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couriers, of all nations and languages, and two or three knots of postilions and coachmen on the look-out for employment. During the height of the season, should the traveller arrive late in the evening, the chances are against his being admitted, unless he have sent or written beforehand to secure rooms. This object may sometimes be effected by the means of the courier of another party about to set out at an earlier hour.

Couriers, voituriers, guides, and boatmen, are apt sometimes to sell their employers to the innkeepers for a gratuity, so that travellers should not always implicitly follow the recommendations of such persons regarding inns; and it is hoped that the list of inns, drawn up with much care, and given in this book, will render the traveller in future more independent of their recommendations. The innkeepers hitherto have been very much at the mercy of this class of persons, who invariably fare sumptuously, and certainly not at their own expense. It not unfrequently happens that the attendance which ought to be bestowed on the master is lavished

upon

his menials. Whenever a new inn is started, it is almost invariably by the lavish distribution of high gratuities to coachmen, couriers, and the like, and by pampering them with the best fare, that the landlord endeavours to fill his house, to the prejudice both of the comfort and the purse of their masters. With few exceptions, therefore (which are specified in the following pages), the writer has generally found himself best off in the old-established houses.

It may be laid down as a general rule, that the wants, tastes, and habits of the English are more carefully and successfully studied in the Swiss inns than even in those of Germany. Thus, at most of the large inns, there is a late table-d’hôte dinner at 4 or 5 o'clock, expressly for the English ; and the luxury of tea may always be had in perfection. Cleanliness is to be met with almost everywhere, until you reach the S. slopes of the Alps and the approach to Italy, In canton Bern, in particular, the inns, even in the small and remote villages, are patterns of neatness, such as even fastidious travellers may be contented with.

The usual charges are, for dinner at the early table-d'hôte3 Fr. fr.=20 batz. Later ditto, 4 or 5 Fr. fr.

Dinner, in private, 6 fr. per head for 1 or 2 persons, at the more expensive inns; and from 3 to 5 fr.per head for a party at smaller inns.

Beds, l} to 2 fr.=10 to 13} batz.
Breakfast, l1 to 2 fr.=10 to 14 batz.
Tea, 1} fr.

To this is added, in most of the larger inns, a charge of 1 fr. for a wax candle, to swell the bill.

The charges for rooms vary according to their situation on the lower floo and the views they command ; but the best suite of apartments, in first-rate inns, ought not to exceed 4 fr. a-day, for a sitting-room or salon, and 3 fr. for each bed.

It must be remembered that there are generally two_sets of charges, one for natives, or Germans, and another for the English, $ 11. Swiss Inns.--$ 12. Directions for Trarellers.

xxi

on the principle, that the latter have both longer purses, and also more numerous wants, and are more difficult to serve.

The servants are remunerated nearly as in Germany-1 fr. a-day is ample from each person for the whole household, including the cleaning of clothes, boots, and shoes.

It is often remarked by the English that the Germans pay very little to the servants at inns; but they should bear in mind how much less trouble the Germans give, and how slight the attendance which they require generally speaking.

French is almost invariably spoken at the inns, even in the German cantons, except in remote parts, as in the side valleys of the Grisons. Nevertheless, the German language is a very valuable acquisition to the traveller.

Swiss inns have, in general, the reputation of being expensive, and the innkeepers of being extortionate. A recent journey through the greater part of the country has scarcely afforded an instance of either; but, where such cases have occurred, notice has been taken of them in the following pages. At minor and remote inns manæuvres are sometimes resorted to for the purpose of detaining the guests.

Among the mountains the traveller may obtain, in perfection, the small alpine trout, which are of great excellence; sometimes, also, chamois venison, which, by the way, is far inferior to park venison; wild strawberries are very abundant, and, with a copious admixture of delicious cream, the staple commodity of the Alps, -are by no means to be despised.

Those who enter a Swiss inn, tired, hot, and thirsty, after a long walk or dusty ride, may ask for a bottle of “ limonade gazeuse, under which name they will recognise a drink nearly resembling ginger beer, but with more acidity, and, when good, very refreshing. It supplies here the place of hock and Seltzer-water on the Rhine.

