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152

works 21.506 ir Mi Gnars et Cietais. Béc. sasaisiner:

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tirre et de poids, c'est le même jugemest porté sur la nature du pourcir ca priece, ea ce qui concerte le r ecent ce la valeur monétaire. Le rapprochement des indications fournies par ces deux grands esprits donne lieu à une étude aussi féconde qu'attrayante.”

Séquin's Histoire des Étiques-Comtes de Lisieux, published in 1832, says of Nicole Oresme, “ 334 évéque et 19e comte.":

Ce savant évêque, après avoir fait ses Etudes dans son pays, alla à Paris ; il fut grand maître du collége de Navarre; il ... était le plus habile dans les sciences et les beaux-arts, qui fut dans l'université de Paris.”

Dubois, Huet, Mézeray, and others bear similar testimony to the worth of Oresme and Charles V.

153

this grand liberal bishop of the fourteenth century, who first translated into French, the Ethics, Politics, and Economics of Aristotle, was commissioned by Charles V. to translate the Bible into French, wrote against the Ultramontanes, was unsuccessfully accused of heresy,' and proved himself a master of theology, mathematics, and political economy.

Our people are so inventive, and have such confidence in their intuitive ability to determine any question, that a thorough study of even the bibliology of such a science as that of money is generally not considered necessary for an American lawmaker or economic writer. Even in England, writers on the money question commonly ignore the older continental writers, and continually speak of the law that poorer money will drive out better nem is being i iscrer i sir Tomas essian e cuceri Teen Eizen Ze succede se Funda para sa 143 zeitrazie anc Gornest tai sositezi ziotecas Tary rev.

s On account of the sermon which he preached before Pope Urbain V. and the College of Cardinals, “Sur les déréglements des princes de l'Eglise.”

2 Many other illustrious churchmen have highly appreciated the moral importance of the currency question. In the XIII Century St. Thomas Aquinas was the foremost writer on Political Economy and Currency.

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Regariing the efects of decasei ncne, Oresme wizes: " et encres, qui est pire chose, s i gers e banquiers qui sraumt CA67 a curs a postu: prs, céacun en sa Egure, ful, a seczas cantees, en d ates: ears, et l'ecvciezt oa vondent dehors az arcas, en recetast dicezi autres pitors d', mixtes et de bas 2.37, descebes ilz explissent le pags,"

ernicus also stated this law most explicitly as fchows: "Car autem minime conveniat novam ac bonam monetam intrnacere antiqua viliore remanente, quanto hic magis erratam est vetere meliore remanente viliorem novam introducendijue non solum infecit antiquam, sed, ut ita dicam, expugnavit."

Henry Dunning Macleod.

155

more thoroughly and successfully than you," in a book on Bimetalism," lately published by Longmans, has helped the discussion of the gold and silver question by clearly and authoritatively stating the case of monometallism against bimetallism, and by a brief analysis of the monetary writings of Oresme’ and Copernicus, and a concise summary of some of the coinage

iews of Gresham, Petty, Locke, Harris. Bacon, Newton, Adam Smith, Lord Liverpool, Steuart, Pole, Herries, Hankinson, Peel, Mill, and other great authori- . ties.

Macleod says: “All these illustrious writers, except those who declared for a single standard, pointed out that the law must regulate the value of the coins ac

1 He spells thus “Bimetalism,” “Monometalism,” “Bimetalist,” “Bimetallic,” “ Monometallic."

? Roscher, in German, in 1862, and Wolowski, in French, in 1864, had published more important notes on Oresme's noble treatise, and Wolowski had published, in, 1864 very important notes on the great treatise of Copernicus.

That these works of Oresme and Copernicus have not been translated into English is most astonishing when we consider the wonderful originality and genius they display, and which no summary can adequately represent.

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It is interesting to note how the disculties which these great political economists find in maintaining a just bimetallism are avoided by joint-metallism, which is a scientific and honest bimetallism. Their writings show how strongly many of

See page 121. See also page 5, where the plan was stated in a concrete manner, as was necessary for newspaper publication, but the details as to the gold coin to be selected for the standard weight and the periods to be considered, are of course not ewential.

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