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3. Where it is to be served upon any other board or body, or upon the members thereof, it may be served as prescribed in section 2071 of this act, for service, upon a like board or body, of an alternative writ of mandamus. Code Civ. Pro., § 2130. See Mandamus, g 5.

13 Stay of proceedings. Except as prescribed in this section, a writ of certiorari does not stay the execution of the determination to be reviewed, or affect the power of the body or officer, to which or to whom it is addressed. The court, which grants the writ, may, in its discretion, and upon such terms, as to security or otherwise, as justice requires, direct, by a clause in the writ, or by a separate order, that the execution of the determination be stayed, pending the certiorari, and until the further direction of the court. A bond, undertaking, or other security, given to procure such a stay, is valid and effectual, according to its terms, in favor of a person beneficially interested in upholding the determination to be reviewed, who is admitted as a party to the special proceeding, as prescribed in section 2137 of this act. Code Civ. Pro., § 2131. 9 Johns. 66; 4 Cow. 544; 13 Wend. 664; 3 Hill, 239; 4 Lans. 24; 10 Abb. N. C. 33; 48 Hun,.

604; 19 'W. D. 208; 23 id. 569; 1 N. Y. Supp. 114. 14 Writ,' when and where returnable. A writ of certiorari must be made returnable, within twenty days after the service thereof, at the office of the clerk of the court. If it was issued from the supreme court, it must be made returnable at the office of the clerk of the county, designated therein, wherein the determination to be reviewed was made; and if the county, designated in the writ, is not the proper county, the court, upon motion, may amend the writ accordingly. Thereupon all papers on file must be transferred to the clerk of the county, where the writ is made returnable by the amendment. Code Civ. Pro., $ 2132. 40 Hun, 176, 177.

15 Proceedings before return. After a writ of certiorari has been issued, the time to make a return thereto may be enlarged, or any other order may be made, or proceeding taken, in the cause, in relation to any matter not provided for in this article* as a similar proceeding may be taken in an action, brought in the same court, and triable in the county where the writ is returnable. Code Civ. Pro., $ 2133. 22 Civ. Pro. 116; 64 Hun, 205; 46 N. Y. St. R. 99; 55 id. 446; 6 N. Y. Supp. 401.

16 Return. The clerk, with whom a writ of certiorari is filed, and each person, upon whom a writ of certiorari is served, as prescribed in section 2130 of this act, must make and annex to the writ, or to the copy thereof served upon him, a return, with the transcript annexed, and certified by him, of the record or proceedings, and a statement of the other matters, specified in and required by the writ. The return must be filed in the office where the writ is returnable, according to the command thereof. Code Civ. Pro., § 2134. 16 Abb. Pr. 337; 35 Barb. 444; 43 id. 239; 15 Wend. 451; 6 id. 564; 25 id. 157, 168; 5 N. Y.

568: 47 id. 415: 2 Hill. 9: 10 Abb. N. C. 36: 1 Cow 582: 18 Civ. Pro. 109: 143 N Y.

160; 62 N. Y. St. R. 190; 8 N. Y. Supp. 106; 9 id. 244. 17 Same: defective or omitted. If a return is defective, the court may direct a further return. An omission to make a return, as required by a writ of certiorari, or by an order for a further return, may be punished, as a contempt of the court. But a judge or clerk shall not be thus punished, unless the relator, before the time when the return is required, pays him, for his return, the sum of two dollars, and, in addition, ten cents for each folio of the copies of papers requ’red to be returned. Code Civ. Pro., § 2135. 5 How. Pr. 314; 2 Cow. 575; 38 Hun, 45; 6 N. Y. St. R. 175; 18 Civ. Pro. 109; 19 id. 318;

142 N. Y. 228; 58 Hun, 158; 64 id. 375; 7 Misc. 214; 31 N. Y. St. R. 642; 33 id. 811; 46 id. 471; 47 id. 928; 58 id. 557, 765; 8 N. Y. Supp. 106; 9 id. 244, 832; 11 id. 505; 19 id. 774; 20 id. 280.

* This subject, 88 2–30.

