the government and the social conditions of your own country?-It will not suffice. There is now no people which lives exclusively upon its own products. You live by exchange, importations and exportations. Every foreign nation which is impoverished, and in which the number of consumers diminishes, is a market the less for you. A foreign commerce subjected to crisis or to ruin,in consequence of villainous ordinances,-produces crisis or ruin for yours. Failures in England or America lead to failures in Italy. Credit is now not a national but an European institution. Besides, every attempt you may make toward national improvement will find its enemies in all governments,-on account of the League contracted between the princes,-who will be the first to perceive that the question has now become a general one. There is therefore no other hope for you but in universal improvement, in a fraternity between all the European Peoples, and through Europe, with all Humanity.


Hence, O brethren, for your own duties' sake and benefit, you must never forget, that your first duties,-duties, without whose fulfilment you cannot hope to fulfil those which your family and your country command, -are the duties toward Humanity. Let your word and your work be for all, as God is for all, in his love and in his law. In whatever land you are, wherever a man is struggling for right, for justice, for Truth, there is your brother: wherever a man is tormented by error, injustice, or tyranny, there is your brother. Freemen or slaves, YOU ARE ALL BRETHREN. One is your origin, one the law, one the aim of you all. Let your faith be one, one your action, one the banner under which you fight. Say not-The language we speak is different: tears, action, martyrdom, form a language common to all men, which all of you understand. Say not-Humanity is too vast, and we too weak. measures not the strength, but the intention. Love Humanity! At every one of your actions in the circle of the country or of the family, ask yourselves—If what I do were to be done by all, and for all, would it help or injure Humanity? and if your conscience replies to you, that it would injure, desist! desist even though it seem to you that from your action an immediate advantage would ensue for your Country or for your Family. Be apostles of this faith, apostles of the brotherhood of nations, and of their unity, now admitted by mankind in principle, but denied in fact. Be this wherever you can, and as far as you can. Neither God nor man can require more from you. For, I say unto you, that in becoming such-be it only inwardly if it cannot be otherwise-you will help Humanity. God measures the steps of education which he causes mankind to ascend according to the number and the purity of the believers. When you shall be pure and numerous, God, who counts you, will open to you a path to action.



King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily,-1759-88. Padre de la Patria y Protector de las Ciencias (Father of his Country and Protector of the Sciences). Facsimile of a cast from the Royal Mint.


(A Literal Translation of the Catechism published for the use of the Schools and Churches in the Polish Provinces of Russia, in the year 1832.)

Quest. 1. How is the authority of the Emperor to be considered in reference to the spirit of Christianity?

Ans. As proceeding from God.

Quest. 2. How is this substantiated by the nature of things?

Ans. It is by the will of God that men live in society: hence the various relations which constitute society, which for its more complete security is divided into parts called nations, the government of which is intrusted to a prince, king, or emperor, or, in other words, to a supreme ruler: we see then, that as man exists in conformity to the will of God, society emanates from the same Divine will, and more especially the supreme power and authority of our lord and master, the Czar.

Quest. 3. What duties does religion teach us, the humble subjects of his Majesty the Emperor of Russia, to practise towards him?

Ans. Worship, obedience, fidelity, the payment of taxes, service, love, and prayer, the whole being comprised in the words worship and fidelity.

Quest. 4. Wherein does this worship consist, and how should it be manifested?

Ans. By the most unqualified reverence in words, gestures, demeanour, thoughts, and actions.

Quest. 5. What kind of obedience do we owe to him?

Ans. An entire, passive, and unbounded obedience in every point of view.
Quest. 6. In what consists the fidelity we owe to the Emperor.

Ans. In executing his commands most rigorously, without examination; in performing the duties he requires from us, and in doing every thing willingly without murmuring. Quest. 7. Is it obligatory on us to pay taxes to our gracious Sovereign, the Emperor? Ans. It is incumbent on us to pay every tax in compliance with his supreme commands, both as to the amount and when due.

Quest. 8. Is the service of his Majesty, the Emperor, obligatory on us? Ans. Absolutely so: we should, if required, sacrifice ourselves in compliance with his will, both in a civil and military capacity, and in whatever manner he deems expedient, Quest. 9. What benevolent sentiments and love are due to the Emperor ?

Ans. We should manifest our good-will and affection, according to our station, in endeavouring to promote the prosperity of our native land, Russia (not Poland), as well as that of the Emperor our father, and of his august family.

Quest. 10. Is it incumbent on us to pray for the Emperor, and for Russia our country? Ans. Both publicly and privately, beseeching the Almighty to grant the Emperor health, integrity, happiness, and security. The same is applicable to the country, which consti

tutes an indivisible part of the Emperor.

Quest. 11. What principles are in opposition to these duties?

Ans. Irreverence, disobedience, infidelity, malevolence, treason, mutiny, and revolt. Quest. 12. How are irreverence and infidelity to the Emperor to be considered in reference to God?

Ans. As the most heinous sin, the most frightful criminality.

Quest. 13. Does religion, then, forbid us to rebel and overthrow the government of the Emperor?

Ans. We are interdicted from so doing at all times, and under any circumstances. Quest. 14. Independently of the worship we owe the Emperor, are we called upon to respect the public authorities emanating from him?

