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tion is retarded by cold ; during winter it does not take place. Huber relates an instance where a queen, instead of laying her eggs forty-six hours after fecundation, did not do so for several months, owing to her impregnation having taken place just before winter. The queen must be at least eleven months old before she begins to lay the eggs of males. The bees, both workers and queen, know the period of oviposition proper for each kind of egg, and take care to provide suitable cells at a proper period. Huber removed all the worker cells from a hive, and left nothing but male cells; the bees, instead of repairing the damage done to the hive, by uniting the fragments of comb, seemed quite disheartened, went into the fields, but returned unladen. The queen, too, hesitated about laying her worker eggs in the large male cells, and at last they were seen to drop from her at random. However, six eggs were deposited regularly ; but the workers did not treat them very carefully. They were removed next day, and the cells left empty. In order to re-animate them, he gave the bees a piece of comb, composed of workers' cells, but which were filled with male instead of worker eggs. For twelve days the bees obstinately abstained from working in wax, but at last they positively removed the whole of the male brood, and cleaned the cells, just as if they had been aware that the eggs which were to come from the queen required worker cells. As soon as this was done, the queen no longer dropped her eggs at radom, but deposited them in the cells. The male cells were then taken away, and the worker cells restored ; upon which the ordinary labours of the hive were resumed. If the worke reasoned and felt, here is a fact which would at once attest their foresight and their affection for their queen; they knew she required worker cells, and accordingly, to accommodate her, they pulled out the male brood, which, under other circumstances, they would have fondly nourished.
Locusts.--Of all the plagues of Egypt, I think that of locusts must have been the most horrible. This pest, which we had previously seen before us like a dense cloud upon the horizon, became, upon our arrival in contact with it, a serious impediment to our progress. The locusts struck the faces of our horses with such force and in such numbers, that they could scarcely grope their way along. Every bush was alive with them, and in instant looked dried up, and dead with their devastations. Their appearance three or four feet above the ground resembles corn under the action of the wind when glowing in a meridian sun. A scene in the morning rich in verdure and bursting into blossoms, is at night a dreary, profitless, hideous waste.
THE THREE HOMES.
“ WHERE is thy home!" I asked a child,
Who, in the morning air,
In garlands for her hair ;
And smiled in childish glee,
Where soft winds wander free."
And all its rosy hours,
And treasures live in flowers !
Who bent with flushing face,
In the wild wood's secret place;
The tale might well impart ;
Was in a kindred heart.
To earth will fondly cling,
That light and fragile thing !
I asked a pilgrim gray,
Slow musing on his way;
Upturned his holy eyes,
My home is in the skies!"
To whom such thoughts are given,
Its only home in heaven !_* * *
The Hop-Fly.-The knowledge of science is frequently invaluable to practical men. We have a striking example of this in the depredations committed by insects in the hop plantations. The great numbers of the well-known insect, the lady-bird, or lady-cow (Coccinella), which swarm during part of the summer upon hops, induce many hop-growers to suppose that they are the depredators; while, on the contrary, they resort to the hop grounds to feed upon the hop-fly (Aphis), and its larvæ, which destroy the hops by
sucking the juices of the leaves and young shoots. The larvæ, or grub, of the lady-bird, also feeds upon the aphides, and tends to diminish their destructive numbers, both in the hop grounds and in flower gardens, where similar species of aphides infest the young leaves, and buds of roses, Chinaasters, beans, and other garden-plants, and are confounded, in common parlance, under the vulgar name of blight, with a multitude of other insects, as well as with cold winds, parching suns, &c.
INSECTS IN INDIA.—Among the various miseries which our fellow-countrymen, who engage in the service of the East India Company, are doomed to endure, the following is not the least. During the rainy season, the houses are so infested with insects, that it is necessary to have little covers for tumblers and tea-cups. The air is so still and stagnant, that persons are compelled to keep their doors wide open, and, consequently, the tables are thickly covered with a variety of the most disgusting vermin. These mingling with the blood-thirsty musquitos, are enough to make a saint delirious. At this season, also, the white ants are extremely numerous and destructive. In one night they have been known to spread themselves over a large apartment, and devour the whole matting. They frequently take possession of the beams that support the roofs of the houses, and destroy them in a few weeks. Nothing is secure against the depredations of these mischievous little creatures. Tents, carriages, beds, carpets, and clothes of all descriptions, are subject to their voracious appetites.
The LUMINOSITY OF THE Ocean.—I had once an opportunity of witnessing in the Mediterranean a species of luminosity of comparatively rare occurrence. Returning from a fishing party late in a still evening across the bay of Gibraltar, in a direction from the Pomones river to the old Mole, in company with Dr. Drummond (now professor of anatomy to the Belfast Institution), and a party of naval officers, the several boats, although separated a considerable distance, could be distinctly traced through the gloom by the snowy whiteness of their course, while that in which we were seemed to be passing through a sea of melted silver, such at least was the appearance of the water displaced by the movement of the boat and the motions of the oars. The hand, a stick, or the end of a rope immersed in the water, instantly became luminous, and all their parts visible ; and when withdrawn, brought up numerous luminous points, less than the smallest pin's-head, and of the softest and most destructible tenderness, appearing on a closer inspec
tion, out of water, like hemispheric masses of a colourless jelly, evidently, however, organized and included within an enveloping tunic.
WHAT IS TIME?
LARVÆ.—When an insect first issues from the egg it is called by naturalists larva, and popularly a caterpillar, a grub, or a maggot. The distinction, in popular language, seems to be, that caterpillars are produced from the eggs of moths or butterflies ; grubs, from the eggs of beetles, bees, wasps, &c.; and maggots, which are without feet, from blow-flies, house-fies, cheese-flies, &c. ; though this is not very rigidly adhered to in common parlance. Maggots are also sometimes called worms, as in the instance of the mealworm ; but the common earth-worm is not a larva, nor is it by modern naturalists ranked among insects. Larvæ are remarkably small at first, but grow rapidly. The full-grown caterpillar of the goat-moth is thus seventy-two thousand times heavier than when it issues from the egg; and the maggot of the blow-fly is, in twenty-four hours, one hundred and fifty-five times heavier than at its birth. Some larvæ have feet, others are without : none have wings. They cannot propagate. They feed voraciously on coarse substances; and as they increase in size, which they do very rapidly, they cast their skins three or four times. In defending themselves from injury, and in preparing for their change by the construction of secure abodes, they manifest great ingenuity and wonderful skill.
Observations.—After man has exerted his eyes to view the smallest insects, he will find that, on applying a microscope, he will discover others so small that ten thousand of them are not equal in bulk to the smallest which he can view with his naked eye. Lewenhoeck tells us of insects seen with a microscope, of which twenty-seven millions would only be equal to a mite.
This morning, when the earth and sky
Were blooming with the blush of Spring,
Nor thought upon thy gleaming wing.
And sunny lights no longer play,
For sparkling o'er the dreary way.
When life and love shall lose their bloom,
To light, if not to warm, the gloom.