18 Same: by ex-official. A writ of certiorari may be issued to, and a return to a writ of certiorari may be made by, an officer, whose term of office has expired. Such an officer may be punished for a failure to make a return to the writ, as required thereby; or to make a further return, as required by an order for that purpose. Code Civ. Pro., § 2136. 6 Abb. Pr. 228; s. c. 15 How. Pr. 470; 6 id. 175; 65 Barb. 170; 10 W. D. 390; 80 Hun, 486;

62 N. Y. St. R. 395; 30 N. Y. Supp. 494. 19 When third person may be brought in. Upon the application of a person, specially and beneficially interested in upholding the determination to be reviewed, the court may, in its discretion, admit him as a party defendant in the special proceedings, upon such terms as justice requires. And a term of the appellate division of the supreme court, at which the cause is noticed for hearing, and is placed upon the calendar, may, in a proper case, direct that notice of the pendency of the special proceeding be given to any person, in such a manner as it thinks proper, and may suspend the hearing until notice is given accordingly. Code Civ. Pro., § 2137, as am'd L. 1895, c. 946. 2 N. Y. Supp. 117, 557; 37 id. 869; 25 W. D. 155; 42 Hun, 241; 110 N. Y. 512.

20 Hearing upon return. The cause must be heard at a term of the appellate division of the supreme court, held within the judicial department, embracing the county where the writ was returnable. Either party may notice it for hearing, at any time after the return is complete. Except as prescribed in the next section, it must be heard upon the writ and return, and the papers upon which the writ was granted. Code Civ. Pro., § 2138, as am'd L. 1895, c. 946. 20 Wend. 625; 19 Abb. Pr. 99; 73 N. Y. 437; 40 id. 105; 106 id. 64, 67, 264; 4 E. D. Smith,

18; 3 id. 219; 6 Hun, 625; 6 id. 652; 25 id. 111; s. c. 10 Abb. N. C. 418; 32 Hun, 301; 40 id. 177; 49 id. 479; 18 W. D. 258; 20 Abb. N. C. 48, n.; 8 N. Y. St. R. 635; 8 id. 700: 72 Hun. 354: 4 Misc. 330; 86 Hun, 513: 89 id. 6; 90 id. 53; 31 N. Y. St. R. 641: 39 id. 739; 67'id. 701; 69 id. 446, 815, 857; 2 N. Y. Supp. 117, 557; 9 id. 832; 15 id. 447; 25

id. 873; 35 id. 89, 463. 21 Same: evidence. If the officer or other person, whose duty it is to make a return, dies, absconds, removes from the state, or becomes insane, after the writ is issued, and before making a return, or after making an insufficient return; and it appears that there is no other officer or person, from whom a sufficient return can be procured by means of a new certiorari; the court may, in its discretion, permit affidavits, or other written proofs, relating to the matters not sufficiently returned, to be produced, and may hear the cause accordingly. The court may also, in its discretion, permit either party to produce affidavits, or other written proofs, relating to any alleged error of fact, or any other question of fact, which is essential to the jurisdiction of the body or officer, to make the determination to be reviewed, where the facts, in relation thereto, are not sufficiently stated in the return, and the court is satisfied that they cannot be made to appear, by means of an order for a further return. Code Civ. Pro., § 2139. 10 Johns. 304; 1 Cow. 168; 12 Wend. 266; 35 Barb. 444; s. c. 13 Abb. Pr. 405; 16 id. 337;

17 W. D. 457; 9 Civ. Pro. 338; 39 N. Y. St. R. 739; 69 id. 15; 15 N. Y. Supp. 447: 35

id. 463. 22 Questions to be determined. The questions, involving the merits, to be determined by the court upon the hearing, are the following, only:

1. Whether the body or officer had jurisdiction of the subject matter of the determination under review. 35 N. Y. 380; 45 id. 772, 776, 777: 55 id. 600; 11 Hun, 513; 57 Barb. 593, 601; 16 Hun, 192;

100 N. Y. 82, 85; 30 Hun, 376, 377; 34 id. 322; 9 Civ. Pro. 338; 22 W. D. 454; 9 N. Y. St. R. 609; s. c. 45 Hun, 56; 11 W. D. 39; 143 N. Y. 160; 58 Hun, 595; 35 N. Y. St. R.

