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that it seems fit rather to be engraved on steel were reckoned. Wren supposed that Watling than written on perishable paper, says that Londi- Street, of which Cannon Street is a part, was the nium, though not, indeed, dignified with the name High Street of Roman London. Another street ran of colony, was a place highly celebrated for the west along Holborn from Cheapside, and from number of its merchants and the confluence of Cheapside probably north. A northern road ran traffic. In the year 62 London was probably still by Aldgate, and probably Bishopsgate. The road without walls, and its inhabitants were not Roman from Dover came either over a ferry near the site citizens, like those of Verulamium (St. Alban's). of the present London Bridge or higher up at When the Britons, roused by the wrongs of the fierce Dowgate, from Stoney Street on the Surrey side. Boadicea (Queen of the Iceni, the people of Early Roman London was scarcely larger than Norfolk and Suffolk), bore down on London, her Hyde Park. Mr. Roach Smith, the best of all back still" bleeding from the Roman rods,” she slew authorities on the subject, gives its length from the in London and Verulamium alone 70,000 citizens Tower to Ludgate, east and west, at about a mile; and allies of Rome; impaling many beautiful and and north and south, that is from London Wall to well-born women, amid revelling sacrifices, in the the Thames, at about half a mile. The earliest grove of Andate, the British Goddess of Victory. Roman city was even smaller, for Roman sepulchres It is supposed that after this reckless slaughter the have been found in Bow Lane, Moorgate Street, tigress and her savage followers burned the cluster Bishopsgate Within, which must at that time have of wooden houses that then formed London to the been beyond the walls. The Roman cemeteries of ground. Certain it is, that when deep sections were Smithfield, St. Paul's, Whitechapel, the Minories, made for a sewer in Lombard Street in 1786, the and Spitalfields, are of later dates, and are in all lowest stratum consisted of tesselated Roman pave- cases beyond the old line of circumvallation, ments, their coloured dice laying scattered like flower according to the sound Roman custom fixed by law. leaves, and above that of a thick layer of wood The earlier London Mr. Roach Smith describes ashes, as of the débris of charred wooden buildings. as an irregular space, the five main gates correspondThis ruin the Romans avenged by the slaughter of ing with Bridgegate, Ludgate, Bishopsgate, Alders80,000 Britons in a butchering fight, generally be- gate, and Aldgate. The north wall followed for lieved to have taken place at King's Cross (otherwise some part the course of Cornhill and Leadenhall Battle Bridge), after which the fugitive Boadicea, Street; the eastern Billiter Street and Mark Lane; in rage and despair, took poison and perished. the southern Thames Street ; and the western the

London probably soon sprang, phenix-like, from east side of Walbrook. Of the larger Roman wall, the fire, though history leaves it in darkness to there were within the memory of man huge, shapeenjoy a lull of 200 years. In the early part of the less masses, with trees growing upon them, opposite second century Ptolemy, the geographer, speaks of what is now Finsbury Circus. In 1852 a piece of it as a city of the Kentish people ; but Mr. Craik Roman wall on Tower Hill was rescued from the very ingeniously conjectures that the Greek writer improvers, and built into some stables and outtook his information from Phoenician works de- houses; but not before a careful sketch had been scriptive of Britain, written before even the invasion effected by the late Mr. Fairholt, one of the best of of Cæsar. Theodosius, a general of the Emperor our antiquarian draughtsmen. The later Roman Valentinian, who saved London from gathered London was in general outline the same in shape hordes of Scots, Picts, Franks, and Saxons, is sup- and size as the London of the Saxons and Norposed to have repaired the walls of London, which mans. The newer walls Pennant calculates at had been first built by the Emperor Constantine 3 miles 165 feet in circumference, they were 22 feet early in the fourth century. In the reign of high, and guarded with forty lofty towers. At the Theodosius, London, now called Augusta, became end of the last century large portions of the old one of the chief, if not the chief, of the seventy Roman wall were traceable in many places, but Roman cities in Britain. In the famous “Itinerary” time has devoured almost the last morsels of that of Antoninus (about the end of the third century) great pièce de résistance. In 1763 Mr. Gough made London stands as the goal or starting-point of a drawing of a square Roman tower (one of three) seven out of the fifteen great central Roman roads then standing in Houndsditch. It was built in in England. Camden considers the London Stone, alternate layers of massive square stones and red now enshrined in the south wall of St. Swithin's tiles. The old loophole for the sentinel had been Church, Cannon Street, to have been the central enlarged into a square latticed window. In 1857, milestone of Roman England, from which all the while digging foundations for houses on the northchief roads radiated, and by which the distances east side of Aldermanbury Postern, the workmen came on a portion of the Roman wall strengthened altar, and proves nothing; and the ox bones, it by blind arches. All that now substantially remains any, found at St. Paul's, were perhaps refuse thrown of the old fortification is a bastion in St. Giles's into a rubbish-heap outside the old walls. As Church, Cripplegate ; a fragment in St. Martin's to the Temple of Apollo, supposed to have been Court, off Ludgate Hill; another portion exists in the replaced by Westminster Abbey, that is merely an Old Bailey, concealed behind houses; and a fourth, invention of rival monks to glorify Thorney Island, near George Street, Tower Hill

