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elected at Hartford and in that town adopted the first written rules of government made by the people themselves known in the United States. This instrument provided for the political equality of every citizen. It formed the three towns into a republic,? with laws “ for the people by the people"; and this republic more nearly resembled our present Federal Government than any scheme of union up to that time invented by the other colonies.

During the year 1637 the Pequot Indians attacked the whites, but were badly defeated. After this victory, settlers were more willing to come to Connecticut, which was then the “Far West” of English colonization. New Haven, 3 Guilford, Milford, Stamford, and Southold, on Long Island, were quickly established, and soon (1643) formed themselves into a union, which was known as the Colony of New Haven. The laws drawn up by the inhabitants for their own government were closely based on those of Moses; for instance, there were fourteen offenses for which men might be hanged; and there was no trial by jury, because Moses had not provided for it. In 1662 all the towns then existing in what is now the State of Connecticut were united under a charter.4

1 The reader will remember the laws governing the Virginia colony, also the compact signed on the Mayflower (p. 79). But this Hartford constitution was longer and written in greater detail, hence was more like those adopted in later years by some of the other colonies and afterward by all of the States.

The principal man in the Connecticut colony was Thomas Hooker, a clergyman. Unlike Winthrop. of Massachusetts, who thought that only a few men were capable of governing, Hooker argued that “the foundation of authority is laid in the free consent of the people.” He also said, “In matters which concern common good a general council chosen by all to transact business which concerns all I conceive most suitable to rule and most safe for the relief of the whole."

Nowhere in the constitution was there any mention of the King. 3 New Haven was founded in 1638 by a party of Puritan settlers, mostly from Massachusetts. Theophilus Eaton, a well-to-do merchant recently arrived from London, was for many years the governor. In this colony, church and state were closely allied. * Two noteworthy incidents occurred in the colonial history of Connecti

(a) When Charles II came to the throne, he hunted down the “regicide" judges, as he called them, who had ordered his father, Charles I, to be beheaded, and cruelly executed those whom he could catch. Three of the judges, Goffe, Dixwell, and Whalley, had fled to New Haven where the people helped

cut:

91. Founding of Rhode Island. As Rhode Island had first been settled by persons banished from Massachusetts for their religious opinions, who declared that this new colony should be a home of religious freedom, it was quickly settled by all sorts of dissenters. In 1644 the towns of Providence, Newport, and Warwick obtained a charter from Parliament, under the name of Colony of Providence Plantations. This gave to the people their cherished English right of self-government, and three years later they passed a law that “all men may walk as their conscience persuades them.” Owing, however, to the presence of a great number of religious zealots, who were always quarreling with each other, Rhode Island was long a hot-bed of disorder. The colony did not thrive until this turbulent spirit quieted down.

92. New England Confederation. Up to the year 1643 the various towns or colonial groups in New England were practically little independent republics. Each governed itself, and had scarcely any help from its neighbors. But the following troubles were now brewing: -

(a) The Dutch of New York were pushing their fur trade to the north of Long Island Sound, and acting as though they owned Connecticut.

(6) The Indians were becoming uneasy, and threatening to drive all Englishmen into the sea.

(c) The French in Canada were building fur-trade posts in what are now Maine and New Hampshire; and frequently encouraged the savages to attack the most northern English settlements.

(d) The New England colonists were afraid that the fierce

them to escape from their pursuers, who chased them even to America. For this reason Charles II bitterly hated the New Haven colony.

(b) In 1662 Charles issued a charter to Connecticut, in which he gave the colonists the right to govern themselves under their own free constitution. James II wished to take away this charter, because it was too liberal, and commanded the viceroy of New England, Sir Edmund Andros, to demand its surrender by the colony. Andros, accompanied by a body of troops, went to Hartford (1687) to get the document, but could not find it because the people had hidden it in the hollow trunk of a great oak tree.

struggle then going on in England between King Charles I and his Parliament might bring them trouble.

(e) The King was declaring that his American subjects were much too independent, and needed correction.

Wise men among the New Englanders saw that unless the colonies could be united in some way, they must remain weak, and thus be an easy prey to the Dutch, the Indians, and to their own king. In 1643, therefore, delegates from the colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven met in Boston and formed a league, called “The United Colonies of New England.” Under this agreement each colony was to manage its own local affairs, but a board of eight commissioners were to look after matters affecting all of the colonies, such as the carrying on of war. This was the first attempt made in our country toward a union of the English colonies.

The league lasted for over forty years, and under it the New Englanders grew accustomed to working together for a common purpose. In the time of the Revolution, this experience was of great value to them.

