ePub 版

Galpin, Ludgate Hill).-The publication of the | scene and persons, musical flow, and epic Histoire de Jules Cesar calls to mind the names majesty, stateliness, and dignity. The power of several sovereigns who have distinguished and force of character of the Roman, and the themselves as writers, or have momentarily pride of Roman citizenship, are prominent in turned away from political life to plant a flower Cæsar, as in the chief Latin writers. He is in the field of literature. Perhaps the most ever the same-Cæsar the commanding, the illustrious of royal authors is Napoleon's hero, invincible. After Cæsar may be named Marcus Julius Cæsar. So splendid an orator that he Aurelius, the stoical philosopher, whose Mediexcelled the polite and lofty-thoughted Cælius, tations have been translated into English, the great philosophic Brutus, the delicate French, German, and Italian several times. Callidus, the bold Cario, the cold and cautious Aurelius held the principal tenets of the school Calous, and challenged comparison with Cicero; of Zeno, and his Thoughts clearly exhibit the so thorough a literary scholar as to surprise the spirit of that philosophy. He caused his majority of his famous contemporaries, Cæsar favourite doctrines to prevail; but Stoicism, would have built up a reputation had he never with its sternness and rigidity, did not materially been Emperor of Rome. Sylla, the celebrated advance. Like Seneca, he believed in the Roman general, was a man of great accomplish- morality of suicide. He doubted as to the ments, and his military talents excited the destiny of the human soul-whether it would jealousy of Marius, but Cæsar regarded him as contrive to exist, or be scattered among the a comparatively ignorant person. Farro enjoyed atoms of the universe, or be totally extinguished. wide renown as a bonis doctus, but Cæsar was On the other hand, unlike the followers of Zeno, equally an eruditus. He was familiar with the he declared that the love of mankind is one of Greek language, and studied the Greek our first and highest duties. Nobly he asserted historians nor was the Greek philosophy to his broad humanitarianism when he said that, him a sealed and unknown thing. To quote as a man, his country and city were the world. De Quincey, "all the knowledge current in He was a true philosopher, preferring Diogenes, Rome, Athens, or Rhodes, at the period of Heraclitus, and Socrates, to Alexander, Cæsar, Caesar's youth, the entire cycle of a nobleman's and Pompey. Charlemagne, the greatest man education in a republic where all noblemen of the "middle ages," the King of France, and were from their birth dedicated to public services founder of the German Empire, stamped his -this, together with much knowledge peculiar to era with the results of great thoughts. He did himself and his own separate objects, had not spend his powers in the production of any Cæsar mastered." His attainments were so literary work; but his services to literature various as to eclipse all those of his contem- were many and splendid. He was the most poraries, except Cicero. He was the most accomplished man of his times. His knowledge complete, and, as the Germans say, the most of Greek and Latin was so thorough that he "many-sided" man of his time-unequalled as could converse fluently in those languages, and a general, sagacious as a politician, eminently it is said that he could even speak Arabic. powerful as an orator, exemplary in style as an Like Cæsar, too, he was an eloquent speaker, historian, "all accomplished (says De Quincey) and won the people by his power in oratory. as a statesman," and an ardent admirer and pa- Cæsar and Cicero cultivated and personally tron of the fine arts. His Commentaries remain taught in their public speeches their grandly a model of clearness and simplicity, praised for strong Latin tongue. Charlemagne extended their lingual purity by Cicero, Tacitus, and the study of polished Greek, and made the Suetonius. In effect Niebuhr advises that who- acquirement of it part of the public education ever wishes to acquire a good Latin style should in Germany. He caused to be collected and give his days and nights to the Commentaries. registered the German Bardic songs, extracts Every sentence is apt and lucid, expressing from which are embodied, according to Schlegel, with absolute precision the thing required to be in the Nibelungen-lied. From his time downsaid. The words and facts are marshalled with ward Germany has a prominent place in the skill and care, with the method and orderly history of philosophy. German thought and procedure of a man of business. As the culture bear an influence equal to that of the warrior in his battles, so the historian in his national English mind, and before that of France writings the forces are not wasted by being and Italy. Then there began to spring up in scattered here and there, but are concentrated the west, under his wise and beneficent reign, on one point. Hence, there is no superfluous men who were intellectually leaders of mankind. verbiage-no difference in the narration. Then there arose the metaphysical philosophy Directness and point are principal merits in for which Germany has become famous. Then the Roman's style. In this respect Schlegel the European mind, which had been stationary claims for him superiority over Herodotus, for five centuries, began to advance-the stream whom he calls "diffuse and garrulous." The which had so long appeared stagnant began to Greek has not the brevity of the Latinist; but flow, not in rapid torrents, but in gentle currents. Herodotus is in the highest degree simple, clear, Then the darkness which enveloped the minds and naturally pathetic. If he has not Cæsar's of the people began gradually to disperse : conciseness, he possesses qualities in which the civilization and literature dawned. France and commentator on the Gallic war is lacking Italy were in the deepest depths of barbarism; picturesque description, graphic paintings o schools were abolished, or, if not destroyed,

