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no room for doubt that he was virtu- , ing Gen. Hunter to succeed him. ally beaten.
The old, fatally vicious system of Gen. Crook, with 11 regiments, a concentric advance from opposite numbering some 6,000 men, had points on a common focus was made directly for the Virginia and still adhered to. Hunter, somewhat Tennessee railroad at Dublin station; strengthened, at once resumed the 4 miles from which he was met by a offensive; the pressure on Lee by far inferior Rebel force under Mc- Grant's persistent hammering havCausland, which fought bravely, but ing constrained Breckinridge's withwas beaten off, with a loss on our drawal, with the better part of his part of 126 killed and 585 wounded. force, to the defenses of Richmond; The railroad here, and for a short W. E. Jones, with most of the Rebel distance eastward, was destroyed. forces in the western part of old VirAnd now the appearance of a con- ginia, including McCausland's, havsiderable Rebel rëenforcement, dis- ing been hurried forward to confront patched from Wytheville by Morgan the new danger. The two armies before he fought Averill, impelled met at PIEDMONT, near StauntonCrook to retreat to Meadow bridge; Hunter's being somewhat more nuso that, when Averill reached Dub- merous' -—and a spirited and welllin, Crook was gone, which left him fought action resulted in the defeat no choice but to follow. Thus the con- of Jones, who was shot through the centric movement upon Lee's flank head, and fell dead on the field. and rear resulted, as usual with such Among the fruits of this victory combinations, in general failure, if were 1,500 prisoners, 3 guns, and not positive disaster. A force that, 3,000 small arms. It was, in fact, a if concentrated, could have beaten all rout; leaving the Rebel army incathe Rebels in Virginia west of the pable of further resistance. Blue ridge, had been so dispersed and Hunter advanced to Staunton, frittered away as to achieve less than where Crook and Averill--no connothing.
siderable force having been left by Grant at once relieved Sigel, send- Jones to oppose them-joined " him; 8 June 5.
beating back repeated charges of our infantry and • Col. C. G. Halpine, chief of staff to Hunter,
cavalry, under Gens. Sullivan and Stahl-for says of this conflict:
neither the divisions of Crook nor Averill had
then joined us; and it was quite late in the af“The forces actually engaged were about
ternoon, after a long and sweltering day of batequal: Gen. Hunter having some 9,000 men ac
tle, when the movement of the gallant Col. Thotually in action, while the enemy had about the
burne's division across the narrow valley, and same-strongly posted, however, on a range of
its charge up hill upon the enemy's right flank, hills, horse-shoe shaped and heavily timbered,
decided the contest in our favor. Gen. Wm. E. and further protected by rifle-pits and rail-fence barricades, hastily thrown up the night before.
Jones, their commander, was killed, as also four
Colonels; and we had about 1,800 prisoners, The Rebel morning report of the day previous, found on the dead body of Gen. Jones that after-|
including the worthless reserve militia, seventy
regular officers, and 2,800 stand of arms, as the noon, showed that he had then under him 6,800
spoils attesting our success. But for the comregular Confederate soldiers; while we knew that
ing on of night, and the broken, heavily-timhe was joined on the morning of the engagement
bered nature of the country, the famous feat of by Vaughan's brigade from East Tennessee, and /
bagging' that army-so popular with Congresalso by about 1,500 militia-old men and young
i sional orators and enthusiastic editors—might boys, not worth the powder required to kill |
have been easily accomplished; for a worse them-hurried forward from Staunton and
whipped or more utterly demoralized crowd of Lynchburg on news of our advance. "The fight, though not large in numbers, was
beaten men never fled from any field." singularly obstinate and fluctuating: the enemy | 10 June 8.
