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Hamilton, of West Ham Common, the first secre- became celebrated for its uncompromising religious tary of the Alliance Insurance Company. Among tone, and, as Mr. James Grant truly says, for the their supporters were Henry Law, Dean of Glou- earliness and accuracy of its politico-ecclesiastical cester, and Francis Close, afterwards Dean of information, Carlisle. Amongst its earliest writers was Dr. The old church of St. Bride (Bridget) was of (now Cardinal) John Henry Newman, of Oxford. great antiquity. As early as 1235 we find a turbuThe paper was all but dying when a new “whip” | lent foreigner, named Henry de Battle, after slaying

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was made for money, and the Rev. Henry Blunt, | one Thomas de Hall on the king's highway, flying of Chelsea, became for a short time its editor. for sanctuary to St. Bride's, where he was guarded The Record at last began to flourish and to by the aldermen and sheriffs, and examined in the assume a bolder and a more independent tone. church by the Constable of the Tower. The murDean Milman's neology, the peculiarities of the derer, after confessing his crime, abjured the realm. Irvingites, and the dangerous Oxford Tracts, were In 1413 a priest of St. Bride's was hung for an alternately denounced in it. In due course the intrigue in which he had been detected. William Record began to appear three times a week, and Venor, a warden of the Fleet Prison, added


a body and side aisles in 1480 (Edward IV.) At 1724, the first peal ever completed in this kingdom the Reformation there were orchards between upon twelve bells was rung by the college youths ; the parsonage gardens and the Thames. In 1637, and in 1726 the first peal of Bob Maximus, one a document in the Record Office, quoted by of the ringers being Mr. Francis (afterwards Admiral) Mr. Noble, inentions that Mr. Palmer, vicar of Geary. It was reported by the ancient ringers, St. Bride's, at the service at seven a.m., sometimes says our trustworthy authority, that every one who omitted the prayer for the bishop, and, being gene- rang in the last-mentioned peal left the church in rally lax as to forms, often read the service without his own carriage. Such was the dignity of the camsurplice, gown, or even his cloak. This worthy man, panularian " art in those days. When St. Bride's whose living was sequestered in 1642, is recorded, bells were first put up, Fleet Street used to be in order to save money for the poor, to have lived in thronged with carriages full of gentry, who had come a bed-chamber in St. Bride's steeple. He founded far and near to hear the pleasant music float aloft. an almshouse in Westminster, upon which Fuller During the terrible Gordon Riots, in 1780, Brasremarks, in his quaint way, “ It giveth the best light bridge, the silversmith, who wrote an autobiography, when one carrieth his lantern before him.” The says he went up to the top of St. Bride's steeple to brother of Pepys was buried here in 1664 under see the awful spectacle of the conflagration of the his mother's pew.

The old church was swallowed Fleet Prison, but the flakes of fire, even at that up by the Great Fire, and the present building great height, fell so thickly as to render the situaerected in 1680, at a cost of £11,430 5s. 11d. tion untenable. The tower and spire were considered master-pieces Many great people lie in and around St. Bride's; of Wren. The spire, originally 234 feet high, was and Mr. Noble gives several curious extracts from struck by lightning in 1754, and it is now only 226 the registers. Among the names we find Wynkyn feet high. It was again struck in 1803. The de Worde, the second printer in London ; Baker, illuminated dial (the second erected in London) was the chronicler ; Lovelace, the Cavalier poet, who set up permanently in 1827. The Spital sermons, died of want in Gunpowder Alley, Shoe Lane; now preached in Christ Church, Newgate Street, Ogilby, the translator of Homer; the Countess of were preached in St. Bride's from the Restoration Orrery (1710); Elizabeth Thomas, a lady immortill 1797. They were originally all preached talised by Pope; and John Hardham, the Fleet Street in the yard of the hospital of St. Mary Spital, tobacconist. The entrance to the vault of Mr. Bishopsgate. Mr. Noble has ransacked the Holden (a friend of Pepys), on the north side of records relating to St. Bride's with the patience of the church, is a relic of the older building. Inside old Stow. St. Bride's, he says, was renowned for St. Bride's are monuments to Richardson, the its tithe-rate contests ; but after many lawsuits novelist; Nichols, the historian of Leicestershire; and great expense, a final settlement of the question and Alderman Waithman. Among the clergy of was come to in the years 1705-6. An Act was St. Bride's Mr. Noble notes John Cardmaker, who passed in 1706, by which Thomas Townley, who was burnt at Smithfield for heresy, in 1555; Fuller, had rented the tithes for twenty-one years, was to the Church historian and author of the "Worthies,” be paid £1,200 within two years, by quarterly pay- who was lecturer here ; Dr. Isaac Madox, originally ments and £400 a year afterwards. In 1869 the an apprentice to a pastrycook, and who died Bishop impropriate rectory of St. Bridget and the tithes of Winchester in 1759; and Dr. John Thomas, vicar, thereof, except the advowson, the parsonage house, who died in 1793. There were two John Thomases and Easter-dues offerings, were sold by auction for among the City clergy of that time. They were both £2,700. It may be here worthy to note, says chaplains to the king, both good preachers, both Mr. Noble, that in 1705 the number of rateable squinted, and both died bishops ! houses in the parish of St. Bride was 1,016, and The present approach to St. Bride's, designed by the rental £18,374; in 1868 the rental was J. P. Papworth, in 1824, cost £10,000, and was £205,407 gross, £168,996 rateable.

