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§ 14.-Skeleton Tours.

2. Crossed the Col de Bonhomme by Chapiu, to Motet-(walked).

3. Walked over Col de la Seigne, through Allée Blanche to Cormayeur.

4. To Aosta, in car. Might be done 5. Chatillon, ditto easily in 1 day.

6. On mules to Tournancheon foot thence to Breuil.

7. Crossed the Cervin (Matterhorn) on foot to Zermatt (fatiguing).

[Pierre Meynet, mentioned by Brockedon, is the best guide in the

lachen, on foot; in char to Neuhaus; in steamer to Thun; in diligence to Bern.

22. Returned to Thun, by char, to Frutigen, on foot to Kandersteg.

23. Across the Gemmi to Leuk Baths, on foot; thence direct to Sion.

24. Walked over the Rawyl to An-der-Leuk.

25. On foot, down the Simmenthal to Thun; char thence to Bern. (It would have been better to have gone by Gruyères to Freyburg, Bern, Soleure, and over the Hauenstein to Basle.)

26. By diligence to Basle.

Basle to London by Rotterdam in seven days.

Alps.]

F.-TOUR OF ABOUT TEN WEEKS.

8. Descended on Mules to Visp ; walked thence to Brieg.

9. By char, across the Simplon, to Domo d' Ossola; 10 hours.

10. Off at 3 A.M., by courier, to Baveno; arrived 7 A.m.; by sailingboat, up the Lago Maggiore, to Locarno; by car to Bellinzona (arrived late).

Jl. By hired carriage to Airoio.

12. Waiked over the St. Gothard to Hospital.

13. By carriage to Fluellen, on the Lake of Uri.

14. Crossed lake to Brunnen, by Schwytz and Arth, to the summit of the Righi.

15. On foot to Weggis ; by boat to Lucerne ; on foot to Winkel; crossed the lake to Alpnach ; walked to Sarnen.

16. Crossed the Brunig, on foot, to Brienz; by boat to the Giesbach; by char to Meyringen.

17. Rested at Neyringen; Falls of Reichenbach.

18. Walked to the Hospice of the Grimsel; thence to the glacier of the Rhone; and back to the Hospice to sleep.

19. Returned to Meyringen; taking a three hours' walk up the Susten Pass.

20. Walked over the Scheideck to Grindelwald; thence over the Wengern Alp ; slept at the " Jungfrau Gasthof," exactly opposite the Jungfrau Mountain, to see and hear the avalanches.

21. By Lauterbrunnen to Inter.

Schaffhausen.
Constance.
St. Gall.
Sentis.
Wesen.
Lake of Wallenstadt.
Pfeffers.
Kalfeuser Thal.
Glarus.
Stachelberg and Linth Thal.
Klon and Muotta Thal.
Einsiedeln.
Rapperschwyl.
Zurich,
Zug.
Lucerne.
Weggis.
Righi.
Schwytz.
Brunnen.
Fluellen.
Altorf.
Andermatt.
Airolo.
Val Formazza; Falls of Tosa.
Gries Glacier.
Rhone Glacier.
Griinsel.
Meyringen.
Up the Brunig for the view, and to

Brienz for the Giesbach Fall,
Meyringen.
Scheideck--Rosenlaui,

[blocks in formation]

Faulhorn.
Grindelwald.
Wengeru Alp.
Lauterbrunnen.
Thun.
Spiez.
Kandersteg.
Gemmi.
Leuk.
Sion.
Martigny.
St. Bernard.
Aosta.
Cormayeur, or Pré St. Didier.
Up the Mount Cramont and back.
Allée Blanche.
Nant Bourant, or Contamines.
Chamouni.
Flegère; Montanvert.
Jardin, &c.
Col de Balme, and Tête Noire.
Martigny.
Bex.
Vevay.
Lausanne.
Freyberg.
Bern.
Bienne.
Neuchâtel.
Yverdun.
Orbe and the Dôle.
Geneva.

Weissensteiu, 3.
Schintznach, 6.
Schaff hausen, 7.
Rhine Fall, 7.
Constance, 7.
St. Gall, 66.
Gais and Appenzell, 68; Weisbad,68.
Sentis; Wildkirchlein, 68.
Rapperschwyl, 14.
Zurich, 8.
Zug, by the Albis, 15 and 16.
Arth and Guldau, 17.
Righi, 17.
Weggis; Bay of Uri, 18.
Brunnen (Schwytz), 17.
Alturf, 34.
Surenen Pass, 31.
Engelberg, 31.
Stanz, 31.
Lucerne, 16.
Brunig, 19.
Meyringen, 27.
Brienz and Giesbach, 27.
Interlachen, 27.
Thun, 27.
Simmenthal, 41.
Sanetsch Pass, 40.
Sion, 59.
Rawyl Pass, 39.
Spiez,
Unterseen,
Lauterbrunnen,
Wengern Alp,