The best Swiss wines are those of Neuchâtel and Vaud; such as they are procured at inns, they merit no great praisc. An effervescing sweet Sardinian wine (vin d’Asti) is common, and may be resorted to for a change.

§ 12.-DIRECTIONS FOR TRAVELLERS, AND REQUISITES FOR

A JOURNEY

IN SWITZERLAND,

The best season for travelling among the Alps is the months of July, August, and September, in which may, perhaps, be included the last half of June. The higher Alpine passes are scarcely clear of snow before the second week of June; and before the middle of October, though the weather is often still serene, the nights draw in so fast as to curtail, inconveniently, the day's journey. During the long days, one may get over a great deal of ground. The judicious traveller will economize the daylight by rising, and setting forth as soon after sun-rise as possible.

The average daily expense of living at the best inns in Switzer

xxii

$ 12.-Directions for Travellers.

land will vary between 8 Fr. fr. and 10 fr. a-day, excluding all charge for conveyances, horses, and guides. The pedestrian who, with Keller in his pocket, can dispense with a guide, may travel in the remoter valleys of Switzerland at the rate of 5 to 7 fr. a-day, provided he knows German and French. The German students, who understand the art of travelling economically, always proceed in a party, and usually send on one of their number a-head, to their intended night-quarters, to make terms with the innkeeper. There is this advantage in travelling with a party, that numbers are more welcomed at an inn and better attended than a solitary individual ; on the other hand, when inns are full, few stand a better chance than many. All arrangements for the hire of carriages, horses, or guides, should be concluded over- - night: he that waits till the morning will generally find either the conveyances engaged by others, or the price demanded for them increased, and, at all events, his departure delayed.

Saussure recommends those who are inexperienced in Alpine travelling to accustom themselves for some time before they set out to look down from heights and over precipices, so that, when they really enter upon a dangerous path, the eye may be familiarized with the depths of the abyss, and the aspect of danger, and the head relieved from the vertigo which the sudden sight of a precipice is otherwise apt to produce.

It is scarcely necessary to repeat the caution against “ drinking cold water” or cold milk, when heated; but the guides, and natives accustomed to mountain travelling, never drink before resting; exercise afterwards will render the draught harmless.

It is tiresome and unprofitable in the extreme to walk along a level road at the bottom of a valley, where conveyances are to be had, and there is a carriage-road : here it is best to ride; the

expense

in money is counterbalanced by the economy of time.

In crossing one of the minor passes of the Alps - those not traversed by carriage-roads, but merely by foot or bridle-paths--a guide should always be taken, as, in the upper part of the valleys, such paths almost invariably disappear, and become confounded with the foot-tracks of the cattle. This rule should especially be observed when the pass terminates in snow or glacier. It is also advisable to eschew short cuts, remembering the old proverb of " the longest way round.”

After the middle of June, the season for travelling in Switzerland, there is little danger to be feared from avalanches, except immediately after snow-storms, which constantly occur among the high Alps, even in the height of summer. The precautions to be adopted in crossing spots exposed to avalanches are stated in § 18.

It is rash to attempt to cross a glacier without a guide, and he should always be allowed to take the lead, and the traveller follow his footsteps. The few instances of fatal accidents occurring to strangers among the Alps arise from their either not taking a guide with them, or neglecting to follow his advice. In the same way, in traversing Swiss lakes, notorious for their sudden storms, implicit reliance should be placed on the advice of the boatmen, and no $ 12.-Directions and Requisites for Swiss Travelling. xxiii

attempt should be made to induce them to launch their boats when they foresee danger.

Avoid, sedulously, stopping for the night near the embouchure of a river, where it empties itself into a lake. The morasses and flat land, created by the deposits of the river, are the hotbeds of malaria, and inevitably teem with disease. To stop in such situations for the night will probably be followed by a fever; and it is even dangerous to sleep in a boat or carriage in crossing such districts. Should, however, any accident compel the traveller to take up his night-quarters in such a spot, let him choose the highest house in the village, and the loftiest room in the house : the malaria does not rise above a certain height; and let him close carefully the windows. It is, however, far better to walk on all night, should there be no other means of advancing or avoiding a spot so situated, than to run the risk. Such morasses are most dangerous in spring and autumn.

Signs of the Weather among the Mountains.-When, in the evening, the wind descends the valley, it is usually a sign of fine weather; the contrary when it ascends. The same may be said of the march of the clouds at all times of the day.

