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2. Hannibal to Scipio Africanus,
3. Scipio's reply,
4. Castelhene's reproof of Cleon's fattery to
Q. Curlis 275
5. Caius Marius to the Romans,
6. Publius Scipio to the Roman army,
7. Hannibal to the Carthagenian army,
8. Adherbal to the Roman senators,
9. Capuleius to the Roman Consuls,
25. The world compared to a stage, As you like it,
ELEMENTS OF GESTURE.
On the Speaking of Speeches at Schools. EL.COM
ILOCUTION has, for some years past, been an ob
ject of attention in the most respectable schools in this country. A laudable ambition of instructing youth, in the pronunciation and delivery of their native language, has made English speeches a very conspicuous part of those exhibitions of oratory, which do our seminaries of learning 80 much credit.
This attention to English pronunciatiou, has induced several ingenious men to compile exercises in elocution, for the use of schools, which have apowered very useful purposes : But none so far as I have seen, have attempted to give us a regular system of gesture, suited to the wants and capacities of School-boys. Mr. Burgh, in his art of Speaking, has given us a system of the passions; and has shown us how they appear in the countenance, and operate on the body; but this system, however useful to people of riper years, is too drlicate and complicated to be taught in schools. Indeed the exact adaptation, of the action to ihe word, and the word to the action, as Shakespeare calls it, is the most difficult part of desiyery, and therefore, can never be taught perfectly to children ; to say nothing of distracting their attention with two very difficult things, at the same time. But that boys should stand motionless, while they are pronounce ing the most impassionate language, is exiremely absurd and unnatural; and that they should sprawl into an awkward, ungain, and desultory action, is still more offensive and disgusting. What then remains, but that such a general style of action be adopted, as shall be easily conceived and easily executed; which, though not expressive of any particular passion, shall not be inconsistent with the expression passion; which shall always keep the body in a graceful position, and shall so vary its motions, at proper intervals, 88 to see the subject operating on the speaker, and not the speaker on the subject. This, it will be confessed, is a great desideratum ; and an attempt to this, is the principal object of the preseot publication.
The difficulty of describióg action by words, will be allowed by every one; and if we were rover to give any instructions, but such as should completely answer our wishes, this difficulty would be a good reason for not attempting to give any description of it. But there are many degrees between conveying a precise idea of a thing, and no idea at all. Besides, io this part of delivery, instruction may be conveyed by the eye; and this organ is a much more rapid vehicle of knowledge than the ear. This vehicle is addressed on the present occasion; and plates, representing the attitudes which are described, are annexed to the several descriptions, which it is not doubted will greatly facilitate the reader's conception.
Plate I. represents the attitude in which a boy should always place himself, when he begins to speak. He should rest the whole weight of his body on the right leg; the other just touching the ground, at the distance at which it would naturally fall, if lifted up to shew that the body does not bear upon it. The knees should be straight, and braced, and the body, though' perfectly straight, not perpendicular, but inclininig as far to the right as a firm position on the right leg will permit. The right arm must then be held out, with the palm open, the fingers straight and close, the thumb almost as distant from them as it will go; and the ffat of the hand neither horizontal nor vertical, but exactly between both. The position of the arm, perhaps, will be best described, by supposing an oblong hollow square formed by the measure of four arms, as in Plate I. where the arm, in its true position, forms the diagonal of such an inaginary figure. So that, if lines were drawn at right angles from the shoulder, extending downwards, forwards, and sideways, the arm will form an angle of forty five degrees every way.
When the pupil has pronounced one sentence in the posia tion thus described, the hand, as if lifeless, must drop down to the side, the very moment the last accented word is pronounced; and the body, without altering the place of the feet, poize itself on the left leg, while the left hand raises itself, into exactly the same position as the right was before, and continues in this position till the end of the next sentence, when it drops down on the side as if dead; and the