27.
Grindelwald,
Fanlhorn,
Scheideck,
Meyringen,
Grimsel, 28.
Rhone Glacier, 30.
Gries Pass, 29.
Val Formazza; Tosa Fall, 29.
Airolo, 34.
St. Gothard ; Devil's Bridge, 31.
Altorf, 34.
Schachen Thal,
Klausen,

72.
Stachelberg,
Glarus,

75. Schwytz, 17. Morgarten, } 74. Einsiedeln, Wesen, 14.

G.-A SUMMER'S TOUR OF THREE

Months, to include all the spots best worth notice in Switzerland, passing as little as possible twice

over the same ground. *** The figures are the numbers of the Routes in which each place is

described.
Basle, 1.
Münster Thal, 1.
Bienne, 1 (Isle St. Pierre, 45).
Neuchâtel, 44.
[Chaux de Fonds ? 48].
Yverdun, 45.
Orbe, 50.
Lac de Joux, 50.
Morat, 43.
Freyburg, 42.
Bern, 24.
Soleure, 3.

Klon Thul,}

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$ 15. Alpine Passes.

Lake of Wallenstadt, 14.
Pfeffers’ Baths, 67.
Kalfeuser Thal, 76.
Sernft Thal; Segnes Pass, 76.
Dissentis, 77.
Reichenau, 87.
Coire, 67.
Julier Pass ; St. Mauritz, 82.
Engadine, 84.
Finstermünz. In Tyrol. See Hand-
Stelvio. | book S. Germany.
Bernina, 85.
Maloya Pass, 99.
Chiavenna, 88.
Splügen Pass, 88.
Via Mala-back, 87.
Splügen village, 87.
Bernardin, 90.
Bellinzona, 90.
Locarno, 91.
Luino, 93.
Lugano; Monte Salvador, 92.
Lago di Como; Bellagio, 93.
Como; Milan ; Sesto, 59;-[or Como
Varese; Arona, 59.]
Lago d'Orta, 101 and 102.

Baveno, 59.
Domo d' Ossola, 59.
Simplon, 59.
Brieg, 59.
Baths of Leuk, 38.
Gemmi, and back, 33.
Sion, 59.
Martigny, 59.
Great St. Bernard, 103.
Aosta, 107.
Pré St. Didier, 114.
Mont Cramont, 114.
Allée Blanche,
Col de la Seigne,

118.
Col de Bonhomme,
Chamouni, 115.
Flegère ; Montanvert; Mer de Glace,

115.
Col de Balme, and Tête Noire, 116,

117.
Martigny, 59.
Bex, 57.
Vevay,
Chillon, 55 and 56.
Lausanne,
Geneva, 5-2.

}

}

§ 15. ALPINE PASSES. No part of the Alps are more interesting, either in a picturesque or in an historical point of view, than the passable gaps or notches in the ridge of the great chain, whereby alone this colossal wall of mountains may be scaled, and a direct passage and communication maintained between northern and southern Europe. It has been through these depressions that the great tide of population has poured since the earliest times; from these outlets have issued the barbarian swarms which so often desolated, and at last annihilated, the Roman empire.

There are more than 50 passes over the Swiss portion of the Alpine chain alone, or immediately communicating with the Swiss frontier. The following are the most remarkable :*_The Simplon, St. , Gothard, Bernardine, Splügen, Saanen-moser, Bramegg, am Stoss, Wildhaus, all traversed by excellent high-roads, most skilfully constructed, and passable for heavy carriages. To these may probably soon be added the Julier and Maloya. The Maloya, Julier, Albula, Septimer, Bernina, Buffalora, Schallenberg, Sattel, practicable for light chars:—and the Col de Trient, Col de Ferret, Grand St. Bernard, Col de Fenêtre, Cervin (Matterhorn), Moro, Gries Nüfanen, Furca, Grimsel, Great and Little Scheideck, Gemmi, Rawy), Sanetsch, Cheville, Susten, Surenen, Brunig Engstelen,

* Mr. Brockedon has admirably illustrated them both with his pencil and pen in his beautiful work entitled “ The Passes of the Alps," 2 vols. 4to.

Ø 15. Alpine Passes.

xliji Jochli, Klausen, Oberalp, Lukmanier, Kistengrat, Panix, Segnes, La Foppa, Lenzerheide, Stutz, Greina, Vago, Casanna, Monte del Oro, Druser and Schweitzer-Thor, Schlapiner Joch, &c. &c., which are either bridle-paths or mere foot-paths, and more or less difficult and dangerous.