. Portions of the and to render its antiquity equal to the fabulous wall have, however, been also broached in Falcon claims of St. Paul's. Nor is there any positive Square (one of which we have engraved), Bush proof that shrines to British gods ever stood on Lane, Scott's Yard, and Cornhill, and others built either place, though that they may have done so is in cellars and warehouses from opposite the Tower not at all improbable. and Cripplegate.

The existing relics of Roman London are far The line of the Roman walls ran from the more valuable and more numerous than is geneTower straight to Aldgate ; there making an rally supposed. Innumerable tesselated pavements, angle, it continued to Bishopsgate. From there masterpieces of artistic industry and taste, have it turned westward to St. Giles's Churchyard, where been found in the City. A few of these should be it veered south to Falcon Square. At this point it noted. In 1854 part of the pavement of a room, continued west to Aldersgate, running under Christ's twenty-eight feet square, was discovered, when the Hospital, and onward to Giltspur Street. There Excise Office was pulled down, between Bishopsforming an angle, it proceeded directly to Ludgate gate Street and Broad Street. The central subject towards the Thames, passing to the south of St. was supposed to be the Rape of Europa. A few Andrew's Church. The wall then crossed Addle years before another pavement was met with near Street, and took a course along Upper and the same spot In 1841 two pavements were dug Lower Thames Street towards the Tower. In

up under the French Protestant Church in ThreadThames Street the wall has been found built on needle Street. The best of these we have enoaken piles; on these was laid a stratum of chalk graved. In 1792 a circular pavement was found and stones, and over this a course of large, hewn in the same locality; and there has also been sandstones, cemented with quicklime, sand, and dug up in the same street a curious female head, pounded tile. The body of the wall was con- the size of life, formed of coloured stones and structed of ragstone, flint, and lime, bonded at glass. In 1805 a beautiful Roman pavement was intervals with courses of plain and curve-edged tiles. disinterred' on the north-east angle of the Bank of

That Roman London grew slowly there is England, near the gate opening into Lothbury, abundant proof. In building the new Exchange, and is now in the British Museum. In 1803 a fine the workmen came on a gravel-pit full of oyster- specimen of pavement was found in front of the shells, cattle bones, old sandals, and shattered East-India House, Leadenhall Street, the central pottery. No coin found there being later than design being Bacchus reclining on panther. In Severus indicates that this ground was bare waste this pavement twenty distinct tints had been sucoutside the original city until at least the latter cessfully used. Other pavements have been cut part of the third century. How far Roman through in Crosby Square, Bartholemew Lane, London eventually spread its advancing waves Fenchurch Street, and College Street. The soil, of houses may be seen from the fact that Roman according to Mr. Roach Smith, seems to have wall-paintings, indicating villas of men of wealth risen over them at the rate of nearly a foot in a and position, have been found on both sides of century. High Street, Southwark, almost up to St. George's The statuary found in London should also not Church; while one of the outlying Roman be forgotten. One of the most remarkable pieces cemeteries bordered the Kent Road.

a colossal bronze head of the Emperor From the horns of cattle having been dug up in Hadrian, dredged up from the Thames a little St. Paul's Churchyard, the monks, ever eager to below London Bridge. It is now in the British discover traces of that Paganism on which they Museum. A colossal bronze hand, thirteen engrafted Christianity, conjectured that a temple inches long, was also found in Thames Street, of Diana once stood on the site of St. Paul's. A near the Tower. In 1857, near London Bridge, stone altar, with a rude figure of the amazon the dredgers found a beautiful bronze Apollino, a goddess sculptured upon it, was indeed discovered Mercury of exquisite design, a priest of Cybele, in making the foundations for Goldsmiths' Hall, and a figure supposed to be Jupiter. The Apollino Cheapside ; but this was a mere votive or private and Mercury are masterpieces of ideal beauty and


grace. In 1842 a chef d'auvre was dug out near The Romans left deep footprints wherever they the old Roman wall in Queen Street, Cheapside. trod. Many of our London streets still follow the It was the bronze stooping figure of an archer. It lines they first laid down. The river bank still has silver eyes; and the perfect expression and heaves beneath the ruins of their palaces. London anatomy display the highest art.