413; 49 id. 48, 888; 62 id. 190. 2. Whether the authority, conferred upon the body or officer, in relation to that subject-matter, has been pursued in the mode required by law, in order to authorize it or him to make the determination. 35 N. Y. 380; 45 id. 772, 776, 777; 11 Hun, 513; 57 Barb. 593, 601; 55 How. Pr. 454; 6

Hun, 229; s. c. 52 How. Pr. 289; 16 Hun, 192; 65 N. Y. 452; 29 Hun, 125, 126; 8. C. 16 W. D, 336; 100 N. Y. 82, 85: 44 Hun, 293, 295: 30 id. 376, 377; 17 W. D. 169; 98 N. Y. 335; 34 Hun, 322; 22 W. D. 454; 9 N. Y. St. R. 609; 8. c. 45 Hun, 56; 45 id. 312; 58 id. 595; 35 N. Y. St. R. 413.

3. Whether, in making the determination, any rule of law, affecting the rights of the parties thereto, has been violated, to the prejudice of the relator. 35 X. Y. 380; 45 id. 772, 776, 777; 3 Hun, 16;-. c. 5 T. & C. 260; 11 Hun, 513; 57 Barb.

593, 601; 6 Hun, 229; s. c. 52 How. Pr. 289; 16 Hun, 192; 65 N. Y. 452; 29 Hun, 125, 126; 8. c. 16 W. D. 336; 97 N. Y. 203; 100 id. 82, 85; 44 Hun, 293, 295; 30 id. 376, 377; 17 W. D. 169; 98 N. Y. 335; 34 Hun, 322; 36 id. 185; 9 Civ. Pro. 338; 22 W. D. 454; 9 N. Y. St. R. 609; s. c. 45 Hun, 56, 312; 44 id. 576; 47 id. 451, 452; 11 W. D. 39; 112

N. Y. 609; 55 How. Pr. 454; 126 N.'Y. 147; 58 Hun, 595; 35 N. Y. St. R. 413; 37 id. 23. 4. Whether there was any competent proof of all the facts, necessary to be proved, in order to authorize the making of the determination. 35 N. Y. 380; 45 id. 772, 776, 777; 3 Hun, 16; s. c. 5 T. & C. 260; 11 Hun, 513; 14 id. 546;

57 Barb. 593, 601; 69 N. Y. 409; 1 Sheld. 345; s. c. 56 N. Y. 664; 55 How. Pr. 454; 6 Hun, 229; s. c. 52 How. Pr. 289; 72 N. Y. 415; 16 Hun, 192; 29 id. 125, 126; 8. c. 16 W. D. 336; 97 N. Y. 203; 100 id. 82, 85; 15 N. Y. St. R. 108, 110; 106 N. Y. 257, 261; 44 Hun, 293, 295; 30 id. 376, 377; 17 W. D. 169; 98 N. Y. 335; 34 Hun, 322; 22 W. D. 454; 38 Hun, 273; 9 N. Y. St. R. 609; s. c. 45 Hun, 56; 8 N. Y. St. Ř. 698; 44 Hun,

576; 11 W. D. 39; 112 N. Y. 609; 30 N. Y. St. R. 75; 36 id. 999; 42 id, 62. 5. If there was such proof, whether there was, upon all the evidence, such a preponderance of proof, against the existence of any of those facts, that the verdict of a jury, affirming the existence thereof, rendered in an action in the supreme court, triable by a jury, would be set aside by the court, as against the weight of evidence. Code Civ. Pro., $ 2140. 57 Barb, 593, 601; 1 Sheld. 345; s. c. 56 N. Y. 664; 13 W. D. 207; 97 N. Y. 203; 100 id, 82,

