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its numbers, he advanced four guns to the front, and opened fire upoD Crawford's batteries; his own division, under Winder, being thrown out to the left as it arrived, still under cover of the woods. Ewell's batteries were successfully posted at the foot of the mountain, some 200 feet above the valley, whence their fire was far more effective than ours. Meantime, Hill's division was arriving, and being sent in to the support of whatever portion of the Rebel line was weakest, until not less than 20,000 veterans, with every advantage of position and shelter, formed the Rebel line of battle; against which Banks's 6,000 or 8,000 177
A Position of Gen. Banks's corps both before and after his advance upon tbo enemy, on the afternoon of Aug. 9.
B Farthest advance of Gen. Banks's corps, and place of severest fighting.
9 August 7.
b Position of Rebel troops corresponding with position B.
a Farthest advance of Rebels in the afternoon, froc which point they were driven evening of Aug. 9.
* August 9.
BANKS DEFEATED AT CEDAR MOUNTAIN.
advanced, at 5 p. M., across open fields and up gentle acclivities, thoroughly swept by the Rebel cannon and musketry.
Had victory been possible, they would have won it. Early's brigade of Ewell's division held the road, and was so desperately charged in front and on its right flank, that it held its ground only by the opportune arrival of Thomas's brigade of Hill's division; while the left of Jackson's division, under Taliaferro, was so assailed in flank and rear that one brigade was routed and the whole flank gave way, as did also Early's. But the odds were too heavy; and, though onr men proved themselves heroes, thev could not defeat three times their number, holding the foot of a mountain and covered by woods. The best blood of the Union was poured out like water, but in vain. Gen. Geary, who, with five Ohio regiments and the 28th Pennsylvania, made the most desperate charge of the day, was himself wounded, with most of his ofiicers. Gen. Crawford's brigade came out of the fight a mere skeleton. The 109th Pennsylvania, 102d New York, and several other regiments, left half their number dead or wounded on that fatal field. Gens. Augur and Carroll were severely wounded; as were Cols. Donnelly, 46th Pa., Creighton, 7th Ohio, and Majors Savage, 2d Mass., Armstrong, 5th Ohio, and Pelouze, Banks's Adjutant Gen. Prince was taken prisoner after dark, by accident, while passing from one part of his command to another. Our loss in killed and wounded could hardly have been less than 2,000 men. We were not 60 much beaten as fairly crowded off the field; where JackVol. n.—12
son claims to have taken 400 prisoners, 1 gun, and 5,302 small arms, with a loss on his part of 223 killed, including Gen. C. S. Winder, 2 Lt.Colonels, and a Major; with 1,060 wounded: among them Cols. Williams and Sheffield, 3 Majors, and 31 missing; total, 1,314.
Gen. Pope had remained throughout the day at Culpepper, neither desiring nor expecting a serious engagement, and assured from time to time that only skirmishing was going on at the front; until the continuous roar of cannon assured him, soon after 5 o'clock, that the matter was grave. Ordering forward Ricketts's division, he arrived with it on the field just before dark, and directed Banks to draw in his right wing upon his center, so as to give room for Ricketts to come into the fight; but the Rebels, though victorious, advanced with great caution, and, finding themselves confronted by fresh batteries, recoiled, after a sharp artillery duel, and took shelter in the woods. Ricketts's guns continued vocal until midnight; but of course to little purpose. Meantime, Sigel's corps began to arrive, and was sent to the front abreast of Ricketts's; Banks's corps being withdrawn two miles to the rear to rest and reorganize.
But there was no more fighting. Jackson clung to his mountain and his woods till the night of the 11th; when, aware that King's division had just come up from Fredericksburg, and that Pope was about to strike at his communications, and thus compel him to fight on equal terms, he, leaving a part of his dead unburied, retreated rapidly across the Rapidan. Our cavalry pursued him to that 6tream, picking up a number of stragglers.
Gen. Reno, with 8,000 of Burnside's corps, having joined" him, Gen. Pope advanced his infantry to Kobertson's river and Raccoon Ford, with his center at and around Cedar Mountain, and began again to operate with his cavalry on the enemy's communications, until satisfied that the whole Rebel Army of Virginia was rapidly assembling to overwhelm him; one of his cavalry expeditions having captured J. E. B. Stuart's Adjutant, bearing a letter from Gen. Lee," at Gordonsville, which clearly indicated that purpose. Holding his advanced position to the last, so as to afford time for the arrival of McClellan's army, he commenced" a retreat across the Rappahannock, which was effected in two days without loss; and, though the Rebels, of course, followed sharply with their cavalry, reaching the river on the morning of the 20th, they found the fords so guarded and fortified that they could not bo forced without heavy loss; so, after three days of skirmishing and artillery-firing at Kelly's Ford and Rappahannock Station, they commenced a movement up the stream, with intent to turn our right.
Pope, still under orders to maintain his communications with Fredericksburg, was unable to extend his right farther without too much weakening his center, and telegraphed again and again to Washington that he must be reenforced or retreat He was assured, on the 21st, that, if he could hold on two days longer, he should be so amply strengthened as to enable him to assume the offensive; yet, on the 25th,
barely 7,000 men had reached him. He had resolved to recross the Rappahannock on the night of the 22d, and fall upon the flank and rear of the long Rebel column constantly passing up the river; but, during that night, a heavy rain 6et in, which, before morning, had drowned all the fords and carried away the bridges in his front, rendering his meditated blow impossible.
During that night, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, with 1,500 Rebel cavalry and 2 guns, having crossed the Rappahannock at Waterloo Bridge and Hart's Mill during the preceding day, pushed on unobserved to Warrenton, surprised Gen. Pope's headquarterstrain near Catlett's Station, during the intense rain and darkness; capturing Pope's field Quartermaster and his dispatch-book, with a quantity of uniforms and personal baggage, burning the wagons, and trying to burn the railroad bridge over Cedar Run; but the tremendous rain then falling defeated this design. Stuart claims to have reached the Rappahannock at Warrenton Springs, on his return next day, with 300 prisoners and many horses, here crossing unharmed, after a night's bivouac and a little skirmishing. Pope's actual headquarters during this raid were near Rappahannock Station; but our army trains were parked around Catlett's, and guarded by 1,500 infantry and five companies of cavalry; so that Stuart's cheap success inflicted on us more disgrace than injury—a disgrace which the intense darkness and pouring rain explain, but do not excuse.
Still, the enemy confronting us in ample force at Rappahannock Sta
"Dated August 15.