rendered useless by being closed; learning was confined to a few, and those few inaccurate scholars; ignorance was dense, dominant, and universal; in England alone was there a gleam of light seen amid the surrounding darkness; in Italy libraries were demolished, seminaries were shut up, and, says Hallam, "illiteracy was the companion of the Lombard dominion;" in France liberal studies were no longer pursued. To Charlemagne belongs pre-eminently the noble praise of raising these people, of dispelling the general ignorance, of inspiring into life the love of knowledge, and the desire of attaining it. In the Western Empire he laid the foundation of learning. He restored the neglected or forgotten letters. He re-established the schools for the spread of sound education; and from these has sprung our modern universities. And thus, though he did not much use his pen (his only efforts being an argument against the doctrines of Felix d'Urgel, and a treatise on the image-worship question), his lofty thoughts took practical shape and form: though he did not indite an important book, he performed illustrious literary deeds; though he did not compose any noteworthy work, he blessed mankind with the benefits and means of their cultivation in which he himself so brilliantly shone. Frederick the Great had a passionate attachment to literature, and wrote numerous works, the principal of which are histories of his own life and times. His writings, consisting of history, poems, philosophy, and letters, made up twentyone volumes. Otho the Fourth is reported to have written poetry. Maximilian the First wrote poems, the genealogies of several illustrious men, and memoirs of his own life, in which are fully and interestingly detailed his wars with France, his endeavours to become Pope, and his service under Henry the Eighth in union with England against France. Charles the Fifth wrote a treatise on art, and an account of his reign. From French history we learn that Chilperic, who flourished in the sixth century, rendered in verse the dogma of the Trinity; that Prince Charles of Orleans, taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Agincourt, wrote light and graceful poems in his captivity; that Marguerite de Valois left behind her a volume of poems and memoirs; that Francis the First was a poet, and that Henry the Second wrote some pretty verses to Diana of Poitiers. Charles the Ninth composed rhymes dedicated to the celebrated Rosara, and a poem on hunting. Henry the Fourth excelled in epistolary literature, and translated the whole of Cæsar. Louis the Fourteenth has left memoirs of his own time, together with a portion of a translation of Cæsar's Commentaries; and Louis the Eighteenth composed anonymously several comedies and fables. Alphonse the Tenth of Spain was famous for his learning and science. He wrote on the motions of the stars, and the well-known "Alphonsine Tables" were drawn up under his direction. He published a number of mis cellanies, and there is also from his pen a His