85; 17 Abb. N. C. 366; 15 N. Y. St. R. 108, 110; 106 N. Y. 257, 261; 44 Hun, 293, 295; 30 id. 376, 377; 92 N. Y. 306, 309; 17 W. D. 169; 98 N. Y. 335; 34 Hun, 322; 38 id. 273: 9 N. Y. St. R. 609; s. c. 45 Hun, 56; 8 N. Y. St. R. 698; 44 Hun, 576; 20 Abb. N. C. 49, n., 54; 110 N. Y. 498; 11 N. Y. St. R. 577; 11 W. D. 39; 6 N.' Y. Supp. 345; 7 id. 461, 489; 119 N. Y. 502; 123 id. 636; 126 id. 360; 60 Hun, 225; 61 id. 53; 74 id. 167, 251; 85 id. 601; 4 Misc. 315; 32 N. Y. St. R. 839; 33 id. 599, 966; 36 id. 999; 37 id. 395; 38 id. 23; 39 id. 613; 40' id. 239; 42 id. 62; 48 id. 208; 55 id. 891; 56 id, 385; 58 id. 537; 59 id. 25; 65 id. 175; 69 id. 623; 1 N. Y. Supp. 878; 4 id. 172; 11 id. 111, 487; 12 id, 562; 13 id. 342; 14 id. 863; 15 id. 717; 16 id. 256, 603; 20 id. 350, 920; 23

id. 113; 24 id. 656; 1 App. Div. 534; 4 id. 266, 270; 2 id. 445, '538. 23 Final order. The court, upon the hearing, may make a final order, annulling or confirming, wholly or partly, or modifying, the determination reviewed, as to any or all of the parties. Code Civ. Pro., § 2141. 49 Barb. 136; 43 id. 232, 238; 48 id. 173; s. c. 33 How. Pr. 150; s. c. 48 N. Y. 70; 50 N. Y.

Super. 91; 100 N. Y. 85; 8 N. Y. St. R. 700; 8. c. 106 N. Y. 264; 42 Hun, 241, 581, 587; 7 Misc. 198; 46 X. Y. St. R. 910; 68 id. 281; 14 N. Y. Supp. 713; 37 d. 107; 1 App.

Dir. 70. 24 Same: restitution. Where the determination reviewed is annulled or modified, the court may order and enforce restitution, in like manner, with like effect and subject to the same conditions, as where a judgment is reversed upon appeal. Code Civ. Pro., § 2142. 25 W. D. 154; s. c. 42 Hun, 241; 132 N. Y. 363; 28 Abb. N. C. 175; 44 N. Y. St. R. 405.

25 Same: costs. Costs, not exceeding fifty dollars and disbursements, may be awarded by the final order, in favor of or against either party, in the discretion of the court. Code Civ. Pro., § 2143. 13 Hun, 227; 15 id. 575; 27 id. 128, 130, 218, 219; 29 id. 159, 160; 32 id. 611; 44 id. 296;

29 id. 125; s. c. 16 W. D. 336; 69 N. Y. 362; 76 id. 65; 18 Abb. N. C. 246, 247; 17 id, 368, n.; 20 id. 56, n.; 18 W. D. 258; 17 id. 169; 57 Hun, 280; 32 N. Y. St. R. 21, 652;

10 N. Y. Supp. 512. 26 Same: Aling; enrollment. The final order of the court upon the certiorari must be entered in the office of the clerk where the writ was returnable. But before it can be enforced, an enrollment thereof must be filed. For that purpose, the clerk must attach together, and file in his office, the papers upon which the cause was heard; a certified copy of the final order; and a certified copy of each order, which in any way involves the merits, or necessarily affects the final order. Code Civ. Pro., § 2144. 22 Hun, 470; 106 N. Y. 264; s. c. 8 N. Y. St. R. 700; 68 id. 165, 210.

27 Effect. The filing of the enrollment in the office of the clerk where the final order is entered, as prescribed in the last section, is a sufficient authority for any proceeding, by or before the body which, or the officer who, made the

y or before then the last sectione of the clerk where

determination reviewed, which the final order of the court directs or permits. But where the execution of the final order is stayed by an appeal to the court of appeals, the proceedings below are stayed in like manner. Code Civ. Pro., § 2145.