Stone, as we have already shown, still stands to In 1825 a graceful little silver figure of the child mark the starting-point of the great roads that they Harpocrates, the God of Silence, looped with a gold designed. In a lane out of the Strand there still chain, was found in the Thames, and is now in the exists a bath where their sinewy youth laved their British Museum. In 1839 a pair of gold armlets limbs, dusty from the chariot races at the Campus were dug up in Queen Street, Cheapside. In a Martius at Finsbury. The pavements trodden kiln in St. Paul's Churchyard, in 1677, there were by the feet of Hadrian and Constantine still lie found lamps, bottles, urns, and dishes. Among buried under the restless wheels that roll over our other relics of Roman London drifted down by time City streets. The ramparts which the legionaries we may instance articles of red glazed pottery, tiles, guarded have not yet crumbled to dust, though the

, glass cups, window glass, bath scrapers, gold hair- rude people they conquered have themselves long pins, enamelled clasps, sandals, writing tablets, since grown into conquerors. Roman London now bronze spoons, forks, distaffs, bells, dice, and mill-exists only in fragments, invisible save to the stones. As for coins, which the Romans seem to prying antiquary. As the seed is to be found have hid in every conceivable nook, Mr. Roach hanging to the root of the ripe wheat, so some Smith says that within twenty years upwards of filaments of the first germ of London, of the British 2,000 were, to his own knowledge, found in hut and the Roman villa, still exist hidden under London, chiefly in the bed of the Thames. Only the foundations of the busy city that now teems one Greek coin, as far as we know, has ever been with thousands of inhabitants. We tread under met with in London excavations.

foot daily the pride of our old oppressors.


TEMPLE BAR. Temple Bar—The Golgotha of English Traitors-When Temple Bar was made of Wood-Historical Pageants at Temple Bar-The Associations of

Temple Bar-Mischievous Processions through Temple Bar--The First grim Trophy-Rye-House Plot Conspirators. TEMPLE BAR was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, The Bar, after having been for many years a in 1670-72, soon after the Great Fire had swept away great obstruction to the traffic, was removed in the eighty-nine London churches, four out of the seven winter of 1877-8, whilst the New Law Courts were City gates, 460 streets, and 13,200 houses, and had in process of erection. The Bar was of Portland destroyed fifteen of the twenty-six wards, and laid stone, which London smoke alternately blackens waste 436 acres of buildings, from the Tower east- and calcines ; and each façade had four Corinthian ward to the Inner Temple westward.

pilasters, an entablature, and an arched pediment. The old black gateway, once the dreaded Gol. On the west (Strand) side, in two niches, stood, as gotha of English traitors, separated, it should be eternal sentries, Charles I. and Charles II., in remembered, the Strand from Fleet Street, the city Roman costume. Charles I. long ago lost his from the shire, and the Freedom of the City of bâton, as he once deliberately lost his head. Over London from the Liberty of the City of Westminster. the keystone of the central arch there used to be As Hatton (1708—Queen Anne) says,—“ This gate the royal arms. On the east side were James I. opens not immediately into the City itself, but into and Elizabeth (by many able writers supposed to be the Liberty or Freedom thereof." We need hardly Anne of Denmark, the queen of James I.). She say that nothing can be more erroneous than the was pointing her white finger at Child's ; while he, ordinary London supposition that Temple Bar ever looking down on the passing cabs, seemed to say, formed part of the City fortifications. Mr. Gilbert “I am nearly tired of standing ; suppose we go to

“ à Beckett, laughing at this tradition, once said in Whitehall, and sit down a bit ?” Punch: “Temple Bar has always seemed to me These affected, mean statues, with their crinkly a weak point in the fortifications of London. Bless drapery, were the work of a vain, half-crazed you, the besieging army would never stay to bom- sculptor, named John Bushnell, who died mad in bard it—they would dash through the barber's." 1701. Bushnell, who had visited Rome and


Venice, executed Cowley's monument in West

After Simon de Montfort's death, at the battle minster Abbey, and the statues of Charles I. of Evesham, 1265, Prince Edward, afterwards

, Charles II., and Gresham, in the old Exchange.

