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Poems, by William W. Lord. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1845. 12mo. pp. 158.

Letters from New York. Second Series. By L. Maria Child, Author of " Philothea," "The Mother's Book," &c. New York: C. S. Francis & Co. 1845. 12mo. pp. 287.

Orthophony, or Vocal Culture in Elocution; a Manual of Elementary Exercises, adapted to Dr. Rush's "Philosophy of the Human Voice," and designed as an Introduction to Russell's "American Elocutionist." By James E. Murdock and William Russell. Boston: W. D. Ticknor & Co. 1845. 12mo. pp. 336.

Critical Exposition of Baptism, clearly establishing the Scriptural Authority of Affusion and Sprinkling, and of Infant Baptism. By Leicester A. Sawyer, A. M., President of Central College, Ohio. Cincinnati: H. W. Derby & Co. 18mo. pp. 188.

The World in a Pocket-book, or Universal Popular Statistics. Third Edition, greatly enlarged and improved. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton. 1845. 16mo. pp. 195.

The Young Ladies' Elocutionary Reader: containing a Selection of Reading Lessons, by Anna U. Russell, with Introductory Rules and Exercises in Elocution, adapted to Female Readers, by William Russell. Boston: James Munroe & Co. 1845. 12mo. pp. 480.

Elements of Algebra; by William Smyth, A. M., Professor of Mathematics in Bowdoin College. Fourth Edition. Brunswick: Joseph Griffin. 1843. 12mo. pp. 272.

Crania Ægyptiaca; or Observations on Egyptian Ethnography, derived from Anatomy, History, and the Monuments. By Samuel G. Morton, M. D., Author of "Crania Americana." Philadelphia: John Pennington. 1844. 4to. pp. 67. Plates xiv.

Domestic Slavery considered as a Scriptural Institution; in a Correspondence between the Rev. Richard Fuller, of Beaufort, S. C., and the Rev. Francis Wayland, of Providence, R. I. Revised and Corrected by the Authors. New York: Lewis Colby. 1845. 16mo. pp. 254.

First Books of Natural History, for Schools, Colleges, and Families. By W. S. W. Ruschenberger, M. D. 1. Elements of Anatomy and Physiology. 2. Elements of Mammalogy. 3. Elements of Ornithology. 4. Elements of Herpetology and Ichthyology. 5. Elements of Conchology. 6. Elements of Entomology. 7. Elements of Botany. Philadelphia: Grigg & Elliot. 1844. 12mo.

Popular Lectures on Astronomy, by M. Arago. With Additions and Corrections, by Dionysius Lardner, LL. D. New York: Greeley and McElrath. 1845. 8vo. pp. 96.

Address delivered before the Washington County Association for the Improvement of Public Schools, at Wickford, January 3d, 1845. By Rowland G. Hazard. Providence: 1845. 8vo. pp. 42.

Speech of Josiah Quincy, President of Harvard University, before the Board of Overseers of that Institution, February 25, 1845, on the Minority Report of the Committee of Visitation, presented to that Board by George Bancroft, Esq., February 6, 1845. Boston: Little & Brown. 8vo. pp. 64.

The Education we want: a Discourse, pronounced November 23, 1844, before the Board of Directors of the Public Schools of Muni

cipality No. 2. By W. A. Scott, D. D. New Orleans. 1845. 8vo. pp. 28.

Reports on the Washington Silver Mine in Davidson Co., N. C., by Richard C. Taylor. With an Appendix, containing Assays of the Ores, Returns, and Statements. Philadelphia: E. G. Dorsey, Printer. 1845. 8vo. pp. 40.

Deism or Christianity? Four Discourses, by N. L. Frothingham, D. D., Minister of the First Church. Boston: Crosby & Nichols. 1845. 8vo. pp. 77.

The Oregon Question; or, a Statement of the British Claims to the Oregon Territory, in Opposition to the Pretensions of the Government of the United States of America. By Thomas Falconer, Esq. London: Samuel Clarke. 1845. 8vo. pp. 46.

A Discourse delivered before the Georgia Historical Society, on its Sixth Anniversary, February 12, 1845. By A. Church, D. D. Savannah. 1845. 8vo. pp. 40.

Proceedings of the New York Historical Society for the Year 1844. New York: Press of the Historical Society. 1845. 8vo.

Righteousness before Doctrine. Two Sermons, by Rev. William Ware. Boston: Little & Brown. 1845. 8vo. pp. 31.

Twenty-Fifth Annual Report and Documents of the New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, made to the Legislature for the Year 1844. Mr. Peet's Letter of Instructions, and Report on the Schools for the Deaf and Dumb in Ceutral and Western Europe, by Rev. George E. Day. Albany. 1845. 8vo. pp. 195.

Boston Journal of Natural History, containing Papers and Communications read before the Boston Society of Natural History, and published by their Direction. Vol. V. No. I. Boston: Little & Brown. 1845. 8vo. pp. 136.

La Supresion del Tráfico de Esclavos Africanos en la Isla de Cuba, examinada con Relacion á Agricultura y á su seguridad, por Don José A. Saco. Paris. 1845. 8vo. pp. 70.

An Inquiry into the Views, Principles, Services, and Influences of the Leading Men in the Origination of our Union, and in the Formation and Early Administration of our Present Government. By Thaddeus Allen. Boston: Printed by S. N. Dickinson & Co. 1845. 8vo. pp. 86.