urged forward by Mr. Blades, a Tory tradesman of Mr. Noble also records pleasantly sundry musical Ludgate Hill, and a great opponent of Alderman feats accomplished on the bells of St. Bride's. In Waithman. A fire that had destroyed some 1710 ten bells were cast for this church by Abra- ricketty old houses gave the requisite opportunity ham Rudhall, of Gloucester, and on the 11th of for letting air and light round poor, smothered-up January, 1717, it is recorded that the first com- St. Bride's. plete peal of 5,040 grandsire caters ever rung was The office of Punch (No. 85, south side) is said effected by the “ London scholars." In 1718 two to occupy the site of the small school, in the house treble bells were added ; and on the 9th of January, of a tailor, in which Milton once earned a precarious

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living. Here, ever since 1841, the pleasant jester of Physiology of the London Medical Student.' Fleet Street has scared folly by the jangle of his bells The writers already named, with a few volunand the blows of his staff. The best and most teers selected from the editor's box, filled the first authentic account of the origin of Punch is to be volume, and belonged to the ante-' B. & E.' era of found in the following communication to Notes and Punch's history. The proprietary had hitherto Queries, September 30, 1870. Mr. W. H. Wills, who consisted of Messrs. Henry Mayhew, Lemon, was one of the earliest contributors to Punch, says : - Coyne, and Landells. The printer and publisher

