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We find Dr. Johnson quoting these lines with watched of the Lord "), a marshy tract in Saxony, approval, in a conversation in which he suggested near the main road to Zittau. These simple and that Pope had partly borrowed his “Dying pious men were Taborites, a section of the old Christian” from Flatman.

Hussites, who had renounced obedience to the “The chapel of the United Brethren, or Mora- Pope and embraced the Vaudois doctrines. This vians, 32, Fetter Lane," says Smith, in his “Streets of was the first formation of the Moravian sect. London," "was the meeting-house of the celebrated On January 24th, 1672–73," says Baxter, “I Thomas Bradbury. During the riots which occurred began a Tuesday lecture at Mr. Turner's church, in on the trial of Dr. Sacheveral, this chapel was as- New Street, near Fetter Lane, with great convenience saulted by the mob and dismantled, the preacher and God's encouraging blessing ; but I never took himself escaping with some difficulty. The other a penny for it from any one." The chapel in which meeting-houses that suffered on this occasion were Baxter officiated in Fetter Lane is that between those of Daniel Burgess, in New Court, Carey Nevil's Court and New Street, once occupied by Street ; Mr. Earl's, in Hanover Street, Long Acre; the Moravians. It appears to have existed, though Mr. Taylor's, Leather Lane; Mr. Wright's, Great perhaps in a different form, before the Great Fire of Carter Lane; and Mr. Hamilton's, in St. John's London. Turner, who was the first minister, was Square, Clerkenwell. With the benches and pulpits a very active man during the plague. He was of several of these, the mob, after conducting Dr. ejected from Sunbury, in Middlesex, and continued Sacheveral in triumph to his lodgings in the to preach in Fetter Lane till towards the end of Temple, made a bonfire in the midst of Lincoln's the reign of Charles II., when he removed to Inn Fields, around which they danced with shouts Leather Lane. Baxter carried on the Tuesday of High Church and Sacheveral,' swearing, if they morning lecture till the 24th of August, 1682. The found Daniel Burgess, that they would roast him in church which then met in it was under the care of his own pulpit in the midst of the pile.”

Mr. Lobb, whose predecessor had been Thankful This Moravian chapel was one of the original Owen, president of St. John's College, Oxford. eight conventicles where Divine worship was per- Ejected by the commissioners in 1660, he bemitted. Baxter preached here in 1672, and Wesley came a preacher in Fetter Lane.

“ He was," says and Whitefield also struck great blows at the devil Calamy, “a man of genteel learning and an in this pulpit, where Zinzendorf's followers after- excellent temper, admir’d for an uncommon fluency wards prayed and sang their fervent hymns. and easiness and sweetness in all his composures.

Count Zinzendorf, the poet, theologian, pastor, After he was ejected he retired to London, where missionary, and statesman, who first gave the he preached privately and was much respected. Moravian body a vital organisation, and who He dy'd at his house in Hatton Garden, April 1, preached in Fetter Lane to the most tolerant class 1681. He was preparing for the press, and had of all Protestants, was born in Dresden in 1700. almost finished, a book entituled 'Imago Imaginis,' His ancestors, originally from Austria, had been the design of which was to show that Rome Papal Crusaders and Counts of Zinzendorf. One of was an image of Rome Pagan.” the Zinzendorfs had been among the earliest con- At No. 96, Fetter Lane is an Independent Chapel, verts to Lutheranism, and became a voluntary exile whose first minister was Dr. Thomas Goodwin, 1660for the faith. The count's father was one of the 1681-troublous times for Dissenters. Goodwin Pietists, a sect protected by the first king of had been a pastor in Holland and a favourite of Prussia, the father of Frederick the Great. The Cromwell. The Protector made him one of his comfounder of the Pietists laid special stress on the missioners for selecting preachers, and he was also doctrine of conversion by a sudden transformation President of Magdalen College, Oxford. When of the heart and will. It was a young Moravian Cromwell became sick unto death, Goodwin boldly missionary to Georgia who first induced Wesley to prophesied his recovery, and when the great man embrace the vital doctrine of justification by faith. died, in spite of him, he is said to have exclaimed, For a long time there was a close kinsmanship “Thou hast deceived us, and we are deceived;" maintained between Whitefield, the Wesleys, and which is no doubt a Cavalier calumny. On the the Moravians ; but eventually Wesley pronounced Restoration, the Oxford men showed Goodwin the Zinzendorf to be verging on anti-Moravianism, and door, and he retired to the seclusion of Fetter Lane. Zinzendorf objected to Wesley's doctrine of sinless He seems to have been a good scholar and an perfection. In 1722 Zinzendorf gave an asylum to eminent Calvinist divine, and he left on Puritan two families of persecuted Moravian brothers, and shelves five ponderous folio volumes of his works. built houses for them on a spot he called Hernhut The present chapel, says Mr. Noble, dates from

Fleet Street Tributaries.]

