Social Variation and the Latin Language

封面
Cambridge University Press, 2013年5月23日
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Languages show variations according to the social class of speakers and Latin was no exception, as readers of Petronius are aware. The Romance languages have traditionally been regarded as developing out of a 'language of the common people' (Vulgar Latin), but studies of modern languages demonstrate that linguistic change does not merely come, in the social sense, 'from below'. There is change from above, as prestige usages work their way down the social scale, and change may also occur across the social classes. This book is a history of many of the developments undergone by the Latin language as it changed into Romance, demonstrating the varying social levels at which change was initiated. About thirty topics are dealt with, many of them more systematically than ever before. Discussions often start in the early Republic with Plautus, and the book is as much about the literary language as about informal varieties.
 

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內容

PART
3
Early Latin Vulgar Latin and the Romance languages
8
VII
22
IO Analysing the chronology of change in a dead language
25
PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY
32
VIII
33
Vowel confusions in early Latin
41
IX
51
Suffixation mainly adjectival and nonstandard
528
XXVI
529
Compound adverbs and prepositions
582
XXVII
589
Past participle + habeo
625
Meanings and functions of haheo
640
Final conclusions
646
The periphrastic future and conditional and present
652

Introduction
71
Introduction
90
Definition
101
ool QviJkwblst
123
Introduction
164
lmmJkwNH
183
in Latin
187
Conclusions
191
The nominative and accusative
201
Oblique cases and prepositional expressions
257
71
289
81
298
Miscellaneous uses of the accusative
321
variations and conflations
327
The pleonastic reflexive dative
346
93
347
Introduction
363
99
369
some conclusions
371
XIX
383
101
390
II
427
104
434
The neuter plural ending ora
435
22
436
PART 5
442
variations
453
189
478
I
482
108
488
110
495
204
501
The Mulomedicina Claironis
520
Present indicative with future reference
658
Final conclusions
672
125
675
234
676
453
698
The ablative of the gerund and the present participle
725
xxv111 Reported speech
743
613
755
616
765
potentialgeneric relative clauses
770
ASPECTS OF THE LEXICON AND WORD ORDER
777
646
786
252
787
454
788
mmPWNH
792
132
794
652
795
486
808
auxiliary verbs
821
164
830
SUMMING
841
Bibliography
872
263
882
371
886
384
894
415
909
267
911
504
912
431
915
792
916
829
931
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關於作者 (2013)

J. N. Adams is an Emeritus Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford and a Fellow of the British Academy. He was previously a Professor of Latin at the Universities of Manchester and Reading. He is the author of many books on the Latin language, including most recently The Regional Diversification of Latin, 200 BCD 600 (Cambridge, 2007) and Bilingualism and the Latin Language (Cambridge, 2003).

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