, “The idea of converting Punch from a strolling also held shares, and were treasurers. Although to a literary laughing philosopher belongs to Mr. the popularity of Punch exceeded all expectation, Henry Mayhew, former editor (with his school- the first volume ended in difficulties. From these fellow Mr. Gilbert à Beckett) of Figaro in London. storm-tossed seas Punch was rescued and brought The first three numbers, issued in July and August, into smooth water by Messrs. Bradbury & Evans, 1841, were composed almost entirely by that who acquired the copyright and organised the staff. gentleman, Mr. Mark Lemon, Mr. Henry Plunkett Then it was that Mr. Mark Lemon was appointed (“Fusbos'), Mr. Stirling Coyne, and the writer of sole editor, a new office having been created for these lines. Messrs. Mayhew and Lemon put the Mr. Henry Mayhew—that of Suggestor-in-Chief; numbers together, but did not formally dub them- Mr. Mayhew's contributions, and his felicity in inselves editors until the appearance of their ‘Shilling's venting pictorial and in putting' verbal witticisms, Worth of Nonsense.' The cartoons, then ‘Punch's having already set a deep mark upon Punch's sucPencillings,' and the smaller cuts, were drawn by cess. The second volume started merrily. Mr. John Mr. A. S. Henning, Mr. Newman, and Mr. Alfred Oxenford contributed his first jeu d'esprit in its final Forester ('Crowquill'); later, by Mr. Hablot Browne number on · Herr Döbler and the Candle-Counter.' and Mr. Kenny Meadows. The designs were en- Mr. Thackeray commenced his connection in the graved by Mr. Ebenezer Landells, who occupied also beginning of the third volume with ‘Miss Ticklethe important position of capitalist.' Mr. Gilbert toby's Lectures on English History,' illustrated by à Beckett's first contribution to Punch, The Above- himself. A few weeks later a handsome young bridge Navy,' appeared in No. 4, with Mr. John student returned from Germany. He was heartily Leech's earliest cartoon, “Foreign Affairs. It was welcomed by his brother, Mr. Henry Mayhew, and not till Mr. Leech's strong objection to treat then by the rest of the fraternity. Mr. Horace political subjects was overcome, that, long after, he Mayhew's diploma joke consisted, I believe, of began to illustrate Punch's pages regularly. This · Questions addressées au Grand Concours aux he did, with the brilliant results that made his Elèves d'Anglais du Collége St. Badaud, dans le name famous, down to his untimely death. The Département de la Haute Cockaigne' (vol. iii., letterpress description of Foreign Affairs' was p. 89). Mr. Richard Doyle, Mr. Tenniel, Mr. written by Mr. Percival Leigh, who-also after Shirley Brooks, Mr. Tom Taylor, and the younger an interval-steadily contributed. Mr. Douglas celebrities who now keep Mr. Punch in vigorous Jerrold began to wield Punch's baton in No. 9. and jovial vitality, joined his establishment after His ' Peel Regularly Called in' was the first of some of the birth-mates had been drafted off to those withering political satires, signed with a 'J' graver literary and other tasks.” in the corner of each page opposite to the cartoon, Mr. Mark Lemon remained editor of Punch from that conferred on Punch a wholesome influence in 1841 till 1870, when he died. His successor was politics. Mr. Albert Smith made his début in this Shirley Brooks, whose reign lasted till his death wise :-At the birth of Punch had just died a in 1876. Mr. Gilbert à Beckett, who died at periodical called (I think) the Cosmorama. When Boulogne in 1856, succeeded in the more varied moribund, Mr. Henry Mayhew was called in to kinds of composition, turning with extraordinary resuscitate it. This periodical bequeathed a comic rapidity from a Times leader to a Punch epigram. census-paper filled up, in the character of a show- A pamphlet attributed to Mr. Blanchard conveys, man, so cleverly that the author was eagerly sought after all, the most minute account of the origin of

at the starting of Punch. He proved to be a Punch. A favourite story of the literary gossipers · medical student hailing from Chertsey, and signing who have made Mr. Punch their subject from time

the initials A. S.-'only,' remarked Jerrold, two- to time, says the writer, is that he was born in a thirds of the truth, perhaps.' This pleasant sup- tavern parlour. The idea usually presented to the position was, however, reversed at the very first public is, that a little society of great men used to introduction. On that occasion Mr. Albert meet together in a private room in a tavern close Smith left the copy' of the opening of “The to Drury Lane Theatre. The truth is this :


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In the year 1841 there was a printing-office in a joke about the “ Lemon” in it. Henry Mayhew, court running out of Fleet Street-No. 3, Crane with his usual electric quickness, at once few at Court—wherein was carried on the business of the idea, and cried out, “A good thought; we'll Mr. Joseph William Last. It was here that Punch call it Punch.It was then remembered that, years first saw the light. The house, by the way, enjoys before, Douglas Jerrold had edited a Penny Punch besides a distinction of a different kind—that of for Mr. Duncombe, of Middle Row, Holborn, but being the birthplace of “Parr's Life Pills;" for Mr. this was thought no objection, and the new name Herbert Ingram, who had not at that time launched was carried by acclamation. It was agreed that the Illustrated London News, nor become a member there should be four proprietors—Messrs. Last, of Parliament, was then introducing that since Landells, Lemon, and Mayhew. Last was to celebrated medicine to the public, and for that supply the printing, Landells the engraving, and purpose had rented some rooms on the premises Lemon and Mayhew were to be co-editors. George of his friend Mr. Last.

