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Thwaites's France in America, chaps. I, III-V. Farrand's Basis of American History, chaps. X, XI, XIII-XVII. Parkman's Struggle for a Continent, pp. 123-168, 180-222. Grinnell's Story of the Indian. Markham's Columbus. Ober's Cabot, and Magellan. King's De Soto. Sedgwick's Champlain. Thwaites's Marquette. Parkman's La Salle.

PUPILS' LIST. Hart's Source-Book of American History, pp. 1-17, 96-98. Elson's Child's Guide to American History. Griffis's Romance of Discovery. Sparks's Famous Explorers. Foote's Explorers and Founders of America. McMurray's Pioneers on Land and Sea (for Magellan, Champlain, and Cortez); Pioneers of Mississippi Valley (for De Soto and Jolliet). Tappan's American Hero Stories, pp. 1-37, 96-107. Johnson's World's Discoverers, chaps. I-V, VIII-X. Baldwin's Discovery of Old Northwest. Brooks's Story of the Indian; Columbus. Moores's Columbus. Elton's Drake. Bacon's The Boy's Drake.


TEACHERS' LIST. Cooper's Last of the Mohicans. Craddock's Old Fort Loudon. Jackson's Ramona. Kingsley's Westward Ho. Parker's Trail of the Sword. Wallace's Fair God.

PUPILS' LIST. Catherwood's Romance of Dollard; Story of Tonty. Henty's Under Drake's Flag; By Right of Conquest. Jenks's Ji-Shib the Ojibwa. Judd's Wigwam Stories. Munroe's Flamingo Feather. St. Nicholas's Indian Stories.


Longfellow's Hiawatha. Joaquin Miller's Columbus.




50. America a land of opportunity. At the opening of the seventeenth century, many parts of Europe, especially England,1 were so overcrowded that there was much poverty and distress, with few chances for poor people to improve their condition. To them the discovery of America was a great boon. This land of opportunity, such as had never before been opened to Europeans, lay awaiting settlement and development.

51. England ready to colonize. It has truly been said that "the destruction of the Spanish Armada marks the opening event in the history of the United States." That is, this great victory,2 which weakened forever Spanish power upon the sea, at last gave to England her opportunity for colonizing America.

52. Raleigh's colonies. Sir Walter Raleigh3 was one of

1 Following her victories over Spain, England's commerce grew rapidly, and her merchants and manufacturers became very rich. But it was a hard time for English working people. Wages were low, prices for food and clothing high, and thousands of men were out of work. The chief reason for this state of affairs was that the rich landowners were turning their farms into sheep pastures, in order to produce wool for the great weaving industry which had lately sprung up in the Netherlands, and fewer men were needed to care for sheep than to cultivate field crops and attend to cattle. There was not enough work to support the population, under these changed conditions. To make matters worse, large numbers of soldiers were returning home from the wars, and they also were looking for employment.

2 See page 27..

3 Raleigh was born in England about 1552, and while still a youth went to fight in the Netherlands. He soon became a great soldier and sailor. One of his acquaintances says he was a very handsome man, "with the fancy of a poet and the chivalry of a soldier, and was unrivaled in splendor of dress and equipage." It is said that one day, seeing Queen Elizabeth out walking, with a muddy place in her path, he gallantly laid down his fine cloak for her to tread upon.

the most enterprising and valiant of England's ship captains. He was much distressed concerning the condition and discontent of the working people among his countrymen, and thought that he knew a remedy. It was his belief that they would have a much better chance to support themselves if sent across the Atlantic to found agricultural colonies in America, where they could get land for almost nothing. He believed, too, that such colonies might be made profitable to England.

Having obtained the necessary permission of Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh sent out an exploring expedition to North America in 1584. So excellent an account was brought back of the region around Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds, that, at the Queen's suggestion, Raleigh named this beautiful new land "Virginia," in honor of the "virgin queen " herself.1

The next year Raleigh sent over to Virginia a colony of about a hundred

men and women, who settled on Roa- SIR WALTER RALEIGH


noke Island, on the coast of what is now North Carolina. But, like the Spaniards, these first English settlers wanted only to explore for mines; although poor, they refused to labor with their hands, so they nearly starved, and at last returned disgusted to England.

Again and again did Sir Walter try to plant colonies upon Roanoke Island. But the people whom he sent over were not earnest, hard-working folk, such as are needed to per

From an old engraving, showing the costume of the time

This won for him her friendship. In 1588 he aided in defeating the Spanish Armada, and in later years attacked and pillaged Spanish towns in America. Like so many other great men of his age, he at last fell from royal favor and was beheaded in London (1618). In placing his head upon the block, he said, "This is sharp medicine, but is a sound cure for all diseases."

1 The name was given by Raleigh to a very much larger extent of country than our present State of Virginia — indeed, to the entire region between Canada and Florida.

form pioneer labor in new lands; moreover, he had not money enough to carry out his plans. His settlements therefore failed. The last one was attacked by Indians, who no doubt killed some of its members and made prisoners of the rest. But what became of the captives nobody really knows; for they mysteriously disappeared.1

53. The father of English settlement in America. After expending on his ill-fated colonies a sum of money that in our time would amount to over a million dollars, Raleigh sold all his rights in Virginia to a company of merchants.2 He himself had not been able to plant a permanent settlement, but he had attracted the serious attention of the best people of England toward this country. He used proudly to prophesy, "I shall yet live to see it an English nation.” We should never forget that he was the father of English settlement in America.3


1. Why were there so many unemployed in England in Raleigh's time? 2. What was Raleigh's service to England? To America? How is his name perpetuated in the United States?

3. Explain: "The destruction of the Spanish Armada marks the opening event in the history of the United States."

1 In this colony there was born, in August, 1587, Virginia Dare, granddaughter of John White, the Governor. She was the first child of English parents born in the New World. A few days after her birth Governor White left for England. He returned some years later; but all the people, including his daughter and granddaughter, had disappeared. On one of the trees was cut the word "Croatan," which possibly meant that the colonists had gone to a neighboring Indian village of that name; but in a long search, no trace of them was found.

2 Raleigh introduced tobacco into Great Britain from Virginia. He had become fond of smoking this American weed, but at first did not venture to use it in public, because he feared that his friends would call him a barbarian. It is said that one day his Irish serving-man saw smoke coming from his master's mouth, and thought that he was on fire; so he threw a pitcher of water over Raleigh's head and ran off, screaming for help to save his master from burning, After a time the great sailor introduced tobacco at court, and at once it became fashionable. He also introduced to the British, potatoes from Virginia and North Carolina, and grew them on his fine estate near Cork, in Ireland.

3 Much credit is also due to Bartholomew Gosnold, who in 1602 explored our coast from Maine southward for several hundred miles and landed upon, and named, Cape Cod. His enthusiastic reports did much to influence Englishmen in favor of America.


I. Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh are walking in the Queen's garden, talking about Virginia. Describe the scene. Give something of the conversation. This may be dramatized.

2. An English farm tenant has been ruined by sheep-farming. He is explaining to his wife his reasons for wishing to emigrate to America. 3. Write a dialogue between this farmer and a soldier who has just returned from the wars and is seeking work. Dramatize the scene.


1. England's reasons for planting colonies.

2. Raleigh's attempts at colonization.

3. Raleigh, the father of the English settlement in America.

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