thrift keeps up about his country gear.”—Com. 166, 167. " Yea even that which Mischief meant most harm

Shall in the happy trial prove most glory.”—Com. 591, 592. “ Some other means I have which may be used,

Which once of Meliboeus old I learnt.”—Com. 821, 822. “He who of those delights can judge, and spare

To interpose them oft, is not unwise."-Sonnet XX. “Men whose life, learning, faith, and pure intent,

Would have been held in high esteem with Paul,

Must now be named and printed heretics.”Forc. of Consc. " That one talent which is death to hide.”_Sonnet XIX. • They also serve who only stand and wait.”-Sonnet XIX. “Even them who kept thy truth so pure of old.”—Sonnet XVIII. “Whom do we count a good man? Whom but he

Who keeps the laws and statutes of the senate,

Who judges in great suits and controversies ? "Translated Scrap. “ Blest is the man who hath not walked astray

In counsel of the wicked.”—Ps. I. 6. He shall be as a tree which planted grows

By watery streams.”Ibid.
“The chief were those who, from the pit of Hell
Roaming to seek their prey on Earth, durst fix
Their seats, long after, next the seat of God.”—P. L., I. 381-383.
“ That all may see who hate us how we seek
Peace and composure.”—P. L., VI. 559, 560.
“ behold the excellence, the

Which God hath in his mighty Angels placed.”—P. L., VI. 637, 638.

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“ Eve, easily may faith admit that all
The good which we enjoy from Heaven descends.”—P. L., XI. 142, 143.

most men admire Virtue who follow not her lore.”P. R., I, 482, 483. If Milton is much more Latin than Shakespeare in his use of who and which in merely restrictive constructions, he makes amends by reviving much more frequently than Shakespeare did the old English use of that in distinctly co-ordinative constructions : e.g.

“ Nature, that heard such sound

Beneath the hollow round
Of Cynthia's seat the airy region thrilling,

Now was almost won

To think her part was done.”—Od. Nat. 101–105. “Hail, bounteous May, that dost inspire

Mirth, and youth, and warm desire.”—May Morn. “Sport, that wrinkled Care derides.”L'All. 31.

Spare Fast, that oft with gods doth diet.”Il Pens. 46. “Bacchus, that first from out the purple grape

Crushed the sweet poison of misused wine

On Circe's island fell.” — Com. 46–50.
" And disinherit Chaos, that reigns here

In double night of darkness and of shades.”—Com. 334, 335.
“His praise, ye Winds, that from four quarters blow,
Breathe soft or loud.”—P. L., V. 192, 193.

" and to him called
Raphael, the sociable Spirit, that deigned

To travel with Tobias.”—P. L., V, 220—222. “ The Sun, that light imparts to all, receives

From all his alimental recompense.”—P. L., V. 423, 424. That Milton did not follow the rule of who and which for co-ordinating constructions, and that for restrictive, has been abundantly proved. On the whole, he seems to have been guided by a varying momentary instinct, sometimes logical perhaps, but often merely musical. —-I may add that occasionally, like Shakespeare, he has the genuine archaism (now a vulgarism) of what for the relative that or which : a relic of the time when the whole of the interrogative who was used relatively (see ante, p. 90). Thus “All what we affirm

(Par. Lost, V. 107), “Easy to me to tell thee all what thou commandest” (Par. Lost, IX. 569, 570). Peculiar relative constructions also are “ Such a foe is rising who intends” (Par. Lost, V. 724, 725), and "such wherein appeared obscure some glimpse of joy(Par. Lost, I. 523, 524). I have not noted any examples in Milton of Shakespeare's use of which for the masculine and feminine ; but there may be such. PREPOSITIONS.—That multiplicity of meanings for the common



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prepositions of, to, etc., on which Mr. Abbott has commented as one of the characteristics of Elizabethan English, persists in Milton, though not to the same extent, nor perhaps to an extent beyond the practice of poets of our own time. I will note but a few instances. "And of pure now purer air meets his approach” (Par. Lost, IV. 153, 154) seems to present of in a sense like from; "may of purest Spirits be found no ingrateful food" (Par. Lost, V. 406, 407) is one of the passages in which of serves for our present by; and “Greet her of a lovely son " (March. Winch. 23) gives of in the sense of on account of. In “ to the twelve that shine in Aaron's breastplate" (Par. Lost, III. 597, 598) to is equivalent to through all the rest of, or to the complete number of ; in “So much hath Hell debased, and pain enfeebled me, to what I was in Heaven(Par. Lost, IX. 487, 488), it has the sense of in comparison with (see also S. A. 950); and in “God will restore him eyesight to his strength" (S. A. 1503) it has the sense of in addition to. “Which, but herself, not all the Stygian powers ” (Par. Lost, II. 875) is an example of but used prepositionally for except. An anomalous use of twixt, applying it to more than two objects, is found in “ Twixt upper, nether, and surrounding fires” (Par. Lost, I. 346).

ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS.—The most frequent difference from our present English here is the use of the conjunction that for so that. It was a transmitted Elizabethanism, well conserved by Milton : e.g “ And lack of load made his life burdensome,

That, even to his last breath (there be that say't),

As he were pressed to death, he cried · More weight.'”Hobson, No. 2. “ Untwisting all the chains that tie

The hidden soul of harmony,
That Orpheus' self may heave his head.”—L'All. 143—145.