28 Definitions. The expression, “ body or officer”, as used in this article,* includes every court, tribunal, board, corporation, or other person, or aggregation of persons, whose determination may be reviewed by a writ of certiorari; and the word, “ determination ", as used in this article,* includes every judgment, order, decision, adjudication, or other act of such a body or officer, which is subject to be so reviewed. Code Civ. Pro., § 2146.

29 Cases not affected by this article. Where the right to a writ of certiorari is expressly conferred, or the issuing thereof is expressly authorized, by a statute, passed before, and remaining in force after, this article* takes effect, this article does not vary, or affect in any manner, any provision of the former statute, which expressly prescribes a different regulation, with respect to any of the proceedings upon the certiorari to be issued thereunder. Code Civ. Pro., § 2147. 40 Hun, 176, 178.

30 Same: criminal matters. This article* is not applicable to a writ of certiorari, brought to review a determination made in any criminal matter, except a criminal contempt of court. Code Civ. Pro., § 2148.

82 Hun, 242; 62 N. Y. St. R. 176; 63 id. 832.
OF DETERMINATION OF CANAL APPRAISERS; see State Funds, SS 16–18.
OF ERRONEOUS ASSESSMENT ; see Tax Law, SS 196, 197, 198, 250–256.
IN EXCISE CASES; see Liquor Tax Law, $ 28.
EXTRA ALLOWANCE ON ; see Costs, S 48.
GENERAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING ; see State Writs.
IN PROCEEDINGS BY JUDGE ADVOCATES; see Military Code, S 124.
OF PROCEEDINGS IN INSOLVENCY; see Trusts, etc., S 88.
WRIT OF, IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS ABOLISHED; see Appeals, $ 70.

See also Habeas Corpus. For earlier laws on this subject, see Birdseye's Chronological Table of Statutes, under L. 1801, Revised Acts, c. 13 (1 K. & R. 192); 1 R. L., 1813, pp. 140-142, and see 2 R. S. 563–575, 602-604, 717-719.

CESSIONS. To UNITED STATES; see State Law, SS 20–37 h.

CHAIN. See Domestic Commerce Law, $ 3.

CHALLENGES. OF GRAND JURORS ; see Grand Juries, SS 22, 39-45; Judgment, etc., $ 111. IN MILITARY COURTS ; see Military Code, $ 217. OF PETIT JURORS; see Exceptions, S 17 ; Insanity Law, S 137 ; Judgment, etc., § 111;

Justices' Courts, $ 139; Reprieves, S 6; Trials, SS 89, 195–199, 233-260, 342-344. OF SPECIAL JURORS; see Jury, SS 86, 87. OF VOTERS AT CAUCUSES; see Election Law, SS 52, 54, 56. OF VOTERS AT CORPORATION ELECTIONS; seé Corporations, SS 20–22. OF VOTERS AT MILITIA ELECTIONS; see Military Code, $ 56. OF VOTERS AT PUBLIC ELECTIONS ; see Consolidated School Law, SS 96, 97, 99 : Constitu

tion, S 20; Election Law, S$ 34, 54, 102, 104, 108, 110–112, 193, 237; Town Law, S 30. See also Duels and Challenges.

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. See Arbitrations, $ 22, n.; Nautical School.

CHAMBERLAIN. See Inns, etc., SS 6, 7; Payment, etc., $ 14.

CHAMPERTY AND MAINTENANCE. 1 Buying lands in suit. A person who takes a conveyance of any lands or tenements, or of any interest or estate therein, from any person not being in the possession thereof, while such lands or tenements are the subject of controversy, by such suit in any court, knowing the pendency of suit and that the grantor was not in possession of such lands or tenements, is guilty of a misdemeanor. Pen. Code, $ 129. 7 Wend. 152, 153; 8 id. 629; 1 id. 433; 6 id. 213; 21 id. 98; 20 id. 212; 22 id. 403; 8 Johns. 479; 7 id. 251; 13 id. 289, 466; 12 id. 484; 1 id. 345; 4 N. Y. Leg. Obs. 263; 14 N. Y.

* This subject, $8 2–30.

