preliminaries of the European federal pact, that we establish this duty and this right. Be our brethren, as we are yours. A people can no more march alone upon the earth to the conquest of the liberty which is its breath of life, than an individual can be alone in the heart of a State. Peoples are the individuals of Humanity. Enter into the great family; at its hearth you will recover the titles of your future national existence. Grasp hands with us over the tombs of our martyrs. The same earth supports us; the same heaven stretches over our heads; let the same thought of love warm our hearts; let the same sign be witness of our brotherhood before God and men. Each for all, all for each: long forgotten by the peoples, and usurped by our oppressors for their own impious ends, this holy device will be our only safeguard.

A great battle is about be fought in the world, between good and the spirit of evil, for liberty and justice against oppression, whencesoever it may come. It is there that every national flag will receive its consecration.

after the victory.

It will be blessed by the brother nations,

Hold yourselves ready, and hasten to the sigual. But meanwhile purify your faith; meditate upon the word which issues from the entrails of the peoples and hovers over Europe. Rally your youth around the principles taught us by the lessons of wisdom and by our late reverses.

Never separate the question of liberty from that of independence. Peoples, like individuals, have a double life, the inner and the outer. Ile who forgets the first is not worthy to conquer the second.

Liberty is not anarchy; it is not the caprice or the selfish interest of each substituted for the arbitrariness or the interest of a caste or of a man; it is the faculty of choosing, without limits and with the assistance of one's brethren, the means which seem to each best fitted to attain the end. The end is the true, the good, justice and love. It is the same for all; only many roads lead towards it, and the choice between these diverse roads is liberty.

Nationality is the liberty of peoples. Nationality is not hatred, mistrust, or jealousy; it is not the captious, hostile, selfish feeling which in past times made a people call all who lived beyond its frontiers barbarians: that was only nationality such as kings, princes, and lords, could conceive and teach it. The nationality of the peoples is the spontaneous, instinctive feeling of a special duty to accomplish, of something to do freely in the world, in virtue of certain aptitudes given to a group of men placed in the same territorial conditions, speaking the same tongue, baptized in the same traditions. Nationhood is the sign of this group of workmen in the midst of Humanity; it is its right to a place at the common banquet, the flag which it would intertwine with other flags, declaring its faith in the general association for the good of all, and reserving at the same time its own right to regulate freely its private interests, to develope in its own manner its local habits and tendences.

Roumanians! brethren! never forget these principles: for you are surrounded by enemies in disguise who make magic words resound in your ears, only to alter their true value, to stifle more surely the idea which they represent.

The Czar calls himself your protector; he talks to you of independence and nationality: repulse him without hesitation, for the Czar is a living Lie. There is no independence without liberty; and how could liberty come to you from the oppressor of Poland and Hungary, the man who at home reigns only by means of bayonets, and the knout, and Siberian mines?

The Tyrant of Austria tells you that your nationality consists in and war against the Magyar, Repulse with horror his insinuations.

fidelity to his house This man holds the

same language to Magyar, German, and Sclavonian: he divides to reign. His cabinet is the centre of European despotism: deceiver everywhere, tyrant everywhere. The power, whose brow is doubly branded with the horrors of Gallicia and of Italy, has no right to touch your national flag.

The Sclavonian and the Magyar, the Italian and the Greek, are your brothers; the Emperor and the Czar are their enemies and your enemies. You will have neither independence, nor liberty, nor justice, except through their fall; and their fall can only take place through the sincere and brotherly union of all those who suffer, pray, and fight against their double oppression.

Among the races which surround you some have been too long forgetful of you: to day they hold out their hands to you. Others have been unjust to you: they can be so no longer. They are learning justice and equality in their fall, in one common suffering. Do the same, and strength for all arise from out your mutual advances.

Serious territorial questions are yet in agitation between you. Adjourn their solution until the defeat of the enemy, and declare that this solution shall be peaceful. The future is not for the kings who in virtue of brute force arbitrarily parted the nations at the Congress of Vienna. The future is for the confederated peoples; it is for a coming Congress where all shall be represented upon a basis of equality, and which shall remake the map of Europe after the wishes of the populations, conformably to geographical conditions, to affinities of language, traditions and special aptitudes; the future is for universal suffrage, the supreme law of Democracy. Fear nothing, then, for your future. Where the voice of the People shall say in a calm and imposing manner-Such is our wish,' that wish will be fulfilled. European Democracy will protect every right rendered sacred by the accomplishment of duty.

