Heirs of Cromwell and of Him who saw God through eyelids dim!"
Once again at Falsehood's head hurl that old Cromwellian dread:
Milton's Spirit lead the van of our march republican!

Equal place whereon to build,-freest growth for every need,—
And that faith to be fulfill'd-all Humanity to lead
In one onward life of Man, organized, republican.

Lo! our Tricolour is wove, England's Banner is unfurl'd:
JUSTICE, LOVE, and FAITH, above all the standards of the world!
Yet again shall lead the van England's heart republican.




'In exile because I loved justice and hated iniquity.'

Words of Gregory VII. quoted by Mazzini in his Letter to Pius IX.

OSEPH MAZZINI was born in 1805, at Genoa,-where his father was a physician of considerable repute. At an early age he commenced the study of the law; but his ardent patriotism soon led him to forsake everything for politics, to devote himself to the emancipation and regeneration of Italy.

Even in his youthful days at the university his deep musing during his walks had drawn upon him the suspicious attention of the Sardinian Government, and he was already marked' before his career had begun. The following extract from his own account of his friend and fellow student, Ruffini (who died in a Piedmontese prison in 1833) will give the best idea of those early times.


'Jacobo Ruffini was my friend--my first and best. From our first years at the university, to the year 1830, when a prison, and then exile, separated me from him, we lived as brothers; our two families forming but one; our two souls freely interpenetrating each other. He was studying medicine, I law, but botanical rambles at first, then the common ground of literature, and, above all, the sympathetic instincts of the heart, drew us together little by little, until an intimacy succeeded, whose like I have never found, and, never shall find again. ......

* From the Italian Martyrs, 2, Jacobo Ruffini,' in No. 21 of the People's Journal, April, 1846.

'In 1827 and '28 his attention was forcibly attracted by the literary question. It was the time of the great quarrel between those who were called the romantic and the classic; but who should rather have been called the supporters of liberty and authority. The one party maintained that, the human mind being progressive, every epoch ought to find its different literary manifestation; and that we should seek the precepts and inspirations of Art in the entrails of the living and actual nation. The others pretended that we had in Art long ago reached the Pillars of Hercules; that the Greeks and Romans had furnished models which we should be content to copy, and that all innovation, whether in form or spirit, was impotent and dangerous. The unity of the human mind-which renders us unable to conquer a principle without seeking to apply it to our every mode of action,— this and the situation of Italy naturally drew those who studied the question on to political ground; and Governments, by their fears, precipitated them upon it. The young men who made their first campaign in favour of romanticism became suspected; journals purely literary were suppressed, solely because they maintained independence in Art. To this brutal negation imposed by force, we replied by removing the question to the national ground, and by preparing to try, hand to hand, the principle of blind and immovable authority. Jacobo Ruffini was one of the first to climb to the source. In 1829, a year before the French insurrection, he had given his name to the men who followed, between exile and the scaffold, the holy route which leads to the national organization of Italy. 'In 1830, when the movement in France awakened the alarms of the Italian Governments, that of Piedmont was the first which proceeded to arrests. I was then thrown into the fortress of Savona ......' (in the Gulf of Genoa).

The cause of Mazzini's imprisonment was his being suspected of Carbonarism. He had also given offence by his contributions to the Antologia' (Anthology), a literary, but liberal, journal, published at Florence. He was in prison when the news of the Polish revolution reached Italy. No friends were allowed to see him; but his Mother was permitted to send him his meals. Anxious to communicate the good tidings to him, she hid in a loaf of bread a slip of paper on which were these two Latin words—' Polonia insurrexit' (Poland has arisen). When, some months afterwards, the noble Mother visited her Son in his prison, his first question was-Well! is all over in Poland ?'


On his release he took refuge in France; and in 1831, at Marseilles, founded the national association of La Giovine Italia' (Young Italy), starting at the same time as its organ, under the same title, a monthly journal devoted to the political, moral, and literary conditions of Italy,-in a word, to Italian regeneration. It was from here that, towards the end of 1831, he addressed to Charles

b The first members of Young Italy were men who had been mostly Carbonari, and whose hopes of good from the accession of Charles Albert were dispelled by his conduct. Young Italy' was an educational movement; 'not merely revolutionary but regenerative.' Their flag, displayed in Savoy, in 1834, bears, on Italian colours (white, red, and green), on one side Liberty-Equality-Humanity; on the other Unity-Independence-GOD AND HUMANITY: this was its principle in all its foreign relations, as GOD and the PEOPLE was in all its labours for its country. From this double principle it deduced all its religions, social, political and individual creeds. It was secret so far only as was necessary for its interior operations: its existence and purpose were public. It had a central committee abroad to keep up its standard, to form connections with other countries and to direct the enterprize; and committees in Italy to direct the various movements. It had