THE RECORD OFFICE AND ITS TREASURES.

IOI

1732, and one of its pastors was the Rev. John Shaftesbury, in contributing their family papers to Spurgeon, the father of the eloquent Baptist the same Gaza in Fetter Lane. Under the concenpreacher, the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon.

trated gaze of learned eyes, family papers, valueless The disgraceful disorder of our national records and almost unintelligible to their original posseshad long been a subject of regret among English sors, often reveal very curious and important facts. antiquaries. There was no certainty of finding Mere lumber in the manor house, fit only for the any required document among such a mass of butterman, sometimes turns to leaves of gold ill-stored, dusty, unclassified bundles and rolls- when submitted to such microscopic analysis. many of them never opened since the day King It was such a gift that led to the discovery of the John sullenly signed Magna Charta. We are a Locke papers among the records of the nobleman great conservative people, and abuses take a long above mentioned. The pleasant rooms of the time ripening before they seem to us fit for re- Record Office are open to all applicants ; nor is moval, so it happened that this evil went on any reference or troublesome preliminary form several centuries before it roused the attention of required from those wishing to consult Court Parliament, and then it was talked over and over, 1 rolls or State papers over twenty years old. till in 1850 something was at last done. It was Among other priceless treasures the Record Office resolved to build a special storehouse for national contains the original, uninjured, Domesday Book, records, where the various collections might be compiled by order of William the Conqueror. It united under one roof, and there be arranged and is written throughout in a beautiful clerkly hand, classified by learned men. The first stone of a in close fine character, and is in a perfect state of magnificent Gothic building was therefore laid preservation. It is in two volumes, the covers of by Lord Romilly on 24th May, 1851, on the west which are cut with due economy from the same side of Fetter Lane, and slowly and surely the walls skin of parchment. Bound in massive board grew till, in the summer of 1866, all the new Search covers, and kept with religious care under glass Offices were formally opened, to the great con- cases, the precious volumes seem indeed likely to venience of all students of records. The architect, last to the very break of doom. It is curious to Sir James Pennethorne, has produced a stately remark that London occupies only some three or building, useful for its purpose, but not very re- four pages. There is also preserved the original markable for picturesque light and shade, and tame, Papal Bull sent to Henry VIII., with a golden as all imitations of bygone ages, adapted for bygone seal attached to it, the work of Benvenuto Cellini. uses, must ever be. The number of records stored The same collection contains the celebrated Treaty within this building can only be reckoned by of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, the initial porhundreds of millions.These are Sir Thomas trait of Francis I. being beautifully illuminated and Duffus Hardy's own words. There, in cramped the vellum volume adorned by an exquisite gold bundles and rolls, dusty as papyri, lie charters and seal, in the finest relievo, also by Benvenuto Cellini. official notices that once made mailed knights The figures in this seal are so perfect in their finish, tremble and proud priests shake in their sandals. I that even the knee-cap of one of the nymphs is Now—the magic gone, the words powerless—they shaped with the strictest anatomical accuracy. The lie in their several binns in strange companionship. visitor should also see the interesting Inventory Many years will elapse before these State records Books relating to the foundation of Henry VII.'s and Government documents can be classified; but chapel. the small staff is as industrious as Sir Thomas Hardy The national records were formerly bundled up could have wished, and in time the Augean stable anyhow in the Rolls Chapel, the White Tower, of crabbed writings will be cleansed and ranged in the Chapter House, Westminster Abbey, Carlton order. The useful and accurate calendars of Ride in St. James's Park, the State Paper Office, Everett Green, John Bruce, &c., are books of and the Prerogative Will Office. No one knew reference invaluable to historical students; and where anything was. They were unnoticed- mere the old chronicles published by order of Lord dusty lumber, in fact-useless to men or printers' Romilly, so long Master of the Rolls and Keeper devils. Hot-headed Hugh Peters, during the of the Records, are most useful mines for the Commonwealth, had, in his hatred of royalty, Froudes and Freemans of the future. In time it proposed to make one great heap of them and is hoped that all the episcopal records of England burn them up in Smithfield. In that way he hoped will be gathered together in this great treasure to clear the ground of many mischievous traditions. house, and that many of our English noblemen This desperate act of Communism that toughwill imitate the patriotic generosity of Lord headed old lawyer, Prynne, opposed tooth and nail.

In 1656 he wrote a pamphlet, which he called breakfast with the Duke of Buckingham.” “The “ A Short Demurrer against Cromwell's Project deuce he is,” said Otway, and, actuated either by of Recalling the Jews from their Banishment,” and envy, pride, or disappointment, in a kind of inin this work he very nobly epitomizes the value of voluntary manner, he took up a piece of chalk which these treasures ; indeed, there could not be found lay on a table which stood upon the landing-place, a more lucid syllabus of the contents of the present near Dryden's chamber, and wrote over the door,Record Office than Prynne has there set forth.

“Here lives Dryden, a poet and a wit.”