93. King Philip's War. New Englanders were much kinder to the Indians than were the people of most other English colonies. But they could not turn the wilderness into farms and villages without driving away the game and thus making it more difficult for the Indians to live. This angered the latter, and now and then they attacked the newcomers.

Just a hundred years before the opening of the War of the Revolution, the brave and able King Philip, chief of a tribe dwelling along Narragansett Bay, formed a great league of red men in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and tried to drive the whites out of the country. For two years (1675–77), this confederacy carried on a disastrous war, in which hundreds of homes in the outlying settlements were burned, and thousands of men, women, and

1 Rhode Island was not invited, because Plymouth claimed that the towns in that colony were on land belonging to her; and further, the Rhode Islanders were, as we have just read, not liked by the Puritans.

children were murdered by the pitiless savages, or carried away as captives, to be adopted into the tribes. The united colonies desperately defended themselves, until at last King Philip and a thousand of his warriors were slain and the revolt was crushed. After that white men were supreme in New England.

QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 1. Explain the differences in the reasons for English migration to James

town and to Plymouth. 2. State clearly the successive events in the history of the Pilgrims from

Scrooby to Plymouth. Locate the scene of these events on a globe or

on a map. 3. What advantage of location did the Virginia colonists have in contrast

to that of the Pilgrims? 4. Were the conditions which forced the Pilgrims to work hard an ad

vantage or not? Discuss. 5. Suggest why the King might have been glad to have men of the high

character of Endicott, Winthrop, and the other Bay colonists leave

England. 6. Why was the Massachusetts Bay Colony so much more prosperous

from the beginning than the Plymouth Colony? 7. Show that the early New Englanders believed in education. 8. Why did they settle in towns? 9. State the difference between the town meeting and the representative

form of government. What qualifications of the Massachusetts voter

were then required that are not required now? · The Witchcraft delusion. In the days about which we are reading, nearly everybody in Europe as well as in America, believed that certain persons were friendly with evil spirits, and induced these demons to do harm to other people in the neighborhood. Such persons were called "witches," and the evil work which they were supposed to do was known as “witchcraft.” Almost any ugly old woman, who acted at all queerly, was in danger of being hanged or even burned if some crazy or malicious person asserted that she had “bewitched " him. When an epidemic raged, or an unknown disease broke out, a frenzy of fear would sweep over the neighborhood. At such times even young women and tender children might be accused of witchcraft, and on very flimsy evidence be sentenced to suffer terrible deaths.

Such a frenzy broke out in the small Massachusetts town of Salem, in 1692. Before people recovered their senses hundreds of innocent persons were put in jail and nineteen were hanged. The testimony against these unfortunates was so slight that the next year, when the craze was over, the conscience-stricken townspeople marveled at their cruel and horrible delusion. This episode will always remain an ugly blot on the fair history of New England. But they were still hanging witches in England, twenty years later, and even to-day the belief in them exists to some extent in all civilized countries, among very ignorant people.

II.

10. The emigration from Massachusetts to Connecticut was the first

western migration in the territory now known as the United States. Beginning with this one, make a list in your history notebook of later western emigrations of which you will read as you study this history. Indicate on the map of New England the six settlements or groups of

settlements that had been made by 1640. 12. Why was the New England Confederation important? In what way

did it seem intolerant? 13. Explain the following: “God sifted a whole nation that he might

send choice grain over into the wilderness. 14. Make a sketch map of eastern North America. From this map dis

cuss the dangers to the English from the French and Spanish. 15. Important date: 1620 — The founding of Plymouth.

COMPOSITION SUBJECTS 1. Write a letter from Holland to a friend left at Scrooby, giving reasons

why you think it best to go to America. 2. Describe in writing, or dramatize, an interview with Samoset, or

Canonicus. 3. The Mayflower is about to sail on the return voyage. Governor

Bradford, knowing that some are tempted to return with her, makes

an address urging them to remain. Write what he may have said. 4. Write a letter to a friend in Holland describing the terrible first winter

in New England, but telling your hopes for the future.

CHAPTER OUTLINE 1. The name “New England.” 2. Religious intolerance in England. 3. The Pilgrims in Holland. 4. The Pilgrims emigrate to America. 5. Beginning of self-government in New England. 6. The Pilgrims' early pioneer experiences. 7. Origin and growth of Massachusetts Bay Colony. 8. Town meetings and the beginning of representative government. 9. Beginning of education. 10. Religious intolerance and disturbances. II. Troubles with the King about government. 12. Founding of Maine and New Hampshire. 13. Early Connecticut. 14. First written constitution in the United States. 15. Beginning of Rhode Island. 16. The New England Confederation. 17. War with the Indians.

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