Albert of Sardinia, his famous Letter bearing the motto 'Se no, no!' (If not, not!), urging the new monarch to adopt a different course from that of his predecessors, and concluding thus-Posterity will proclaim you either the first among men, or the last of Italy's tyrants. Choose!' e

During 1832 and the greater part of '33 Mazzini remained at Marseilles, as head of the new Italian party, actively propagating his principles and organizing his followers. The progress of the association was rapid. Its doctrines were soon spread throughout Italy. This, says Mazzini,a

'Was effected by means of a considerable pecuniary outlay, and through the devotion of a valuable class of men, for the most part eminently Italian-the merchant-sailors. These men were worked upon, and accepted their mission with enthusiasm. By actively organizing relations at every point where communication is most frequent with the peninsula, regular transmissions were effected; the packets were confided to heroic youths, who braved every risk to carry them to their destination, they were finally distributed throughout the country; and in spite of "espionnage," severe penalties, and a thousand acts of imprudence, their circulation was immense, and their effect also. Organization commenced at every point. In the twinkling of an eye the chain of communication was formed from one extremity to the other of the peninsula. Everywhere the principles of La Giovine Italia were preached; everywhere its standard was recognized and hailed. Its members continued to increase; its emissaries were continually meeting each other, crossing from province to province. Every day the demand for its publications became louder; presses were set up in some parts of the interior, where small publications, dictated by local circumstances, or reprints of what was sent from Marseilles, were thrown off. Fear was unknown. There was no doubt of success. All this was the result of principles; and all effected by some young men without great means, without the influence of rank, without material force.'

Of this work Mazzini was the soul. To get rid of him, no matter by what means, became now the object of the Italian despots and their worthy ally, the Citizen King.

'Persecutions commenced; and ... on the part of France. They were directed, under vulgar pretexts, against the nucleus of the association at Marseilles. Engagements were entered into with the Italian governments, to destroy the Journal; but the French had a hard-necked race to deal with. They commenced by chicanery, but were baffled; they arbitrarily expelled the director; the director concealed himself; by shutting himself up he escaped the police, and pursued his labours.'

the formula of an oath or declaration of political belief; a method of recognition, especially for the envoys of the association; a branch of cypress for a symbol, in memory of the martyrs, and as an image of constancy; and the words 'Now and ever' (ora e sempre) for device.

Mazzini's Letters on the State and Prospects of Italy, in the Monthly Chronicle of 1839.

Reprinted in Paris in 1847.

d Letters on the State and Prospects of Italy.

Charles Albert punished with imprisonment and with the galleys the introduction, possession, or perusal of these works. Two years' imprisonment and a fine was the punishment for not denouncing the possessor.-Letters on Italy.

Letters on Italy.

For many months Mazzini thus evaded the order to quit France, in spite of the most vigorous measures of the police. At length he left, and took up his abode at Geneva; continuing the publication of his paper. In 1834, as head of La Giovine Italia, he planned the expedition into Savoy, which took place in the beginning of February, and failed in consequence of the treachery of Ramorino, whom the Savoy patriots had chosen as their general. In this expedition Mazzini enrolled himself as a private soldier. For his part in this affair he was sentenced to death by Charles Albert.


Immediately upon the failure of this attempt, he founded the association of 'Young Europe,' to form the nucleus of a brotherly alliance of the Peoples, to counteract the 'Holy Alliance' of Despotisms. In the same year he published


As a sample of these measures, and specimen of governmental morality, take the following. On the 31st of May, 1833, two spies of the Duke of Modena (Lazzareschi and Emiliani) were stabbed in a quarrel, in open day, at Rhodez, in the South of France, by an Italian exile named Gavioli. Advantage was immediately taken of the deed, to connect it with Mazzini; and the next week (June 8th) appeared in the non-official part of the 'Moniteur a forged antedated document, purporting to be the decree of a secret meeting of 'Young Italy,' sentencing Emiliani and others to death, and Lazzareschi to whipping, and signed Mazzini, President-La Cecilia, Secretary. The object was to draw Mazzini from his concealment. It only drew from him a denunciation of the forgery, through the columns of the Gazette des Tribunaux. The bad French and wretched style of the composition proved it not to be his. Of course it was not produced at Gavioli's trial, which took place at the assizes of Aveyron on the 30th of November, when a verdict of 'homicide sans préméditation'-unpremeditated homicide-was returned. (Gazette des Tribunaux, December, 8th, 1843). True, however, to the villainous principle which always actuates the party of 'Order'—'Calumniate! calumniate! something will be sure to stick,' the jesuit press reproduced the slander in 1836, when the Swiss Diet wished to expel Mazzini. It was again refuted. And again revived by Gisquet, the French ex-Prefect of Police, in his Memoirs. Against him Mazzini brought an action in the French Courts. An impudent evasion obtained a verdict for the defendant. He pleaded that there was more than one Mazzini in the world; and that as the prosecutor was, as all admitted, a man of the highest moral character, he could not be the Mazzini referred to in the 'Moniteur. And this thrice-exploded calumny was raked up yet again by the English Government, in 1844, when Mazzini was instrumental in exposing the post-office rascality through which the noble brothers Bandiera met their death.