HUNTER MISCARRIES AT LYNCHBURG. 601 and moved thence directly to Lex- have been misjudged; but Hunter, ington; disappointing Grant, who lacking many things, never lacked had expected him at Gordonsville, courage; and he believed that an atand had sent his cavalry under Sheri- tempt to regain the Shenandoah didan to meet him there. His failure rectly from Lynchburg would have to do so subjected Sheridan to like seriously imperiled his army. But failure in his approach to Gordons- his withdrawal into West Virginia ville, as we have seen.
rendered him no longer formidable · Hunter's force was now increased to the enemy, and involved a circuitto about 20,000 men; and he hast- ous, harassing movement by the Kaened, via Lexington, to Lynchburg nawha, the Ohio, Parkersburg, and -the chief city of western (old) Vir Grafton, before he could again be of ginia— intent on its speedy reduc | any service.. tion. But Lynchburg, the focus of a The Rebels, aware of this, promptly rich, populous region, and of exten- resolved to make the most of their sive manufactures, lies on the James opportunity. Early, who had headed river and canal, in unbroken railroad the corps sent from Richmond to the communication with Richmond and relief of Lynchburg, collecting all the Petersburg on the one side, and with forces he could muster, moved rapthe farther south on the other. Leemidly northward, and very soon apwho might as well have lost Rich-peared it on the Potomac: Sigel, commond-dispatched a very considera- manding at Martinsburg, retreating ble force to its relief; part of which precipitately by Harper's Ferry, with arrived the day before Hunter at- a heavy loss of stores, and taking post tacked" the city from the south, and on Maryland Heights, where the enestill more during the following night, my did not see 'fit to assail him, but wherein several trains arrived from once more destroyed the Baltimore the east filled with men.
and Ohio railroad for a consideraHunter found his ammunition run- ble distance, levied a contribution ning low, a strong city before him, of $20,000 on Hagerstown, burned and the whole Confederacy virtually some buildings at Williamsport, and, rallying to overwhelm him. He had raiding up into the border of Pennno choice but to retreat, sharply pur- sylvania, scoured the country far and sued; following the railroad west- wide for horses, cattle, provisions, and ward to Salem—where the pursuit money. The movement was so well ended and thence striking, via New- masked by cavalry that the strength castle, 2 for Meadow bluff,' in West of the invading force--probably never Virginia; his provisions long since so much as 20,000—was enormously exhausted, and very little to be exaggerated, spreading general panic, gleaned in midsummer from that and causing the Government to call poor, thinly-peopled, war-exhausted urgently on Pennsylvania, New York, region. No rations were obtained till and Massachusetts, for militia to meet the 27th; and the sufferings of men the emergency. and loss of horses were deplorable. Gen. Couch was commanding in The direction of his retreat may Pennsylvania; Gen. Lew. Wallace 11 June 18. 12 June 22. 13 June 25.
14 July 2–3.
in Maryland: the demonstrations | Finding the enemy in his front rapidly against the former were only intend- growing formidable, and threatening ed to distract attention from a blow to turn his left, Wallace now withaimed at the latter. Wallace, soon drew by night" from Frederick across satisfied of this, drew out his scanty the Monocacy, and took up the posiforces for the East had, ere this, been tion on its left bank, already held swept nearly bare of troops to fill the by Gen. Ricketts, which he resolved chasms made by constant fighting in to hold so long as he could--since, if the armies operating against Rich- the Rebels were in strong force, and mond-and resolved to confront the intent on a dash at Washington, it invaders on the MONOCACY, which af- was important at least to check them, forded a tolerable defensive position. by compelling them to concentrate Yet, when his forces were concen- and fight; thus gaining time for the trated at Frederick, 16 they numbered arrival of help from Grant. barely 3,000; and these mainly Early in the morning, Wallace's Home Guards and 100-day volun- dispositions for battle were completed. teers, who had never been in action. His right, under Gen. Tyler, cover
Col. Clendenin, with his cavalry- ed the Baltimore pike; his left, unsome 400 in all-was sent out to der Gen. Ricketts, held the high Middletown to find the enemy; but road to Washington. Each had three was soon driven back 16 by Gen. guns. The bridges were held; skirBradley T. Johnson, with 1,000 Rebel mishers being thrown out beyond horsemen. Clendenin retreated on them. Col. Clendenin's cavalry Frederick, and was there supported watched the lower fords. Only part by Lt. Col. Griffin's infantry, raising of Ricketts's division was on hand; his force to 1,000; and a brief artil- but the residue was expected by raillery duel ensued, which resulted in road at 1 P. M. At 8 A. M., the enemy Johnson's falling back.