Edward I., punished the rebellious Londoners,

who had befriended Montfort, by taking away all The slab over the eastern side of the arch bore the following inscription, which was all but obli- their street chains and bars, and locking them up

in the Tower. terated by time :

The earliest known documentary and historical "Erected in the year 1670, Sir Samuel Starling, Mayor ; notice of Temple Bar is in 1327, the first year of continued in the year 1671, Sir Richard Ford, Lord Mayor; Edward III. ; and in the thirty-fourth year of the and finished in the year 1672, Sir George Waterman, Lord Mayor."

same reign we find, at an inquisition before the

mayor, twelve witnesses deposing that the comAll these persons were friends of Pepys. monalty of the City had, time out of mind, had

The upper part of the Bar was flanked by scrolls, free ingress and egress from the City to Thames but the fruit and flowers once sculptured on the and from Thames to the City, through the great pediment, and the supporters of the royal arms gate of the Templars situate within Temple Bar. over the posterns, had crumbled away. In the This referred to some dispute about the right of. centre of each façade was a semi-circular-headed, way through the Temple, built in the reign of ecclesiastical-looking window, that cast a dim Henry I. In 1384 Richard II. granted a licence horny light into a room above the gate, held of the for paving Strand Street from Temple Bar to the City, at an annual rent of some £50, by Messrs. Savoy, and collecting tolls to cover such charges. Childs, the bankers, as a sort of muniment-room

The historical pageants that have taken place at for their old account-books. There was here pre- Temple Bar deserve a notice, however short. On served, among other costlier treasures of Mammon, the 5th of November, 1422, the corpse of that the private account-book of Charles II. The brave and chivalrous king, the hero of Agincourt, original Child was a friend of Pepys, and is men- Henry V., was borne to its rest at Westminster tioned by him as quarrelling with the Duke of Abbey by the chief citizens and nobles, and every York on Admiralty matters. The Child who doorway from Southwark to Temple Bar had its succeeded him was a friend of Pope, and all but mournful torch-bearer. In 1502-3 the hearse of led him into the South-Sea-Bubble speculation. Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII., halted at

There is no extant historical account of Temple Temple Bar, on its way from the Tower to West. Bar in which the following passage from Strype minster, and at the Bar the Abbots of Westminster (George I.) is not to be found embedded like a and Bermondsey blessed the corpse, and the Earl fossil; it is, in fact, nearly all we London topo- of Derby and a large company of nobles joined graphers know of the early history of the Bar :- the sable funeral throng. After sorrow came joy, “ *Anciently,” says Strype, “there were only posts, and after joy sorrow—Ita vita. In the next reign rails, and a chain, such as are now in Holborn, poor Anne Boleyn, radiant with happiness and Smithfield, and Whitechapel bars. Afterwards there triumph, came through the Bar (May 31, 1534), on was a house of timber erected across the street, her way to the Tower, to be welcomed by the with a narrow gateway and an entry on the south clamorous citizens, the day before her ill-starred side of it under the house." This structure is to coronation Temple Bar on that occasion was be seen in the view of London in the British new painted and repaired, and near it stood singing Museum, 1620 (James I.), and in Hollar's seven- men and children—the Fleet Street conduit all sheet map of London (Charles II.).

the time running claret. The old gate figured The date of the erection of the “wooden house” more conspicuously the day before the coronation is not to be ascertained ; but there is the house of that wondrous child, Edward VI. Two hogsplain enough in a view of London to which Mait- heads of wine were then ladled out to the thirsty land affixes the date about 1560 (the second year mob, and the gate at Temple Bar was painted with of Elizabeth); so we may perhaps safely put it battlements and buttresses, richly hung with cloth down as early as Edward VI. or Henry VIII. of Arras, and all in flutter with fourteen Indeed, if a certain scrap of history is correct-i.e., standard flags.” There were eight French trumthat bluff King Hal once threatened, if a certain peters blowing their best, besides “a pair of Bill did not pass the Commons a little quicker, to regals,” with children singing to the same. In fix the heads of several refractory M.P.s on September, 1553, when Edward's cold-hearted the top of Temple Bar—we must suppose the half-sister, Mary Tudor, came through the City, old City toll-gate to be as old as the early Tudors. according to ancient English custom, the day

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