Organize yourselves; establish close relations between yourselves and all those peoples oppressed by the Czar and by the Emperor: it is in doing this that you will enter the European Alliance; thus will end an isolation which would condemn you to impotence.

The great Danubian Confederation will be a fact of our epoch. Let this thought direct all your acts. The bridge of Trajan has now but its extremities, on either shore of the Danube it is the symbol of the actual state of things. Let new arches be thrown by your hands. This is your work toward the future!

For the Central European Democratic Committee.


THE MONTH'S NEWS are unimportant'; but there are items to prove how excellently we are governed' by what is called the party of order.

To begin with Ireland, in whose population, says the Census, there is a reduction of 1,659,330 since 1841. There are 269,353 fewer houses than in 1841. One million souls have emigrated, been transported. What the Famine, by the grace of misgovernment, has slain, is only to be guessed by estimating the difference between the actual reduction and what ought to have been the increase: some two million at least. Yet it is in the face of such results that ministers refuse (negativing a motion by Mr. Scully) to allow the labour of Irish paupers to be productive.

The harmless Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, aggravated by an amendment carried against Ministers, is gone to the Upper House. A majority in a small House has voted uselessly for the Ballot; Lord John has declared himself in favour of abolishing the pretence of a property qualification for Members. But no man shall vote who has not paid his house-tax.

£32,000 is the avowed cost of Secret Service, spies, etc., for this year.

Lord Normanby's charge to the nation for his ambassadorship at Paris, during the last five years, is over £70,000. For this small amount he has given our consent to the Expedition against Rome.

The Falkland Islands cost us only £5000. There are 100 inhabitants, with a surveyor at a salary of £1167, a governor at £800, and a chaplain at £400. But it is thought possible that the Islands may serve as a valuable station in case of war with some undiscovered neighbours.

The 'Jewish Disabilities Bill' has been rejected by the Lords. Alderman Salomons on the following evening endeavoured to take his seat in the Commons. He was ejected, of course. Will he follow up his claim, and the country back him? It would be a fine opening between the People and the Usurpers.

The privacy of the bishops has been shamefully violated by Sir B. Hall, who wants to discover their real incomes, no bishop being able to ascertain the exact amount of his receipts. It is said the bishop of Durham has in the last fourteen years received £79,650 more than he ought-even according to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The Bench acknowledge to some £200,000 a year among them. Fifteen Roman Catholic archbishops and sixty-five bishops, in France, have £34,400 a-year, among them all.


The Hill-Coolies imported five years ago into Jamaica claim the fulfilment of the Government-promise to take them home again without cost to them. government that lies to all in turn, is not likely to keep faith with Hill-Coolics; and of course objects. Nor will the House of Commons pay the Danish claims, depending on English honour since Nelson's piracy at Copenhagen.

Liverpool has just been disgraced by an Orange Riot-Orangemen with drawn swords, escorted by the police, parading through the streets; using their swords too on the unarmed crowd. Military outrages are frequent in Liverpool and Edinburgh they have however exceeded the average of brutality. An excellent training for the military, keeping them also in ill-blood, in case of need.

For government on other matters, witness the Eastern Counties Railway Company barricading their line against the Great Northern: the highway stopped by the squabbles of two trading Companies. This is the present ordering of society.

For the Law, it may be enough to instance the case of the prosecution of the publishers of Dickens' Unstamped Household Words. The Judges are divided; can come to no determination as to what is the Law. Judgment stands over.

A horrible state of things is evidenced by the disclosure of irregularities at the Northwoods Lunatic Asylum. 105 persons have been detained there without the proper legal forms; one, a lady, for thirteen years; another only on the certificate of her husband. The proprietor has rendered himself liable to 280 prosecutions, but is not prosecuted, and has his license renewed by the justices. Queen Adelaide was so poor that out of her £100,000 a year she could spare no pensions to her servants; so she desired to be buried without ostentation.' Her cheap funeral cost only £2,844, 3s. 1ld.

Lord Palmerston has been obtaining the freedom of some of the Hungarians : an Austrian emissary forcing them to quit Kutaych. For what purpose? Does lord Palmerston intend really to deliver Kossuth--to the Assassins?

Bakoonin has been given up to Russia, and sent to Siberia.

Let us finish for once with good news, though from the far end of the world. M'Manus, the Irish rebel, has escaped. Would that his friends had escaped with him: Frost also and his companions, whom Whig vindictiveness lets not from its fangs after so many years of torment.