" Like Maia's son he stood
And shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance filled

The circuit wide.”—P. L., V. 285-287.
There are other now unusual senses of the conjunction that: e.g. Par.
Lost, III. 278, where it seems to mean inasmuch as. In the lines
On Shakespeare we have virtually whilst that for whilst ; and else-
where, I think, we have that redundant.

As appears in several senses not now common. It serves for that or as that : e.g. “a stripling cherub ... such as in his face youth smiled celestial” (Par. Lost, III. 637, 638 : compare Par. Reg., II. 97, 98); also for as if: e.g. "into strange vagaries fell, as they would dance” (Par. Lost, VI. 614, 615); also for in proportion as ; e.g. "For bliss, as thou hast part, to me is bliss" (Par. Lost, IX, 879); also for such as (Il Pens. 163-165) and such that it or so that it (Od. Nat. 96—98).

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Of but for than, “No sooner blown but blasted” (D. F. I. 1) is an early example; and the idiom recurs (Par. Lost, III. 344, 347, XI. 822, 824, etc. --In Par. Lost, V. 674, and perhaps elsewhere, and has a sense of if or though.- -Milton uses the word both where the reference is to more objects than two: e.g.

The God that made both sky, air, earth, and heaven” (Par. Lost, IV. 722); and he takes the same liberty with neither : e.g. “Of neither sea, nor shore, nor air, nor fire” (Par. Lost, II. 912).-—The variety of his uses of or, nor, neither, etc., may be inferred from these examples; in some of which, however, change of construction by change of thought bears a part

Or [either] envy, or what reserve, forbids to taste ?”—P. L., V. 61.
" Much less can bird with beast or fish with fowl

So well converse, nor with the ox the ape.”—P. L., VIII. 395, 396.
Or [either) east or west.”—P. L., X. 685.
" Which neither his foreknowing can prevent,
And he the future evil shall,” etc.—P. L., XI. 773, 774.

neither thus heartened or dismayed.”—P. R., I. 268.
“ I bid not, or forbid.”—P. R., I. 495.

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TRANSPOSITIONS AND INVERSIONS.—Leaving not a few miscellaneous peculiarities (Elizabethanisms, or Latinisms) to be marked in the notes in connexion with the passages in which they occur, we may conclude this account of Milton's syntax and idiom with a reference to one other matter properly belonging to the subject of Syntax.

Occasionally some very striking inversion or transposition of the usual order of words in a sentence is met with in Milton : e.g.“ Into this wild Abyss the wary Fiend

Stood on the brink of Hell and looked a while,

Pondering his voyage.”——P. L., II. 917—919.
" Nor stood unmindful Abdiel to annoy

The Atheist crew.”P. L., VI. 369, 370.
" That whom they hit none on their feet might stand.”—P. L., VI. 592.

6. For in their looks
Much reason, and in their actions, oft appears.”P. L., IX. 558, 559.
“ Reject not, then, what offered means who knows

But God hath set before us to return thee
Home to thy country.”—S. A. 516—518.

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Such transpositions are sometimes instances merely of Milton's freedom in English, which led him, like other writers, into the wordfigures called by the rhetoricians Hyperbaton, Anastrophe, Tmesis, Dialysis, etc.; but very often they are patent Latinisms. For, as has been already hinted, the highly Latin mechanism of Milton's

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syntax, especially in later life, appears not only in individual constructions, but necessarily also in the arrangement of the words within a clause, and of the clauses of a sentence with relation to each other. Without dwelling longer, however, on the effects of Milton's Latinism per se on the order of his syntax, let us briefly inquire how far another cause may have co-operated in forming that structure of sentence and style which we can recognise as Miltonic.

Few services of criticism to Literature have been greater than Wordsworth's famous onslaught on what he called Poetic Diction. Under this name, he denounced the notion,-made prevalent, as he maintained, by the practice of the English eighteenth-century poets, from Dryden onwards, with few exceptions,—that poetry consists in, or requires, an artificial mode of language, differing from the language of ordinary life, or of prose. The censure branched into several applications; but one of them concerned mere syntax.

It was a mistake, Wordsworth contended, to suppose that Verse requires deviations from the natural prose order of words, or that such are legitimate in Verse. Unfortunately, the very name Verse had suggested the contrary; and, the difficulties of versifiers in adjusting their sense to the mechanical restraints of metre and rhyme having led to all kinds of syntactical tricks, such as the placing of an adjective after its noun, the tugging of a verb to the end of the line for the rhyme's sake, etc., these had been accepted, and Verse had come, in general, to be a kind of Distorted Prose. Here, as in other things, Wordsworth held, a reform needed. necessary to teach people afresh (and true poets would be the best teachers) that proper verse-syntax is not distorted prose-syntax, or syntax relieved from any of the conditions imposed upon good prose, but only syntax with all the conditions of good prose retained and certain other and more exquisite and difficult conditions superadded.

-So far Wordsworth ; and certainly his precept and example, in this respect, were most wholesome. Some English poets, indeed, coevals of Wordsworth, and his partners in the general crusade against “Poetic Diction," could not emancipate themselves, as he did, from the custom of a syntax mechanically inverted to suit the mere exigencies of metre and rhyme. Crabbe is one example. In some of Wordsworth's important successors, also, not to speak of the masses of everyday versifying that pass for poetry, verse on the principle of distorted prose has been only too abundant. On the whole, however, nothing has been more remarkable in the best English poetry of the present century than the return to a natural syntax, or even to the ordinary prose order of the words. Tennyson is here conspicuous. No writer is more essentially and continually the poet than he; hardly a line of his but contains that very something that distinguishes the poet from the prosaist; and yet it is not in the

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