advanced in force from Frederick, Wallace now reached Frederick- throwing out skirmishers and planthis forces having hitherto been im- ing behind them his guns, which soon mediately directed by Gen. Tyler- opened the battle. Having not less but could gain no reliable account than 16 Napoleons to our 6 smaller of the enemy's strength or purposes pieces, the superiority of his fire was
the wildest and most conflicting very decided. The skirmishing grew
soon learned by telegram from Sigel, and soon there was serious fighting on Maryland Heights, that the ene- at the stone bridge on the Baltimore my lately beleaguering him had left, pike. A considerable body of Rebel marching northward, as if making infantry, moving by their right just for Pennsylvania; while he had as- out of range of our guns, flanked our surances from Washington that a left, forcing a passage of the Monoccorps of veterans were hurrying to his acy at a ford nearly two miles below assistance. General Ricketts, with a the wooden bridge on the Washingbrigade of good soldiers, belonging ton road. And now, at 107 A. M., to the 19th corps, actually came up, the enemy advanced in battle array 16 July 6. 18 July 7. 17 July 8.
18 July 9.
upon Ricketts, who had changed took command ; Wallace soon arfront to the left, to meet their ad- riving to rëiterate the order that it vance on his flank, his right resting must be held at whatever cost until on the river; and, though he had Ricketts should have crossed to the been obliged to form in a single line Baltimore pike and commenced his without reserves, so great was the retreat thereon. Tyler held on, fightdisparity of numbers that his front ing, till 5 P. M.; by which time his was considerably overlapped by theirs. remaining force was nearly enveloped Wallace, perceiving the inequality, by the overwhelming numbers of the sent two of Tyler's guns to Ricketts; enemy; so that he, with his staff, was and soon-burning the wooden bridge compelled to dash into the woods on and the block-house across it, so as to the right, and thus barely escaped preclude an easy advance of the ene capture. Brown had just retreated my thereby-sent to Ricketts every down the pike; losing some of his man who could be spared.
men, but holding the most of them The enemy's first line charged, and steadily in their ranks. The enemy was quickly repelled; his second line made no effective pursuit; Bradley next advanced, and was likewise re- T. Johnson's cavalry being absent, pulsed; but after a fiercer, more pro- marching on Baltimore by the Libertracted struggle. And now Wallace ty road. Ricketts’s three missing might have retreated with honor, regiments had been halted at Monrohaving achieved the main purpose of via, 8 miles distant; whence they had his stand ; but 1 o'clock was at hand, ample time to reach the field in time when Ricketts's three absent regi- to save the day. They joined Wallace ments of veterans were promised; and, at Newmarket, and thence covered with their help, he felt able to hold the retreat: which terminated twelve his ground against the enemy's far miles from the Monocacy. superior numbers. But 1 P. M. ar Our loss in this action was 98 rived and no regiments; nor could killed, 579 wounded, 1,282 missing: anything be heard of them—both total, 1,959. Many of the missing telegrapher and railroad agent hav- probably only straggled in the reing decamped. He waited an hour treat, as the enemy took but 700 longer; but there were no rëenforce- prisoners. They admitted only a ments; while the enemy, in two strong total loss of 600; but 400 of their selines, again issued from the woods on verely wounded were found in hospiour left and advanced deliberately to tal at Frederick, when we rëoccupied the charge; and he reluctantly or- that city two or three days afterdered Ricketts to prepare for a ward. retreat by the Baltimore pike, which Johnson's cavalry next day apcommenced at 4 P. M.
proached Baltimore, when that city The stone bridge on that road was was filled with reports that Wallace's held by Col. Brown; and it was of little army had been annihilated at vital importance that it should still the Monocacy. The Baltimore Secesbe held firmly. Gen. Tyler had al- sionists, less numerous than in April ready sent his reserve to Brown; he or July, 1861, were no whit less bitnow galloped thither himself, and 'ter; and they reasonably hoped, for
DEFENSES OF WASHINGTON.
Explanations. 16. Fort Lincoln.
31. Fort O'Rourke, 17. 66 Mahan.
32. “ Weed. 18. 66 Chaplin.
83. 6 Farnsworth.
Bernard. 26. “ Snyder.
46. Fort Craig.
Ethan Allen, Marcy. Ramsey.