tory of Spain. Alphonso the Eleventh also wrote a chronicle in verse, after the manner of the old bardic records; and Prince Juan Manuel produced the notable "Count of Lucanor," and some poems; John the Second was likewise a writer; and Philip the Fourth contributed several dramatic pieces to the theatre. John the First of Portugal produced several poems; Alphonso the Fifth wrote an elaborate work on the ancient Portuguese Art of Fighting; Durate was the author of a Treatise on Morals, the manuscript of which is now in the library of Paris; and from the pen of Emanuel the Great there is a MS. History of India. To Don Sebastian is attributed a work on the Arms and Fortifications of the Ancient Portuguese. Lewis, King of Bavaria, composed a few pleasing lyrics. Amelia, Princess of Saxony, wrote for the German stage several plays, which are noteworthy among German dramas for simplicity and the inculcation of sound morality. Henry the Third of Holland is said to have been a poet of considerable merit. Gustavus Adolphus was a poet, a splendid orator, and a writer of memoirs. Under his influence Swedish literature revived, and learning extended. He formed a royal academy at Ebbo, established a university at Dordt, and personally enriched those of Upsal. Catharine the Second of Russia was an intense admirer of literature and the arts, and corresponded with the most eminent and talented men in Europe. She gave every facility for the diffusion of polite learning in her dominions, and took means whereby the education of all classes of her subjects was attended to. She wrote a drama for the Russian stage, which had become renowned through the magnificent abilities and creations of Soumarakoff and Walkoff, She gave to the world "Memoirs; or, the History of Russia," and "Instructions for the Russian Code." She also translated a chapter of Marmontel's "Belisaire." Lorenzo de Medici of Italy was an ardent encourager of learning. He sent out scholars to the East for the collection of Greek manuscripts with which he invaluably enriched the famous Laurentine library, and which, says Hallam," he permitted to be freely copied for the use of other parts of Europe." He assisted numerous Latin writers, was devotedly fond and studious of the Platonic philosophy, and was a poet of no mean order, many of his productions being exceedingly beautiful. In the catalogue of English royal authors the name of Alfred the Great stands first. He was one of the wisest and most prudent rulers that ever governed these realms. In his early youth he was deprived of the means by which he would have been enabled to instruct himself in the sciences and scholarly refinenients then cultivated. But under the tuition and guidance of Asser, he was led into those exhaustless storehouses of learning, which the Greek and Latin languages opened up. He was the most erudite man of the ninth century

the most cultivated scholar of his day. Unpretending and modest in his learning, unosten tatiously, but splendidly and munificently em


ploying his talents for the elevation of his subjects, his intellectual abilities were not equalled by any one of those contemporary ecclesiastics who are supposed to be the human depositaries of all extant knowledge. Illustrious, as gracefully adorning a rude age, he would have been eminent in another Augustan era. Glorious his renown in his country's infancy, he would have conferred honour upon it in its manhood. He did not monopolise the treasures acquired from the language of Homer and Virgil, but, like Lorenzi di Medici with the Greek manuscripts, placed them before the public for their use and delight. In other words, he translated, or caused to be translated, those works which had afforded him the greatest pleasure, or which he considered would prove most serviceable to the nation. He himself clothed in Saxon dress the Liber Pastoralis Cura" of Pope Gregory, and Boethius's "Consolations of Philosophy." This latter can scarcely be called a translation. It partakes more of the character of an original work, for many of the ideas are largely expanded, while others are entirely departed from, in order to make room for the translator's own thoughts and illustrations. Scattered over the work are numerous allusions to his age and his personal history. So also with his Saxon version of Crosius's" History and Geography," in which he inserts a sketch of the German nations with his own pen. His greatest literary achievement was the rendering into Saxon of Bede's "Ecclesiastical History,' 93 66 a truly splendid monument [says a modern historian] of his zeal and industry." He is likewise said to have translated Esop's Fables from the Greek," and to have given the Psalms of David in Anglo-Saxon. Like a true patriot he endeavoured to propagate his mother-tongue. It was to Saxon books that he directed the attention of his children to be devoted, and Saxon poetry was his favourite reading. He invited to his court learned men from all parts. He endowed schools throughout the kingdom. Asser and Spelman assert that he founded the University of Oxford. This statement is disputable; but, if he did not establish that seat of learning, he immensely increased its reputation, and it is certain that he founded University College. Thus this purest of monarchs, by intercourse with the wise and by their exalting influence, by fixing seminaries, by providing the means of education and enlarging those which already existed, and by enriching his native literature, laid the foundation of learning in his dominions. Justly is he called, not from external and accidental advantages, but transcendent merit, Alfred the Great, as he may justly be styled Alfred the Good. James the First of Scotland, while in his long confinement in England, wrote a poem entitled "The King's Quhair," descriptive of his attachment to a young lady whom he saw walking in the grounds adjoining his prison-house, and whom, on his liberation, he married. Leland and Bishop Tanner claim Henry the First as an author. Richard the First composed, in the sweet Provencal tongue, a sonnet, which Wal