Hodder, with his usual good-nature, at once secured The circumstance which led to Punch's birth was Mr. Percival Leigh as a contributor, and Leigh simple enough. In June, 1841, Mr. Last called brought in his friend Mr. John Leech, and Leech upon Mr. Alfred Mayhew, then in the office of his brought in Albert Smith. Mr. Henning designed father, Mr. Joshua Mayhew, the well-known solicitor, the cover. When Last had sunk £600, he sold his of Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. Mr. May- share to Messrs. Bradbury and Evans, on receiving hew was Mr. Last's legal adviser, and Mr. Last the amount of his then outstanding liabilities. At was well acquainted with several of his sons. the transfer, Henning and Newman both retired, Upon the occasion in question Mr. Last made Mr. Coyne and Mr. Grattan seldom contributed, some inquiries of Mr. Alfred Mayhew concerning and Messrs. Mayhew and Landells also seceded. his brother Henry, and his occupation at the time. Mr. Hine, the artist, remained with Punch for many Mr. Henry Mayhew had, even at his then early years; and among other artistic contributors who age, a reputation for the high abilities which he “came and went,” to use Mr. Blanchard's own words, afterwards developed, had already experience in we must mention Birket Foster, Alfred Crowquill, various departments of literature, and had exer- Lee, Hamerton, John Gilbert, William Harvey, and cised his projective and inventive faculties in Kenny Meadows, the last of whom illustrated one various ways. If his friends had heard nothing of of Jerrold's earliest series, “Punch's Letters to him for a few months, they usually found that he His Son.” Punch's Almanac for 1841 was conhad a new design in hand, which was, however, in cocted for the greater part by Dr. Maginn, who many cases, of a more original than practical cha- was then in the Fleet Prison, where Thackeray has racter. Mr. Henry Mayhew, as it appeared from his drawn him, in the character of Captain Shandon, brother Alfred's reply, was not at that time engaged writing the famous prospectus for the Pall Mall in any new effort of his creative genius, and would Gazette. The earliest hits of Punch were Douglas be open to a proposal for active service.

Jerrold's articles signed“ J." and Gilbert à Beckett's Having obtained Mr. Henry Mayhew's address, “Adventures of Mr. Briefless.” In October, 1841,

“ which was in Clement's Inn, Mr. Last called upon Mr. W. H. Wills, afterwards working editor of Housethat gentleman on the following morning, and hold Words and All the Year Round, commenced opened to him a proposal for a comic and satirical “ Punch's Guide to the Watering-Places.” In journal. Henry Mayhew readily entertained the January, 1842, Albert Smith commenced his lively idea; and the next question was, "Can you get up “ Physiology of London Evening Parties," which

; a staff?” Henry Mayhew mentioned his friend were illustrated by Newman ; and he wrote the Mark Lemon as a good commencement; and the “ Physiology of the London Idler," which Leech pair proceeded to call upon that gentleman, who was illustrated. In the third volume, Jerrold comliving, not far off, in Newcastle Street, Strand. The menced “ Punch's Letters to His Son ;” and in almost immediate result was the starting of Punch. the fourth volume, his “Story of a Feather ;”

At a meeting at the “Edinburgh Castle" Mr. Albert Smith's "Side-Scenes of Society” carried Mark Lemon drew up the original prospectus. It on the social dissections of the comic physiologist, was at first intended to call the new publication and à Beckett began his “Heathen Mythology," “ The Funny Dog,” or “Funny Dog, with Comic and created the character of “Jenkins,” the supTales," and from the first the subsidiary title of the posed fashionable correspondent of the Morning “London Charivari” was agreed upon. At a sub- Post

. Punch had begun his career by ridiculing sequent meeting at the printing-office, some one Lord Melbourne ; he now attacked Brougham, for made some allusion to the “ Punch," and some his temporary subservience to Wellington; and Sir



James Graham came also in for a share of the rod; additions to the staff were Mr. Shirley Brooks and and the Morning Herald and Standard were chris- Mr. Tom Taylor, now its editor. tened “Mrs. Gamp” and “Mrs. Harris," as old- The Dispatch (No. 139, north) was established fogyish opponents of Peel and the Free-Traders. by Mr. Bell, in 1801. Moving from Bride Lane À Beckett's “Comic Blackstone” proved a great to Newcastle Street, and thence to Wine Office hit, from its daring originality; and incessant jokes Court, it settled down in the present locality in were squibbed off on Lord John Russell, Prince 1824. Mr. Bell was an energetic man, and the Albert (for his military tailoring), Mr. Silk Bucking- paper succeeded in obtaining a good position ; ham and Lord William Lennox, Mr. Samuel Carter but he was not a man of large capital, and other Hall and Mr. Harrison Ainsworth. Tennyson persons had shares in the property.