We might add-through the treachery of Louis Philippe as well as that of Ramorino. The same Ramorino was one of Charles Albert's generals in the campaign of 1849; played again the same game, they said 'against the King, and was shot by him for it: either as a punishment or a provision.

The following was the 'Act of Fraternity' of the Association,


We the undersigned, men of progress and liberty, believing in the equality and brotherhood of men and the equality and brotherhood of nations: believing also,--

That the human race is destined to advance in a course of continual progress, under the empire of the universal moral law, in the free and harmonious development of its faculties, and the accomplishment of its mission in the universe;

That this can only be effected by the active concurrence of all its members freely associated;

That free associations can only exist among Equals, since all inequality implies a violation of independence, and every violation of independence impairs the freedom of concert; That Liberty, Equality, and Humanity are equally sacred,—that they are the three neces.

a pamphlet in French, 'De l' Initiative Revolutionnaire.' (Of the Revolutionary Initiative). In July, 1835, he commenced at Bienne (Canton of Berne) a newspaper in German and French, under the title of La Jeune Suisse' (Young Switzerland), all the leaders of which emanated from his pen. During the same year he issued a pamphlet in French, ‘Ils sont partis,' (They are gone) written on the occasion of the Polish and other exiles being expelled from Switzerland; and likewise his 'Foi et Avenir' (Faith and Future). *


sary elements in every satisfactory solution of the problem of society,-and that wherever any one of them is neglected from undue regard to the two others, the attempt to solve this problem must prove a failure:

Being satisfied, that, although the objects at which the human race aim are necessarily the same, and the general principles, which direct their progress essentially similar, there are nevertheless, a thousand different ways by which the common purpose may be effected; Being satisfied,--that each man and each nation has a peculiar mission in which its individuality consists and through which it concurs in accomplishing the mission of the race in general;

Being satisfied, finally,-that associations of men and nations ought to combine security for the full accomplishment of the individual mission with the certainty of concurring in that of the general mission of the race:

Strong in our rights as men, strong in our consciences and in the duty which God and Humanity impose upon every one who is willing to devote his arm, his mind, his whole being, to the sacred cause of the progress of nations:

We have formed ourselves into national associations, free and independent of each other, intended as the germs of

Young Poland, Young Italy, and Young Germany:

Having met together in council to promote the general good, with our hands upon our hearts, and in full confidence of a successful result, have agreed upon the following declaration :

I.-Young Germany, Young Poland, and Young Italy, republican associations, intended to effect the same general object, and having a common belief in Liberty, Equality, and Progress, hereby unite themselves into one brotherhood, now and for ever, for all purposes belonging to the common object.

II.-A declaration of the principles that constitute the moral law, as applied to nations, shall be drawn in common, and signed by the three national committees. It shall specify the belief, the object, and the general course of proceeding of the three associations; and no association can act otherwise than in conformity to this declaration without a culpable violation of the Act of Fraternity.

III-In all matters not concerning the declaration of principles, and not of general interest, the three associations are severally free and independent of each other.

IV. An alliance, offensive and defensive, is hereby established among the three associations, as representatives of the nations to which they respectively belong; and each of them shall be authorized to claim the aid and cooperation of the others in every important enterprise for the promotion of the common object.

V.-The assembling of the three committees or their delegates shall constitute the Committee of Young Europe.

VI. The members of the three associations shall regard each other as brothers, and discharge towards each other the duties belonging to that relation.

VII.-The Committee of Young Europe shall agree upon a badge to be worn by the members of the three associations, and a motto to be placed at the head of their proclamations. VIII. Any other nation, which may desire to unite in this alliance may do so by agreeing to and signing, through its representatives, the present Act.

Done at Berne, (Switzerland,) April 15th, 1834.

(Here follow the signatures- J. Mazzini, J. and A. Ruffini, Charles Stolzman, etc., etc.) Recently reprinted in Paris,

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