[ocr errors]

pole prints in his catalogue, extracted from the original in the Lawrentian library. This king also wrote a detailed account of the Crusades in a letter to the Abbot of Clairvaux. Bishop Tanner and Fabian assert the existence, in MS., of a Latin poem by Edward the Second. Queen Elizabeth received, under the instruction of the erudite Roger Ascham, a profound knowledge of the learned languages. Abundant evidence of this exists in a comment on Plato, in translations into English of Boethius, Sallust, Xenophon, Horace, Plutarch, and Sophocles; in translations into Latin of two orations of Isocrates, and a tragedy of Euripides; in a translation from the French of the Meditations of the Queen of Navarre; in a translation of the prayers of Queen Catherine into Latin, Italian, and French; in a volume of prayers written by herself in French, Italian, and Spanish; and lastly, in a Greek oration delivered extemporarily at Oxford. There are still extant a number of letters and prayers written or dictated by Elizabeth, and some small poems. These may be found in the English edition of Hertznerus, in Antony Bacon's papers, in the Harleian MSS., in Cambridge libraries, in Fuller's " English Worthies," in Strype's "Memorials," and other sources. Mary, Queen of Scots, composed some plaintive verses on her departure from France; and Mary, daughter of Henry the Eighth, wrote some letters, and devout pieces, or prayers and meditations, and partly translated Erasmus on St. John. Erasmus praises her Latin epistles-"scripsit bene Latinas epistolas;" but Walpole pronounces her French ones "miserable." Strype has preserved three of her prayers, which are respectively called (1), Against the assaults of vice;" (2) "A meditation touching adversity;" and (3) "A prayer to be read at the time of death." Queen Catharine Parr wrote "The Lamentation of a Sinner," and several psalms in imitation of David's. King Edward the Sixth presented, in French, arguments against the Pope's supremacy; composed, it is said, orations in Greek and Latin, and, on the authority of Holland, a most elegant comedy. Henry the Eighth entered into the controversial arena, and defended the sacraments against Luther. What cared he for sacraments, or church, or faith in peril, or for anything but the gratification of his passions? To the pen of Charles the First is ascribed "Eikon Basilike,' and a translation of some Latin work; and James the Second has left some memoirs of his own life and times. James the First affected to be a man of profound learning, and pretended to have a deep knowledge of theology. He was shrewd, acute, and reflective; but his writings and speeches are full of levity, indiscreet expressions, and intolerable pedantry. The principal characteristic is full-blown vanity. He openly courted the society of buffoons and flatterers, and sold himself to the inordinate appetites of his favourites; yet he had the audacity to address to the Church a Latin commentary on the Apocalypse. His life was made up of levities, foibles, indecorums, and incongruities.

[ocr errors]

His chief works are the "Basilicon Doron," a collection of precepts and maxims in religion, in morals, and in the arts of government, in which he speaks of offences punishable by death, argues against Presbyterianism, and advises the restoration of the bishops, and their re-admission to Parliament as an effective remedy for this "Scotch pest." Next, the "Demonolopia," and then the ridiculous" Counterblaste to Tobacco," in both of which absurd works quotations, poems, scripture, witticisms, superstitions, vanity, and preachment of "prerogative" are chaotically mixed up, the whole being exceedingly comical, ludicrous, and grotesque. James was sometimes compared by his sycophants to Solomon. We cannot associate the two, James being as great in weakness and nonsense as Solomon in wisdom. To these names may be added those of Napoleon the First and Third. The former commented on Cæsar, and at St. Helena dictated his meinoirs, which were afterwards published, with many interpretations, as the "Memoirs of Las Casas," and then

again as "Memoirs edited by Count Montholon." The latter has published several works on pauperism, on the sugar question, on artillery, and, best known of all, the "Napoleonic Ideas."

The boldness of the last-named book, the startling audacity of the "ideas" caused it to be universally read. But all his former produc tions will be eclipsed by the "Histoire de Jules Cesar." Its literary merit is such that it would have created for any man a splendid reputation; and its political opinions, its speculations, its allegorical character-a defence of Napoleon and the Empire under the cover of Cæsar-will provoke wide discussion. S. F. W.


OLIVIA VALSE. By Frederick Mocklier (London: Hopwood and Crew, 24, New Bondstreet.) - A light and graceful composition, showy without being difficult, and sufficiently brilliant to appear less simple than it really is. The time is well marked and the melody pleasing.