A Practical Introduction to Greek Prose Composition. By Thomas Kerchever Arnold, A. M., Rector of Lyndon, and Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Revised Edition, with References to Kühner's Greek Grammar. Boston: James Munroe & Co. 1845. 12mo. pp. 196.



OCTOBER, 1845.

ART. I. 1. La Russie en 1839.


CUSTINE. 4 vols. Seconde Edition, revue, corrigée, et augmentée. Paris. 1843.

2. A Memoir of the Life of Peter the Great. By JOHN BARROW, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1839.

ONE day, in the year 1697, the great Duke of Marlborough happened to be in the village of Saardam. He visited the dockyard of one Mynheer Calf, a rich shipbuilder, and was struck with the appearance of a journeyman at work there. He was a large, powerful man, dressed in a red woollen shirt and duck trowsers, with a sailor's hat, and seated, with an adze in his hand, upon a rough log of timber which lay on the ground. The man's features were bold and regular, his dark brown hair fell in natural curls about his neck, his complexion was strong and ruddy, with veins somewhat distended, indicating an ardent temperament and more luxurious habits than comported with his station; and his dark, keen eye glanced from one object to another with remarkable restlessness. He was engaged in earnest conversation with some strangers, whose remarks he occasionally interrupted, while he rapidly addressed them in a guttural but not unmusical voice. As he became occasionally excited in conversation, his features twitched convulsively, the blood rushed to his forehead, his arms were tossed about with extreme violence of gesticulation, and he seemed constantly upon the point of giving way to some explosion of passion, or else of falling into a fit of catalepsy. VOL. LXI. No. 129. 24

His companions, however, did not appear alarmed by his vehemence, although they seemed to treat him with remarkable deference; and, after a short time, his distorted features would resume their symmetry and agreeable expression, his momentary frenzy would subside, and a bright smile would light up his whole countenance.

The Duke inquired the name of this workman, and was told it was one Pieter Baas, a foreign journeyman of remarkable mechanical abilities and great industry. Approaching, he entered into some slight conversation with him upon matters pertaining to his craft. While they were conversing, a stranger of foreign mien and costume appeared, holding a voluminous letter in his hand; the workman started up, snatched it from his hand, tore off the seals and greedily devoured its contents, while the stately Marlborough walked away unnoticed. The Duke was well aware that, in this thin disguise, he saw the Czar of Muscovy. Pieter Baas, or Boss Peter, or Master Peter, was Peter the despot of all the Russias, a man who, having just found himself the undisputed proprietor of a quarter of the globe with all its inhabitants, had opened his eyes to the responsibilities of his position, and had voluntarily descended from his throne for the noble purpose of qualifying himself to reascend it.

The empire of Russia, at this moment more than twice as large as Europe, having a considerable extent of seacoasts, with flourishing commercial havens both upon the Baltic and the Black seas, and a chain of internal communication, by canal and river, connecting them both with the Caspian and the Volga, was, at the accession of Peter the First, of quite sufficient dimensions.for any reasonable monarch's ambition, but of most unfortunate geographical position. Shut off from civilized Western Europe by vast and thinly peopled forests and plains, having for neighbours only the sledded Polack, the Turk, the Persian, and the Chinese, and touching nowhere upon the ocean, that great highway of civilization,

the ancient empire of the Czars seemed always in a state of suffocation. Remote from the sea, it was a mammoth without lungs, incapable of performing the functions belonging to its vast organization, and presenting to the world the appearance of a huge, incomplete, and inert mass, waiting the advent of some new Prometheus to inspire it with life and light.

Its capital, the bizarre and fantastic Moscow, with its vast, turreted, and venerable Kremlin, its countless churches, with their flashing spires and clustering and turbaned minarets glittering in green, purple, and gold, - its mosques, with the cross supplanting the crescent, its streets swarming with bearded merchants and ferocious Janizaries, while its female population were immured and invisible,— was a true type of the empire, rather Asiatic than European, and yet compounded of both.

The government, too, was far more Oriental than European in its character. The Normans had, to be sure, in the eleventh century, taken possession of the Russian government with the same gentlemanlike effrontery with which, at about the same time, they had seated themselves upon every throne in Europe; and the crown of Ruric had been transmitted like the other European crowns for many generations, till it descended through a female branch upon the head of the Romanoffs, the ancestors of Peter and the present imperial family. But though there might be said to be an established dynasty, the succession to the throne was controlled by the Strelitzes, the licentious and ungovernable soldiery of the capital, as much as the Turkish or Roman empire by the Janizaries or Pretorians; and the history of the government was but a series of palace-revolutions, in which the sovereign, the tool alternately of the priesthood and the body-guard, was elevated, deposed, or strangled, according to the prevalence of different factions in the capital. The government was in fact, as it has been epigrammatically characterized, "a despotism tempered by assassination."

The father of Peter the First, Alexis Michaelovitz, had indeed projected reforms in various departments of the government. He seems to have been, to a certain extent, aware of the capacity of his empire, and to have had some faint glimmerings of the responsibility which weighed upon him, as the inheritor of this vast hereditary estate. He undertook certain revisions of the laws, if the mass of contradictory and capricious edicts which formed the code deserve that name; and his attention had particularly directed itself to the condition of the army and the church. Upon his death, in 1677, he left two sons, Theodore and John, and four daughters, by his first wife; besides one son,

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