289; 79 id. 390; 18 Barb. 473; 2 id. 156; 39 id. 513; 2 Rob. 489; 3 Cow. 623; 5 Den. 308; 18 Hun, 226; 120 N. Y. 628; 30 N. Y. St. R. 893. 2 Buying or selling lands out of possession. A person who buys or sells, or in any manner procures, or takes or makes any covenant or promise to convey any right, or title real or pretended, to any lands or tenements, unless the grantor thereof or the person making such covenant or promise has been in possession, or he and those by whom he claims, have been in possession of the same or of the reversion and remainder thereof, or have taken the rents and profits thereof for the space of one year before such covenant or promise made, is guilty of a misdemeanor. Pen. Code, § 130. 20 Wend. 212; 22 id. 403; 6 id. 213; 21 id. 98; 79 N. Y. 390; 2 Barb. 156; 20 id. 429; 3 Cow.

623; 5 Den. 308; 13 Johns. 289; 18 Hun, 226; 92 id. 456; 5 T. & C. 70; 120 N. Y. 628;.

30 N. Y. St. R. 893. 3 Acts not prohibited. The last two sections shall not be construed to prevent any person having a just title to lands in the adverse possession of another, from executing a mortgage upon such lands, nor shall said sections apply to any conveyance or release of lands or tenements to any person in the lawful possession thereof. Pen. Code, $ 131, as am'd L. 1888, c. 282.

4 Buying demands for suit, by an attorney, etc. An attorney or counselor who violates section 73* of the code of civil procedure, relating to buying demands, or section 74† of the code of civil procedure relating to certain promises and gifts, is guilty of a misdemeanor. Pen. Code, § 136. 3 Cow. 252; 1 id. 443; 12 Wend. 142; 9 Barb. 297; 14 id. 548; 51 id. 580, 587; 57 id. 396;

2 Keyes, 106; 7 Hill, 586; 2 Barb, Ch. 306; 3 id. 630; 26 How. Pr. 213; 8 Abb. N. S. 174; 5 Park. 206; 2 Abb. N. C. 47; 5 Johns. Ch. 44; 3 Sandf, 696; 71 N. Y. 443;

10 Civ. Pro. 95. 5 Same, by justice or constable. A justice of the peace or a constable who, directly or indirectly, buys or is interested in buying any thing in action, for the purpose of commencing a suit thereon before a justice, is guilty of a misdemeanor. Pen. Code, § 137. 5 Park. 206; 8 How. 420.

6 Reward for bringing suit before justice. A justice of the peace or constable who, directly or indirectly, gives, or promises to give, any valuable consideration to any person as an inducement to bring, or in consideration of having brought, a suit thereon before a justice, is guilty of a misdemeanor. Pen. Code, $ 138, as am'd L. 1882, c. 384.

7 Conviction forfeits office. A person convicted of a violation of any of the three preceding sections, in addition to the punishment, by fine and imprisonment, prescribed therefor by this code, forfeits his office. Pen. Code, § 139.

8 Receiving claims, when allowable. Nothing in the four preceding sections shall be construed to prohibit the receiving in payment of any thing in action for any estate, real or personal, or for any services of an attorney or counselor actually rendered, or for a debt antecedently contracted; or the buying or receiving of any thing in action for the purpose of remittance, and without any intent to violate the preceding sections. Pen. Code, $ 140. 10 Wend. 557; 3 id. 120; 2 Barb. Ch. 306; 2 Keyes, 106; 9 Barb. 297; 57 id. 398; 5 Park.

9 Claims bought, etc., by one prosecuting in person. The provisions of sections one hundred and thirty-six, one hundred and thirty-eight and one hundred and forty, relative to the buying of claims by an attorney, counselor, justice of the peace or constable, with intent to prosecute them, or to the lending or advancing of money by an attorney or counselor in consideration of a claim being delivered for collection, apply to every case of such buying a claim, or lending or advancing money, by any person prosecuting in person an action or legal proceeding. Pen. Code, § 141, as am'd L. 1882, c. 381.

10 Privilege of witness restricted. No person shall be excused from testifying, in any civil action or legal proceeding, to any facts showing that a thing in *Attorneys, etc., $ 19.

† Attorneys, etc., § 20.

206.

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