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Dryden and Otway were contemporaries, and The next morning, at breakfast, Dryden recognised lived, it is said, for some time opposite to each other the handwriting, and told the servant to go to in Fetter Lane. One morning the latter happened Otway and desire his company to breakfast with to call upon his brother bard about breakfast him. In the meantime, to ray's line of time, but was told by the servant that his master

“ Here lives Dryden, a poet and a wit,was gone to breakfast with the Earl of Pembroke.

he added,– “Very well,” said Otway, “ tell your master that I

“ This was written by Otway, opposite." will call to

morrow morning." Accordingly he called about the same hour. “Well, is your master When Otway arrived he saw that his line was at home now?" “No, sir; he is just gone to | linked with a rhyme, and being a man of rather

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A MEETING OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY IN CRANE COURT (see p. 106).

petulant disposition, he took it in dudgeon, and, turning upon his heel, told Dryden " that he was welcome to keep his wit and his breakfast to himself.”

A curious old book, a vade mecum for malt worms, temp. George I., thus immortalises the patriotism of a tavern-keeper in Fetter Lane :

Though there are some who, with invidious look,

Have styl'd this bird more like a Russian duck
Than what he stands depicted for on sign,
He proves he well has croaked for prey within,
From massy tankards, formed of silver plate,
That walk throughout this noted house in state,
Ever since Englesfield, in Anna's reign,
To compliment each fortunate campaign,
Made one be hammered out for ev'ry town was ta'en.”

CHAPTER

I X.

FLEET STREET TRIBUTARIES-CRANE COURT, JOHNSON'S COURT, BOLT COURT.

Removal of the Royal Society from Gresham College-Opposition to Newton-Objections to Removal—The First Catalogue-Swift's Jeer at the

Society-Franklin's Lightning Conductor and King George III.-Sir Hans Sloane insulted— The Scottish Society-Wilkes's PrinterThe Delphin Classics-Johnson's Court-Johnson's Opinion on Pope and Dryden-His Removal to Bolt Court-The John Bull-Hook and Terry, Prosecutions for Libel-Hook's Impudence.

In the old times, when newspapers could not porated the members into what Boyle has called legally be published without a stamp, "various in- “the Invisible College,” and gave it the name of genious devices,” says a writer in the Bookseller the Royal Society.

the Royal Society. In 1710, the Mercers' Com(1867), “ were employed to deceive and mislead the pany growing tired of their visitors, the society

, officers employed by the Government. Many of moved to a house rebuilt by Wren in 1670, and purthe unstamped papers were printed in Crane Court, chased by the members for £1,450. It had been the Fleet Street; and there, on their several days of residence, before the Great Fire, of Dr. Nicholas publication, the officers of the Somerset House soli- Barebone (son of Praise-God Barebone), a great citor would watch, ready to seize them immediately building speculator, who had much property in the they came from the press. But the printers were Strand, and who was the first promoter of the quite equal to the emergency. They would make up Phoenix Fire Office. It seems to have been sham parcels of waste-paper, and send them out thought at the time that Newton was somewhat with an ostentatious show of secrecy. The officers despotic in his announcement of the removal, and --simple fellows enough, though they were called the members in council grumbled at the new house, 'Government spies,' 'Somerset House myrmidons,' and complained of it as small, inconvenient, and and other opprobrious names, in the unstamped dilapidated. Nevertheless, Sir Isaac, unaccuspapers-duly took possession of the parcels, after a tomed to opposition, overruled all these objections, decent show of resistance by their bearers, while and the society flourished in this Fleet Street the real newspapers intended for sale to the public “close" seventy-two years.

Before the society were sent flying by thousands down a shoot in came to Crane Court, Pepys and Wren had been Fleur-de-Lys Court, and thence distributed in the presidents; while at Crane Court the presidents course of the next hour or two all over the were-Newton (1703-1727), Sir Thomas Hoare, town.”

Matthew Ffolkes, Esq. (whose portrait Hogarth The Royal Society came to Crane Court from painted), the Earl of Macclesfield, the Earl of Gresham College in 1710, and removed in 1782 to Morton, James Burrow, Esq., James West, Esq., Somerset House. This society, according to Dr. Sir John Pringle, and Sir Joseph Banks. The Wallis, one of the earliest members, originated in earliest records of this useful society are filled with London in 1645, when Dr. Wilkins and certain accounts of experiments on the Baconian inducphilosophical friends met weekly to discuss scientific tive principle, many of which now appear to us questions. They afterwards met at Oxford, and in puerile, but which were valuable in the childhood of Gresham College, till that place was turned into a science. Among the labours of the society while in Puritan barrack. After the Restoration, in 1662, Fleet Street, we may enumerate its efforts to promote the king, wishing to turn men's minds to philosophy inoculation, 1714-1722 ; electrical experiments on —or, indeed, anywhere away from politics-incor- fourteen miles of wires near Shooter's Hill, 1745;

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