At the PRINCESS's has been produced a play, from Mr. Boucicault's facile pen, called "Arrah na Pogue." It is an Irish melodrama, but sensational only in the best sense of that curious word. The plot is as follows-but on second thoughts we will not spoil our readers' pleasure. Suffice it to say that Mr. Boucicault plays an Irish peasant in his best style, and shows the humour, motherwit, devotion, and craft combined, which distinguish the Irish peasants when heroes of drama. In a court-martial scene, in particular, where, after evading question after question in the most "shifty" way, he calmly pleads "Not guilty," and thereon backs out of the dock, as if that settled the matter, he brings down the house in mingled applause and laughter. As Arrah Mrs. Boucicault plays a charming Irish girl, in her own tender yet energetic style. Mr. Brougham, as the O'Grady, has a part admirably adapted to his versatile comic powers. The vehemence with which,


when at cross-purposes with the sex in general, he exclaims "O Adam, why didn't ye die with every rib in your body?" is intensely amusing. Teeney, a spy, is admirably played by Mr. Dominick Murray, to whom we have before referred as a most talented and accomplished actor, and a great addition to the Princess's company. We can cordially recommend all to witness this drama, which is put on the stage splendidly, and has some of the loveliest scenery (illustrations of Wicklow), painted by Mr. Lloyds and Mr. Telbin, ever seen in any theatre.

[blocks in formation]



MATERIALS:-No. 12 Boar's Head Crochet Cotton, of Messrs. Walter Evans and Co., Derby.

A crotchet pattern for a tidy, which is extremely pretty; and, being worked in separate pieces, adds very much to the convenience, as the size never becomes an impediment to its progress.

In forming a star, commence by making a chain of eighteen loops; join it into a ring. Work it round with single crochet with about forty stitches; work all round forty-eight stitches in double crochet in each loop of the last row, making two loops in one in five or six places to give room for the additional size of the circle. This forms the solid centre. In this work one long, three chain, one into every other stitch all round; work nine chain, loop in twelve times all round. In each of these twelve loops work four long, three chain, and four long. The

[ocr errors]

next row is eleven chain looped in to the three chain of the last row all round the same. On these twelve loops work five chain, one long, three chain, one long, three chain, one long, five chain, loop into the same place as the last row; continue all round the same. The last row is single crotchet all round to give the edge a substantial and firm appearance. When a sufficient number of stars are formed, they are united together at two points of each, which will make them join at eight points, leaving four to be joined together by two crotchet chains crossing each other. When the square is completed the outer edge is finished with a fringe tied in at intervals sufficiently near to give it a rich appearance.


MATERIALS: The larger the pins and the coarser the fleece, the handsomer the mat will look. When finished, a band of cloth, the colour of the darkest wool, must be sewed round. Two distinct colours in wool are necessary, and these should match the hangings of the rooms.

[blocks in formation]

2. With Magenta wool fasten on and purl a row.

3rd.-Bring wool forward; K 2 †; and without bringing the wool forward, K 3 plain, and pull the 3rd stitch (reckoning backwards) over the two last; wool forward; K 3 plain; pull the first over the two last; repeat from * till the end of the row (12 loops now on the pin).

4th.-Green wool; purl a row (12 loops on the pin). This also can be calculated by measurement for the article required.


rug, 8-thread fleecy. The following directions will be found correct for knitting the stitch : Cast on any number of stitches that will divide by 4, and allow besides 1 for each end. 1st row: Slip 1, make 1, slip 1, knit 3, draw the slipped stitch over the 3 knitted ones, repeat from *, knit 1. 2nd. Knit 1, purl all out the last stitch, which knit plain. 3rd. Same as first. 4th. Same as 2nd. It will be seen that the pattern is very easy to knit, and is very quickly exe

It is pretty for babies' berceaunette blankets or cot covers, lined with silk, or knitted in very coarse wool for travelling rugs. Different kinds of wool must, of course, be selected, according to the purpose for which the knitting is intended. We will gill give our readers the directions for knitting the stitch, and they can then make use of it for either of the articles just mentioned. We would advise them to select, for a baby's blanket, white fleecy wool; for a cot cover, double Berlin; and for a travelling cuted.

« 上一頁繼續 »