« 上一頁繼續 »
had the}' widened perceptibly the schism in the Republican ranks. As was wittily said at the time, "fusion had resulted in confusion."
The Greenback Party. J
In 1873 the Country passed through a panic. Cautions! financial legislation became necessary. President Giant vetoed a measure increasing the national currency to the extent of #400,000,000, because it tended to inflation at a time when the country was looking toward the resumption of specie payments. A strenuous effort was made by a strong minority of both parties to pass the bill over the veto. The effort failed, but here we have the germs of the "Greenback party."
The rise of this party was encouraged by the stringency of the times, and by the propensity to hold the dominant party responsible for industrial and financial ills. It at first took form and name as "The Independent party," that being best suited for a grouping of all the elements of discontent. But it could not escape the more suggestive name of "Greenback party," since its object was to relieve financial stringency and business depression by using the credit of the Government in the shape of greenbacks, and insisting on a sufficient issue of them to answer the purposes intended. The greenback was then popular and was ere long to be redeemed in gold.
But while the inception of the party was in 1873, it received its real impetus in the passage of the specie Resump tion act of 1875, by the Republicans. The Democrat party, contrary to its traditions, had arrayed itself against the passage of this act, and was therefore in a position to ally itself with the Greenbackers. This alliance was effected in many States, and it proved to be a very strong alliance in industrial districts where the thought of unlimited money was a pleasing delusion.
Campaign Of 1876.
This party was the first to enter the campaign of 1876.| It met in National Convention at Indianapolis, May 17,1 1876 and nominated Peter Cooper, of New York, for president, on a platform arraigning both Republican and Democratic parties for refusing to foster financial reform and industrial emancipation; demanding repeal of the Specie Resumption act of 1875; insisting upon the United States note (greenback) as a circulating medium and legal tender, and upon the Jeffersonian theory that "bank paper must be suppressed, and the circulation restored to the nation to whom it belongs; declaring that the Government shall legislate for the full development of all legitimate business; opposing further issue of gold bonds; no further sale of bonds with which to purchase silver as a substitute for fractional currency.
This was a most remarkable platform in view of the strenuous opposition of the Democrats to the passage of the original Greenback act, of the traditions of the party in favor of hard money, and of the historic opposition of Democracy to Government legislation in favor of our industries.
Another party which had already entered the campaign of 1876, was the American National party, which met in mass meeting at Pittsburg, June 9, 1875, and nominated James B. Walker, of Illinois, for president. It favored a Sabbath, and prohibition, the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments, arbitration, Bible in schools, return to specie payments, direct vote of the people for president, and opposed Secret Societies. The Prohibition party, under the name of "Prohibition Reform party," met in National Convention at Cleveland, May 17, 1876, and nominated Green C. Smith, of Kentucky, for president, on the usual platform of principles.
The Republican party met in Convention at Cincinnati and nominated Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, for president. This Convention broke the usual party practice of voting the States as units. It declared in its platform that the United States was a nation not a league; that Republican work was not done till the Declaration was acknowledged in every State; for protection of all citizens; for redemption of United States notes in coin; for improved civil service; rigid responsibility in office; against sectarian control of schools; for sufficient revenue with protection; against land-grants to corporations; in favor of pensions to soldiers.
The regular Democratic party met in convention at St. Louis. June 28, 1876, and nominated Samuel J. Tilden, of New York, for president, on a platform of general condemnation of the Republican party and policy; the language as to the existing tariff being that it is, "a masterpiece of injustice, inequality and false pretence."
This campaign led to the unfortunate result of a disputed return of electors from three of the Southern States and from Oregon—a result upon which the victory hung. The matter was carried before a special tribunal, called . the "Electoral Commission." Its decision was that R. B. Hayes, the Republican nominee for president, had received one hundred and eighty-five electoral votes, and Samuel J. Tilden, the Democratic nominee, one hundred and eighty-four votes. A remarkable feature of this contest was that Republicans and Democrats had reversed their ground as to open and strict construction of the Constitution.
The forty-fifth Congress, the first to meet under Hayes' administration was Democratic in the House and Republican in Senate. Strictly partisan legislation was therefore blocked. This Congress witnessed the introduction of the silver question into politics, in the shape of the Bland bill remonetizing silver and authorizing the coinage of $2,000,000 Bland dollars, a month. In the forty sixth Congress the Republicans made a determined effort to repeal the Bland silver act but failed.
Campaign Of 1880.
In the campaign of 1880, the Republicans were first In the field. They met at Chicago, June 5, 1880, and nominated James A. Garfield, of Ohio, for president. The platform recited the achievements of the Republican party from the suppression of the Rebellion to the resumption of gold payments, and extended the usual pledges in favor of protection, pensions, internal improvements, etc.
The Convention of the National Greenback party was held at Chicago, June 9,1880. It nominated James B. Weaver, of Iowa, for president upon a platform adhering to a large legal tender currency; opposition to refunding of the national debt; favoring abolition of national banks, an unlimited coinage of gold and silver and a graduated income tax.
The Prohibition Reform party met at Cleveland, June 17, 1880, and nominated Neal Dow, of Maine, for president on the usual platform.
The Democratic party met at Cincinnati, June 22,1880, and nominated General Winfield S. Hancock, of New York,
Bom at Shoreham, Vt., May 16, 1824; educated in common schools; entered mercantile business at Concord, N. H.; at twenty-five, member of firm of Morton & Co., Boston; member of firm of Morton & Grinnell, New York, 1854; a banker in 1863; Morton, Bliss & Co., in 1868; elected to Congress in Twelth New York District in 1878; an authority in matters of finance; declined Vice-Presidential nomination, 1880; furnished fourth of cargo to Irish sufferers; declined Secretaryship of Navy under Garfield; Minister to France Wider Garfield; urged for U. S. Senator, 1885; elected Vice-President, 1888 ; elected Governor of New York by a large majority in 1894; noted for financial knowledge, charitable disposition, and nobility of character; prominent candidate for Presidential nominee on Republican ticket in 1896.