In seeking a passage over the Alps, the most obvious course was to find out the valleys which penetrate farthest into the great chain, following the course of the rivers to their sources, and then to take the lowest traversable part in order to descend to the opposite side. The variety and sudden transitions presented by such a route are highly interesting. In the course of one day's journey the traveller passes from the climate of summer to winter, through spring. The alteration in the productions keeps pace with that of the temperature. Leaving behind him stubble-fields, whence the corn has been removed and housed, he comes to fields yet yellow and waving in the ear; a few miles farther and the crop is still green; yet higher and corn refuses to grow. Before quitting the region of corn he enters one of dark, apparently interminable forests of pine and larch, clothing the mountain-sides in a sober vestment. Above this the haymakers are collecting the short grass, the only produce which the ground will yield. Yet the stranger must not suppose that all is barrenness even at this elevation. It seems as though nature were determined to make one last effort at the confines of the region of vegetation. From beneath the snow-bed, and on the very verge of the glacier, the profusion of flowers, their great variety, and surpassing beauty, are exceedingly surprising. Some of the greatest ornaments of our gardens, here born to blush unseen,-gentians and lilies, hyacinths and blue bells, intermixed with bushes of the red rhododendron, the loveliest production of the Alps, scattered over the velvet turf, give it the appearance of a carpet of richest pattern. The insect world is not less abundant and varied,—thousands of winged creatures are seen hovering over the flowers, enjoying their short existence, for the summer at these elevations lasts but for 3 or 4 weeks: the rapid progress of vegetation to maturity is equalled by the rapidity of its decay, and in 8 or 10 days flowers and butterflies have passed away. Above this region of spring, with its gush of springs, its young herbage and vivid greensward, its hum of insects just burst forth, and its natural flower-beds glittering with rain. drops, that of winter in Lapland or Siberia succeeds. All around the summit of a pass over the high Alps, is either snow, glacier, or bare rock. The only plants that grow are dry lichens, which seem intended but to keep up the semblance of vegetation, and to perpetuate nature's cheerful hues of green. The rarefied air is icy cold, and exercise and quick motion are necessary to keep up the circulation of the blood. The agreeable murmur of falling water, which has accompanied the traveller hitherto incessantly, liere ceases, all is solitude and silence, interrupted only by the shrill whistle of the marmot, or the hoarse cawing of an ill-omened raven. The ptarmi

xliv

§ 15. Alpine Passes and Carriuge Roads.

gan starts up from among heaps of unmelted snow at the traveller's approach, and the lammergeyer (the condor of the Alps), disturbed in his repast on the carcass of a sheep or cow, is seen soaring upwards in a succession of corkscrew sweeps till he gains the ridge of the Alps, and then disappears.

Such are the remarkable gradations which the stranger encounters in the course of a few hours, on a single Pass of the Alps; but the most striking change of all is that from the region of snow and ice on the top of the mountain, to the sunny clime and rich vegetation of Italy which awaits the traveller at the S. foot of the Alps.

The works of nature, however, will not entirely occupy the attention and wonder of the wanderer in such a pass; at least a share will be demanded for adiniration of the works of man. The great highways, passable for carriages, over the high Alps, are, indeed, most surprising monuments of human skill and enterprise in surmounting, what would appear, at first sight, to be intended by nature as insurmountable. These proud constructions of art thread the valleys, cross the debris of rivers on long causeways, skirt the edge of the precipice, with walls of rock tottering over them, and torrents thundering below. Where the steep and hard surface of the cliff has left not an inch of space for a goat to climb along, they are conducted upon high terraces of solid masonry, or through a notch blasted by gunpowder in the wall of rock. In many instances a projecting buttress of the mountain has blocked up all passage for ages, saying “thus far and no farther:" the skill of the modern engineer has pierced through this a tunnel or gallery; and the difficulty is vanquished, without the least change in the level of the road.

Sometimes an impediment of this nature is eluded by throwing bridges over the dizzy gorge, and shifting the road from side to side, frequently 2 or 3 times within the space of half a mile. Often the road reaches a spot down which the winter avalanches take their habitual course every year, sweeping every thing before them, and which, even in summer, appears reeking and dripping with the lingering fragments of snow which it has left behind. Will not so irresistible an antagonist arrest the course of this frail undertaking of man? Not even the avalanche ;-in such a situation the road either buries itself in subterranean galleries, driven through the mountain, or is sheltered by massive arcades of masonry, sometimes half a mile or three-quarters of a mile long. Over these the avalanche glides harmlessly and is turned into the depths below.

Every opportunity is seized of gaining, by easy ascents, a higher level for the road; at length comes the main ascent, the central ridge, to be surmounted only by hard climbing. This is overcome by a succession of zigzag terraces, called tourniquets, or giravolte, connected together by wide curves, to allow carriages to turn easily and rapidly. So skilful is their construction, with such easy bends and so gradual a slope, that in many alpine roads the postilions, with horses accustomed to the road, trot down at a rapid pace. Some

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