When the roar of the torrent and the knell of the church-bell reach the ear, at one time loud and clear, at another, indistinct and apparently distant, it is a warning of rain.

If, when the clouds clear off, after several days of rain, the mountain-tops appear white with fresh snow, steady, fine weather will almost invariably follow.

It is a bad sign when the outline of the distant mountain-peaks appears particularly sharp and defined-cut out, as it were, against the horizon.

To cure blistered Feet.-Rub the feet at going to bed with spirits, mixed with tallow dropped from a candle into the palm of the hand; on the following morning no blister will exist." The spirits seem to possess the healing power, the tallow serving only to keep the skin soft and pliant. This is Captain Cochrane's advice, and this remedy was used by him on his “ Pedestrian Tour.". To prevent the feet blistering, it is a good plan to soap the inside of the stocking before setting out.

At the head of the list of requisites for travelling in Switzerland may properly be placed Keller's admirable map of that country, which indicates, not only every place and every road, but distinguishes each kind of road, whether carriage, char, bridle-road, or foot-path; marking at the same time the heights of the mountains, the depths of the lakes, the waterfalls, points of view, and other remarkable objects. It almost enables the traveller to dispense with a guide. Of course, it cannot be faultless, but its errors are remarkably few.

Travellers should provide themselves with the Swiss edition of this map, published by Keller himself, at Zurich, 1833. Both the English and French copies of it are very inferior both in clearness and accuracy.

xxiv § 12.Directions and Requisites for Swiss Travelling.

The little map published by the Useful Knowledge Society (London, 1838), under the able superintendence of Captain Beaufort, is remarkably correct and distinct for its size.

“The shoes ought to be double-soled, provided with iron heels and hob-hails, such as are worn in shooting in England : the weight of a shoe of this kind is counterbalanced by the effectual protection afforded to the feet against sharp rocks and loose stones, which cause contusions, and are a great source of fatigue and pain. They should be so large as not to pinch any part of the foot. The experienced pedestrian never commences a journey with new shoes, but with a pair that have already conformed to the shape of the feet. Cotton stockings cut the feet to pieces on a long walk; in their place, thick knit worsted socks ought invariably to be worn. Gaiters are useful in wet weather to keep the socks clean; at other times to prevent small stones from falling into the shoes; but they are liable to heat the ankles. It is advisable to travel in cloth trousers, not in linen, which afford no protection against rain or changes of temperature in mountain regions. A frock-coat is better than a shooting-jacket, which, though well enough in remote places, is strange, and will attract notice in the streets of a foreign town. A straw hat is the most pleasant covering for the head, from its lightness and the protection afforded to the face by a broad brim.”

“ A very serviceable article in a traveller's wardrobe is a blouse (Kittel, or Staub-hemde, in German), somewhat resembling a ploughman's smock-frock in England, but by no means confined to the lower orders abroad, as it is a common travelling costume of nobles, gentles, and peasants. It may be worn either over the usual dress, to keep it clean and free from dust, or it may be substituted for the coat in hot weather. This kind of garment may be purchased ready-made in any German town. A knapsack (Germ. Tornister) may be purchased at a much cheaper rate abroad (10 fr.), and on a much better plan than those made in England, where they are scarcely to be got under 20s. or 30s. Portmanteaus are better in England than anywhere else. A Mackintosh cloak is almost indispensable, and it is difficult to procure one abroad.”

A flask, to hold brandy and kirschenwasser, is necessary on moun. tain excursions; and very convenient cups of patent leather, capable of being folded, and so carried in the pocket, may be got at Paris and Geneva. It should be remembered, however, that spirits ought to be resorted to less as a restorative than as a protection against cold and wet, and to mix with water, which ought not to be drunk cold or unmixed after walking. The best restorative is tea; and, as there are some parts of the Continent in which this luxury cannot be procured, it is advisable to take a small quantity from England. Good tea, however, may be bought in all the large towns of Switzerland.”

Carey, optician, 181, Strand, makes excellent pocket telescopes, about four inches long, combining, with a small size, considerable power and an extensive range. A compass for the pocket is useful on Alpine journeys."-(From Hand-book N. Germany.)

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