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were stationed twenty small cannon for guarding the approach by water. Such defenses were strong enough to repel Indians, but they could not keep out civilized invaders who might come armed with large cannon.

One day in August, 1664, when England and Holland were at peace, four English war vessels unexpectedly appeared off the Battery, bearing the demand of King Charles II that New Netherland surrender, because he claimed that

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Courtesy, Title Guarantee and Trust Co., N.Y.
THE SURRENDER OF NEW AMSTERDAM
The meeting of the English and the Dutch commissioners took place at Peter Stuyvesant's country home

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the Dutch were occupying English territory. It was of course useless for Governor Stuyvesant to resist, so Dutch rule in New Netherland came suddenly to a close.3 England was now in possession of the entire Atlantic Coast from the

1 The name “ The Battery" still designates this point in New York's water front.

2 The English had always claimed the entire eastern part of the country because of the discoveries of the Cabots.

3 The garrison consisted of less than two hundred and fifty untrained men, whereas the English had brought a much larger number of skilled soldiers, besides ninety cannon with which to bombard the town if necessary. The Governor fumed and fretted, declaring, I would rather be carried to my grave than yield.” But in spite of him his frightened fellow officers eagerly hoisted the white flag of surrender.

Fort Orange
(Albany)

St. Lawrence River to the Spanish possessions in Florida; but perhaps the most important of her holdings was the island of Manhattan, which controlled the great interior route connecting Canada with New York Bay.

King Charles gave New Netherland to his brother, the Duke of York, and after that it was called New York, the same name being also given to the city of New Amsterdam. Fort Orange was now called Albany, another of the Duke's titles.

Nine years later, during a short war between England and Holland, the Dutch easily recaptured Manhattan;

but the following year peace was arranged, and Holland reluctantly gave up the province, which under English rule had grown so fast that it then contained seven thousand inhabitants.

98. Struggles for liberty. While the people of New York enjoyed religious freedom under their new rulers, the English, they had various other reasons to complain of them: they did not carry on as good a school system as the Dutch had supported; the colonists were not given a representative assembly; and nearly all the power now rested with the Governor and his Council, who were appointed by the Duke of York.

After eighteen years of dissatisfaction, ABOUT THE HUD- the Duke finally consented to allow the

people to have an assembly. But when he became King James II he abolished this body, refused to allow any schools to be carried on except those licensed by the Church of England, and placed New York, together with New England and New Jersey, under the harsh rule of Governor Sir Edmund Andros. New York regained her assembly only when William and Mary came to the throne and the unpopular Andros was ordered home.

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As elsewhere in the colonies there continued to be more or less quarreling, often over very small matters, between the various governors and the people until the opening of the Revolutionary War. At the time, these disputes seemed unfortunate; but they served the very good purpose of

PENNSYLVANIA teaching the colonists that their only road to

PERSEY political liberty lay in freedom from the rule

B Baltineht of England.

Amapolis 99. The planting of New Jersey. When the Duke of York took possession of New Netherland he gave to two of

THE MIDDLE COLONIES his friends the portion thereof lying southwest of the Hudson River. After several changes of ownership New Jersey was (1702) made a

royal ” province.

i Sir John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The province was named New Jersey because Carteret, while governor of Jersey, one of the English Channel Íslands, had fought bravely for King Charles II. Philip Carteret, a relative of Sir George, came out as governor and founded the town of Elizabeth; and soon some colonists from Connecticut established Newark and Middletown.

Berkeley possessed the western half of the province, or West Jersey, but for five thousand dollars sold his share to a party of Quakers. West Jersey and East Jersey were reunited when New Jersey was made a “royal” province.

New Jersey colonists had religious toleration and a liberal government, with a representative assembly. But large numbers of the Dutch, English, and Scotch settlers had bought their lands from the Indians, and did not enjoy paying rent to Berkeley and Carteret. This led to long and bitter wrangling. There was also considerable difficulty with Andros, who tried to levy taxes in New Jersey, claiming that it was still a part of New York.

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Its colonists enjoyed a mild climate, and having wisely treated the Indians with respect and paid for their lands were not often troubled by them. Indeed, so friendly were the tribesmen that after one of the land-buying treaties a chief declared that should one of his people find an Englishman asleep and alone in the woods, he would not disturb the slumber of the red men's friend, but quietly pass by in

peace. On the whole, the settlement was prosperous from the start.

100. Pennsylvania founded. Prominent among the Quakers of England was William Penn, whose father, an admiral in the navy, was a friend of King Charles II. William's family strongly opposed his religious views, but he believed that he was right and would not yield. Distressed at the persecution to which he and his fellow Quakers were being subjected in England, he determined to found a large Quaker province

in the American wilderness, which should be "a free colony for all mankind." In 1681 the King signed a charter giving him for this purpose about forty-eight thousand square miles of land that had formerly been owned by the Duke of York, and this new colony was called Pennsylvania.2 Penn was made governor and sole owner of the colony. The only condition was that the

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WILLIAM PENN At the age of twenty-two

1 At the time of the death of Penn's father, the English Government owed him eighty thousand dollars. Penn arranged with the King to take in payment this large tract“in the parts of America not yet cultivated and planted.” His Majesty welcomed this as an easy way of paying his debt.

2 Meaning "Penn's woods." The proprietor himself wanted it called New Wales; but the King did not like this name, so Penn suggested Sylvania. Against Penn's earnest protest, for he was a modest man, his own name was prefixed by the King, making it Pennsylvania.

King should have a fifth part of all gold and silver ore to be found there, and on each New Year's Day was to be given the small present of two beaver skins as a continual reminder that his Majesty was Penn's master.

During the first year three thousand persons sailed for Pennsylvania, chiefly from England, Wales, Sweden, France, and Germany. So widely advertised was the colony and so attractive did it seem to the oppressed people of Europe, that within a few years no less than seven thousand inhabitants were comfortably settled along the fertile river banks of eastern Pennsylvania.

101. Penn's arrival in the colony. In the autumn of 1682 Penn himself arrived at the head of a hundred emigrants.

As they sailed up the Delaware River,” says an old letter of that time,“ they received visits and invitations from the inhabitants, the people being joyful to see him; both Dutch, Swedes, and English coming up to New Castle, they received and entertained him with great expressions of joy." Dressed in holiday costumes the colonists handed their governor a key to open the little fort of Newcastle. “They did deliver also unto him one turf, with a twig upon it, a porringer with river water and soil." This latter was an ancient European ceremony, and meant that he owned the land and water hereabout, and all that grew therein.

102. Philadelphia founded. During the year before Penn's coming there was laid out the principal city, Philadelphia (meaning“ brotherly love ”), at the junction of the Schuylkill River with the Delaware. While cabins were being built for them, many of the first settlers at this place lived for months in caves dug out of the banks of the Delaware, all around them being the dense forest, trodden only by Indians and wild animals. But on his arrival Penn found here several small but comfortable houses, and by the close of the following year there were three hundred and fiftyseven dwellings.

103. Adoption of the Great Law. In December, 1682, Penn met at Chester with the first assembly of his province;

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