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A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consisteth in the guilt of Adari's first sin, (1) the want of that righteousness wherein he was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that continually ;(2) which is commonly called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions. (3)

Q. 26. How is original sin conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity ?

(1) Rom. v. 12, 19. Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.-By one man's disobedience many were made sinners. 1 Cor. xv. 22.

(2) Rom. v.6. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Rom. iii. 1) to 20. As it is written, there is none righteous, no, not one: there is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one, &c. Eph. ii. 1, 2, 3. And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins, &c. Rom. viii. 7, 8. Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the flesh, cannot please God. Gen. vi. 5. And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

(3) James i. 14, 15. But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed. Then, when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death. Matt. xv. 19 For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adn! teries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies.

A. Original sin is conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity by natural generation, so as all that proceed from them in that way, are conceived and born in sin. (1)

Q. 27. What 'misery did the full bring upon mankind?

A. The fall brought upon mankind the loss of communion with God, (2) his displeasure and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath, (3) bond-slaves to Satan, (4) and justly liable to all punishments in this world and that which is to come. (5)

(1) Ps. li. 5. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and. in sin did my mother conceive me. Job xiv 4. Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean ? not one. Job xv. 14. What is man, that he should be clean ? and he which is born of a woman, that he should be righteous ? John iii. 6. That which is born of the flesh, is flesh.

(2) Gen. iii. 8, 24. And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden.--So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden, cherubims, and a flaming sword, which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.

(3) Eph. ii. 2, 3. Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience : among whom also we all had our conversation in times past, in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

(4) 2 Tim. ii. 26. And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will. Luke xi. 21, 22, Heb, ii. 14.

(5) Rom. vi. 23. The wages of sin is death. Rom. v. 14. Gen. ii. 17.

Q. 28. What are the punishments of sin in this world?

A. The punishments of sin in this world, are either inward, as blindness of mind, (1) a reprobate sense, (2) strong delusions, (3) hardness of heart, (4) horror of conscience, (5) and vile affections : (6) or outward, as the curse of God upon the creatures for our sakes, (7) and all other evils that befall us in our bodies, names, estates, relations, and employments; (8) together with death itself. (9)

(1) Eph. iv. 18. Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart.

(2) Rom. i. 28. Even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient.

(3) 2 Thess. ii. 11. And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie.

(4) Rom. ii. 5. But after thy hardness and impenitent heart, treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God.

(5) Isa. xxxiii. 14. The sinners in Zion are afraid ; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites. Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who amongst us shall dwell with everlasting burnings ? Gen. iv. 13, . 14. Matt. xxvii. 4. Heb. x. 27.

(6) Rom. i. 26. For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections.

(7) Gen. iii. 17. Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it, cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life.

(8) Deut. xxviii. 15, to the end. If thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God-all these curses shall come upon thee :-Cursed shalt thou be in the city, &c. (9) Rom. vi. 21, 23. What fruit had ye then in those

Q. 29. What are the punishments of sin in the world to come?

A. The punishments of sin in the world to come are, everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God and most grievous torments in soul and body, without intermission, in hell fire for ever. (1)

Q. 30. Doth God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?

A. God doth not leave all men to perish in the estate of sin and misery, (2) into which they fell by the breach of the first covenant, commonly called the covenant of works; (3) but of his mere love and mercy delivereth his elect out of it, and bringeth them into an estate of salvation by the second covenant, commonly called the.covenant of grace. (4) things whereof ye are now ashamed ? for the end of those things is death. --The wages of sin is death.

(1) 2 Thess. i. 9. Who shall be punished with everlasting restruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. Mark ix. 43, 44. To go into hell, where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. Luke xvi. 24, 26. Send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.--Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed : so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. Matt. xxv. 41, 46. Rev, xiv. 11. John iii. 36.

(2) 1 Thess. v. 9. For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ.

(3) Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

(4) Tit. iii. 4, 5, 6, 7. But after that the kindness

Q. 31. With whom was the covenant of

grace made?

A. The covenant of grace was made with Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed. (1)

Q. 32. How is the grace of God manifested in the second covenant?

A. The grace of God is manifested in the second covenant, in that he freely provideth and offereth to sinners a mediator, (2) and life

and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; which he shed on us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour: that being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. Tit. i. 2. In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began. Gal. iii. 21. Rom. iii. 20, 21, 22.

(1) Gal. iii. 16. Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many: but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. Isa. lix. 21. As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord; my Spirit that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever. Zech. vi. 13. Luke xxii. 29. 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. Rom. v. 15, to the end.

(2) Gen. iii. 15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed: it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Isa. xlii. 6. I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles. John vi. 27. Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto ever

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