The Andean Wonder Drug: Cinchona Bark and Imperial Science in the Spanish Atlantic, 1630-1800
University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016年7月15日 - 336 頁
In the eighteenth century, malaria was a prevalent and deadly disease, and the only effective treatment was found in the Andean forests of Spanish America: a medicinal bark harvested from cinchona trees that would later give rise to the antimalarial drug quinine. In 1751, the Spanish Crown asserted control over the production and distribution of this medicament by establishing a royal reserve of “fever trees” in Quito. Through this pilot project, the Crown pursued a new vision of imperialism informed by science and invigorated through commerce. But ultimately this project failed, much like the broader imperial reforms that it represented. Drawing on extensive archival research, Matthew Crawford explains why, showing how indigenous healers, laborers, merchants, colonial officials, and creole elites contested European science and thwarted imperial reform by asserting their authority to speak for the natural world. The Andean Wonder Drug uses the story of cinchona bark to demonstrate how the imperial politics of knowledge in the Spanish Atlantic ultimately undermined efforts to transform European science into a tool of empire.
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Andean Andean healers Andean World ANE/Q Antonio Archivo Atlantic World Audiencia Audiencia of Quito bark collectors bark samples bark’s Bogotá Botanical Expedition botanistchemist botanists Cádiz cascarilla Casimiro Gómez Ortega cinchona bark cinchona trees classification Condamine Condamine’s context corregidor Cuenca curanderos Diguja Duque de Losada early modern Ecuador eighteenth century empire’s Enlightenment epistemic culture Europe European science experts fevers Fondo Especial forests Granada History important Indiferente José Celestino Mutis Juan knowledge production la Quina Lima Madrid malaria merchants Mutis’s natural resource natural world networks officials in Madrid Olmedo Pedro de Valdivieso Peru pharmacists Pharmacy’s physicians quina from Loja quina from Santa quina trade Quinología Quito reforms regions reserve of quina Royal Pharmacy royal reserve Ruiz and Pavón Ruiz de Quevedo Santa Fé Santisteban science and empire scientific shipments South America Spain Spanish America Spanish Atlantic World Spanish colonial government Spanish Empire Spanish imperial Valdecarzana viceroy