You have life: you have therefore a law of life. There is no life without a law. Whatever exists, exists in a certain manner, according to certain conditions, in virtue of a certain law. A law of aggregation governs the minerals; a law of development governs the plants; a law of motion governs the stars; a law governs you and your life,—a law so much higher and more noble, as you are superior to all other created things upon earth. To develope yourselves, to act, and live according to your law, is the first, or rather your only Duty.

God has given you life; God has therefore given you the law. God is the only Legislator of the human race. His law is the only one which you ought to obey. Human laws are only valid and good so far as they are one with that, unfolding and applying it; they are bad whenever they contradict or separate themselves from it, and in such cases it is not only your right but your duty to disobey and abolish them. He who best unfolds and applies God's Law to human affairs is your legitimate chief: love him and follow him!

But beside God you neither have nor can have other masters, without betraying or rebelling against Him.

In the knowledge of your law of life, of God's Law, lies therefore the foundation of Morality-the rule of your actions and your duties, the standard of your responsibility: moreover in that is your defence against unjust laws, which the arbitrariness of one man, or of many men may attempt to impose upon you. Without this knowledge, you can pretend to neither the name nor the rights of men. All rights have their origin in a law, and whenever you cannot invoke that law, you are but tyrants or slaves: tyrants if you are strong, slaves of the stronger if you are weak. To be men you need to know the law that distinguishes human nature from that of brutes, plants, and minerals, and to conform your actions to it.

How can you know it?

This is the question which in all times Humanity has put to those who have pronounced the word duties; and various have been the replies hitherto given. Some have replied by showing a code, a book, saying: 'Within this is all the moral law. Others have said: 'Let every man interrogate his own heart; there rests the definition of good and evil. Others again have rejected the judgment of the individual, and have appealed to universal consent and declared that, 'whenever Humanity agrees in a faith, that faith is the true.'

They all have erred. And the history of mankind demonstrates by irrefutable facts the impotence of all these replies.

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They, who affirm that all the moral law is to be found in a single book or in the mouth of one man, forget that there is no code from which Humanity after a belief of centuries has not withdrawn, to the search and inspiration of a better; and that there is no reason, especially now, to believe that Humanity has changed its method.

To those who maintain that only the conscience of the individual is the rule of truth and falsehood, or good and evil, it is enough to repeat that there was never a religion, however sacred, which had not its heretics, its dissenters convinced and ready to affront martyrdom in the name of their conscience. At present Protestantism is divided and subdivided into a thousand sects, all based on the right of individual conscience, all furions to wage war with one another, and perpetuating the anarchy of creeds, that real and only source of the discord which socially and politically torments the peoples of Europe.

And, on the other hand, to the men who deny the testimony of individual conscience, in order to appeal only to the accord of all Humanity in one faith, it suffices to repeat, how all the great ideas which have bettered Humanity began to manifest themselves in opposition to the creeds approved by Humanity, and were preached by individuals, whom Humanity derided, persecuted, and crucified. Each of these rules is therefore insufficient for acquiring the knowledge of GOD'S LAW, of the Truth. And nevertheless the conscience of the individual is sacred: the common consent of Humanity is sacred: and whoever refuses to interrogate either the one or the other, deprives himself of an essential means of knowing the truth. Till now the general error has been, that men wished to arrive at it through one only of these means: a positive, and in its consequences a most fatal error; because the conscience of the individual cannot be regarded as the sole rule of truth without falling into anarchy, nor can we at any given moment invoke as beyond appeal the general consent, without stifling human liberty, and crushing it under tyranny.

Thus (and we quote these examples to show how, much more than is generally believed, the whole social edifice depends upon these first bases)—thus men, following the same error, have organized political society: some only on a respect for the rights of the individual, entirely forgetting the educational mission of society; others only on social rights, sacrificing the liberty and action of the individual. France after her great revolution, and England also, teach us most signally, how the first system leads but to inequality and the oppression of the many; and Communism, among other things, should it ever be able to become a fact, would demonstrate to us, that the second condemns society to a petrification, arresting every movement and faculty of progress.

Thus the one, only considering the pretended rights of the individual, have organized or rather disorganized the economical system, giving to it as its only basis the theory of unlimited free competition; while the others, caring but for social unity, would trust Government with the monopoly of all the productive force of the State: two conceptions, the first of which has given us all the evils of anarchy, while the second would give us immobility and all the evils of tyranny.

God has given you the consent of your brethren and your own conscience as

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