Ans. Yes; because they emanate from him, represent him, and act as his substitutes; so that the Emperor is everywhere.

Quest. 15. What motives have we to fulfil the duties above enumerated ?
Ans. The motives are twofold-some natural, others revealed,

Quest. 16. What are the natural motives?

Ans. Besides the motives adduced, there are the following:-The Emperor being the head of the nation, the father of all his subjects, who constitute one and the same country, Russia, is thereby alone worthy of reverence, gratitude, and obedience: for both public welfare and individual security depend on submissiveness to his commands.

Quest. 17. What are the supernaturally revealed motives for this worship?

Ans. The supernaturally revealed motives are, that the Emperor is the Vicegerent and Minister of God to execute the Divine commands; and, consequently, disobedience to the

Emperor is identical with disobedience to God himself; that God will reward us in the world to come for the worship and obedience we render the Emperor, and punish us severely to all eternity should we disobey and neglect to worship him. Moreover, God commands us to love and obey from the inmost recesses of the heart every authority, and particularly the Emperor, not from worldly consideration, but from apprehension of the final judgment.

Quest. 18. What books prescribe these duties?

Ans. The New and Old Testaments, and particularly the Psalms, Gospels, and Apostolic Epistles.

Quest. 19. What examples confirm this doctrine?

Ans. The example of Jesus Christ himself, who lived and died in allegiance to the Emperor of Rome, and respectfully submitted to the judgement which condemned him to death. We have, moreover, the example of the Apostles, who both loved and respected them; they suffered meekly in dungeons conformably to the will of the Emperors, and did not revolt like malefactors and traitors. We must, therefore, in imitation of these examples, suffer and be silent.

Quest. 20. At what period did the custom originate of praying to the Almighty for the prosperity of the Sovereign?

Aus. The custom of publicly praying for the Emperors is coeval with the introduction of Christianity; which custom is to us the most valuable legacy and splendid gift we have received from past ages.

Such is the doctrine of the church, confirmed by practice, as to the worship and fidelity due to the omnipotent Emperor of Russia, the Minister and Vicegerent of God.



(Placarded on the walls of Paris, on the occasion of the flight of Louis XVI. Our copy is Englished from Duchâtelet's translation of Paine's manuscript, published in a supplement of the Patriote Français of Saturday, October 27th, 1792, No. 1167.)


Paris, October 25, 1792, the first year of the Republic.

When we arrive at some great and long-desired good, our first impulse is to rejoice; our second is to reflect, reviewing all the circumstances of our new happiness: we compare it in detail with our ancient condition; and each of these thoughts becomes a renewed enjoyment for us. It is this enlightened and reflective satisfaction that I share with you, to-day.

Beholding Royalty abolished and the Republic establish itself, all Frauce has resounded with an unanimous acclaim. However, there are yet among us some who do not well understand either the state they have quitted, or that upon which they are entering.

The perjuries of Louis, the plots of his court, the fury of his worthy brothers, have filled every Frenchman with horror; and this family was dethroned in men's hearts before it was dethroned by you. But, it is little to overthrow the idol: it is the pedestal which must especially be beaten down. It is the kingly office, rather than the officer himself, which is murderous. This is not seen by every one. Citizens! why is Royalty an absurd and detestable government? why and wherefore is a Republic a government conformable to reason? To-day, a Frenchman ought to put himself in a condition to precisely answer these two questions. For, in fine, if we are content and free, ought we not to know why we are so? I begin first with Royalty, or Monarchy. Though men have often wished to distinguish between these names, common usage has given them the same sense. Certain bands of brigands assemble to overrun a country, to lay it under contribution, to seize the lands, and to enslave the inhabitants. The expedition at an end, the chief of the robbers assumes the title of king, or monarch. Such is the origin of Royalty, among all nations-hunters, husbandmen, or shepherds.

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A second brigand comes, who ravishes by force that which was gained by violence. He dispossesses the first; takes him captive; kills him; and, at last, reigns in his place. Soon time effaces the memory of this original. cessors govern under a new form; they do some little good, for expedience' sake; they corrupt everything about them; they invent, or cause others to invent, false genealogies; they have recourse to everything to render their family sacred; the knavery of priests comes to their aid; they take religion for a bodyguard: and thus Tyranny puts on immortality; and the usurpation of power becomes an hereditary right.

The effects of Royalty have been everywhere conformable to its origin: war without, extortion within. What scenes of horror, what refinements of iniquity, the annals of monarchies present! If we would paint human nature with such baseness of heart, and such hypocrisy, that men should perforce recoil from it with affright, and that humanity should disown it, it is, in my opinion, the portraiture of kings, of their ministers, of their courtiers, that we must trace. And how, Citizens! should it be otherwise? What else should such a monstrosity produce, but misfortunes and crimes? What is Monarchy? Let them disguise it as they will, let them never so much familiarize the people with this hateful name, in its true sense this word signifies the absolute power of a single individual who may be with impunity a blockhead, an impostor, or a tyrant. Is it not insulting nations, to desire that they should be so governed.

The government of a single person is inherently vicious, independently of the vices of the individual. For be the state never so little, the prince is almost always less. What proportion is there between one man and all the affairs of a


It is true that we have seen some men of genius under the diadem: so much

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