In conseonce, and once only, wrote for Punch, a reply to quence of difficulties between the proprietors there Lord Lytton (then Mr. Bulwer), who had coarsely were at one time three Dispatches in the fieldattacked him in his “New Timon,” where he had Bell's, Kent's, and Duckett's; but the two lastspoken flippantly of

mentioned were short-lived, and Mr. Bell maintained

his position. Bell's was a sporting paper, with many " A quaint farrago of absurd conceits, Out-babying Wordsworth and out-glittering Keats."

columns devoted to pugilism, and a woodcut ex

hibiting two boxers ready for an encounter. But The epigram ended with these bitter and con- the editor (says a story more or less authentic), temptuous lines,

Mr. Samuel Smith, who had obtained his post by “A Timon you? Nay, nay, for shame!

cleverly reporting a fight near Canterbury, one It looks too arrogant a jest—

day received a severe thrashing from a famous That fierce old man-to take his name, You bandbox! Off, and let him rest.”

member of the ring. This changed the editor's

opinions as to the propriety of boxing—at anyAlbert Smith left Punch many years before his rate pugilism was repudiated by the Dispatch death. In 1845, on his return from the East, Mr. about 1829; and boxing, from the Dispatch point of Thackeray began his “Jeames's Diary," and became view, was henceforward treated as a degrading and a regular contributor. Gilbert à Beckett was now brutal amusement, unworthy of our civilisation. beginning his “Comic History of England" and Mr. Harmer (afterwards Alderman), a solicitor in Douglas Jerrold his inimitable “Caudle Lectures." extensive practice in Old Bailey cases, became Thomas Hood occasionally contributed, but his connected with the paper about the time when the immortal “Song of the Shirt” was his chef-d'æuvre. Fleet Street office was established, and contributed Coventry Patmore contributed once. to Punch; capital, which soon bore fruit. The success was his verses denounced General Pellisier and his so great, that for many years the Dispatch as a cruelty at the caves of Dahra. Laman Blanchard property was inferior only to the Times. It beoccasionally wrote; his best poem was one on the came famous for its letters on political subjects. marriage and temporary retirement of charming The original “Publicola” was Mr. Williams, a Mrs. Nisbett. In 1846 Thackeray's “Snobs of violent and coarse but very vigorous and popular England” was highly successful. Richard Doyle's writer. He wrote weekly for about sixteen or “Manners and Customs of ye English” brought seventeen years, and after his death the signature Punch much increase. The present cover of was assumed by Mr. ox, the famous orator and Punch was designed by Doyle, who, being a zealous member for Oldham. Other writers also borrowed Roman Catholic, left Punch when it began to the well-known signature. Eliza Cook wrote in the ridicule the Pope and condemn“Papal Aggression." Dispatch in 1836, at first signing her poems “E." Punch in his time has had his raps, but not many and “E.C.”; but in the course of the following year and not hard ones. Poor Angus B. Reach (whose her name appeared in full. She contributed a poem mind went early in life), with Albert Smith and weekly for several years, relinquishing her conShirley Brooks, ridiculed Punch in the Man in the nection with the paper in 1850. Afterwards, in Moon; and in 1847 the Poet Bunn—" Hot, cross 1869, when the property changed hands, she wrote Bunn”-provoked at incessant attacks on his two or three poems. Under the signature “Caustic,” operatic verses, hired a man of letters to write Mr. Serle, the dramatic author and editor, con“A Word with Punch," and a few smart person- tributed a weekly letter for about twenty-seven alities soon silenced the jester. “Towards 1848," years; and from 1856 till 1869 was editor-in-chief. says Mr. Blanchard, "Douglas Jerrold, then writing In 1841-42 the Dispatch had a hard-fought duel plays and editing a magazine, began to write less with the Times. “Publicola” wrote a series of for Punch.In 1857 he died. Among the later letters, which had the effect of preventing the


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