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The attack was made at 4 P. M.: lution; so that (as Lincoln once rethe enemy of course posted in a wood, marked to McClellan) the chief obwhich concealed their strength, facing stacle had been shifted, not sura level, open field, across which our mounted, by our movement to the men advanced with great spirit under left. Nevertheless, Hancock was now a heavy fire, carrying a good part of called down from our right to the the enemy's advanced line of rifle- left of Wright ; Warren was directed trenches and taking 600 prisoners. to extend his left so as to connect Their second line, however, was far with Smith; while Burnside was to stronger and more firmly held; and withdraw entirely from the front and night fell with the Rebels stillfully in mass on the right and rear of Warits possession : our advance holding ren. and bivouacking on the ground it. These flank movements, in the prehad gained, at a cost of 2,000 killed sence of a vigilant and resolute eneand wounded. For Longstreet's my, may not often prove so disastrous corps, which had confronted our right as Rosecrans found them at the the day before, had been moved Chickamauga, but they are always rapidly to our left, parallel with critical. Burnside, attempting to Wright's movement, and was here obey this order in broad daylight,41 facing us before the Chickahominy, his movement was of course detected as it had just been on the Tolopoto- by the foe in his front, who sharply my, with a little less advantage of followed up his skirmishers covering position but the same spirit and reso- the operation, taking some of them
41 June 2, P. M.
prisoners, and, striking Warren's left, trebly so had our countrymen been cut off and captured 400 more; ar- armed with the Enfield rifle or Springresting Warren's extension to the left, field musket of to-day. by compelling him to look to the At sunrise, or a little before, the safety of his corps. But new dispo- assault was made" along our whole sitions were made, and Grant and front-bravely, firmly, swiftly made; Meade, now at Cold Harbor, resolved | and as swiftly repulsed with terrible that the Rebel lines should be forced slaughter. On our left, Barlow's dion the morrow.42
vision of Hancock's corps gained a The two armies held much of the transitory advantage; dislodging the ground covered by McClellan's right, enemy from their position in a sunkunder Fitz-John Porter, prior to Lee's en road, taking three guns and sevebold advance, nearly two years be- ral hundred prisoners. But his secfore: Gaines's mill being directly in ond line failed to advance promptly the rear of the Confederate center; to the support of the first, against while Sheridan's cavalry patrolled the which the enemy rallied in overroads in our rear leading to our base whelming force, retaking their deat White House, covered our left and fenses, hurling Barlow back, but not observed the Chickahominy east- to the lines from which he started. ward of Richmond. Wilson, with He fell back a few yards only, and his cavalry division, watched our covered his front so quickly that the right flank. Burnside was still on enemy could not dislodge him. Warren's right and rear; Smith, Gibbon,charging on Barlow's right, Wright, and Hancock stretched far- was checked by a swamp, which sepather and farther to the left. In our rated his command : part of which front, Lee not only had a very good gained the Rebel works nevertheless; position naturally, but he knew how Col. McMahon planting his colors on to make the most of its advantages their intrenchments a moment before the single point in which (but it is a he fell mortally wounded. No part vital one) his admirers can justify of the Rebel works was held; but their claim for him of a rare military part of Gibbon's men also covered genius. No other American has ever themselves so close to the enemy's so thoroughly appreciated and so lines that, while the Rebels dared readily seized the enormous advan- not come out to capture them, they tage which the increased range, pre-could not get away, save by crawling cision, and efficiency given to mus- off under cover of fog or thick darkketry by rifling, have insured to the ness. defensive, when wielded by a com- Wright's and Smith's assaults were mander who knows how speedily a less determined-at all events, less trench may be dug and a slight breast- sanguinary--than Hancock's; and work thrown up which will stop nine- Warren, having a long line to hold, tenths of the bullets that would oth- was content to hold it. Burnside erwise draw blood. The lessons of swung two of his divisions around to Bunker Hill and New Orleans, im- flank the enemy's left, which he hotly pressive as they were, must have been engaged, and must have worsted had the battle along our front been pro- | front advanced on several points and tracted. But that could not be forced back on none; but Lee, overTwenty minutes after the first shot estimating the effects of our repulse was fired, fully 10,000 of our men on the morale of our men; and seeing were stretched writhing on the sod, that our hastily constructed intrenchor still and calm in death; while the ments directly before his lines were enemy's loss was probably little more but slight, hazarded a night attack 45 than 1,000. And when, some hours on our front, but was repulsed at later, orders were sent by Gen. Meade every point, and soon desisted. Next to each corps commander to renew day, a partial assault was made on the assault at once, without regard to our left; but this also was easily reany other, the men simply and unani pulsed. Meantime, our army was mously refused to obey it. They gradually moving to its left, by the knew that success was hopeless, and successive withdrawals of Burnside the attempt to gain it murderous: and of Warren; when another night hence they refused to be sacrificed to attack was made 48 on our right, again no purpose.
42 June 3.
43 June 3.
held by Burnside, but without sucOur total loss at and around Cold cess. And now an armistice of two Harbor was 13,153; of whom 1,705 hours was arranged, during which the were killed, 9,042 wounded, and 2,406 wounded lying between the armies missing. Among the killed were act- were removed and the dead buried. ing Brigadiers P. A. Porter, ** Lewis Next day, our left was extended 0. Morris, and F. F. Wead; all of to the Chickahominy, finding the New York. Cols. Edward Pye, 95th enemy in force opposite Sumner's N. Y., 0. H. Morris, 66th N. Y., J.C. and Bottom's bridges; while SheriDrake, 112th N. Y., John McConihe, dan was dispatched with two divi169th N. Y., Edwin Schall, 51st Pa., sions of cavalry around Lee's left, to and F. A. Haskell, 36th Wisc. Brig.- tear up the Virginia Central railGen. R. 0Tyler was among the se- road in his rear, which he did: crossverely wounded. Brig.-Gen. Doles ing the Pamunkey at Aylett's, breakwas the only Rebel officer of note re- ing the Fredericksburg road at Chesported as killed. Col. Lawrence M. terfield station, and thence pushing Keitt, formerly a conspicuous M. C. over the North Anna by Chilesburg from South Carolina, had fallen the and Mount Pleasant, over the upper day before.
branches of the North Anna,48 strik
ing the Central railroad at Trevilian's, Our army had suffered terribly in routing a body of Rebel horse, under this battle; but it had lost blood Wade Hampton, that interfered with only. The fighting closed with our his operations, and breaking up the
44 Col. Peter A. Porter, of Niagara Falls, son of nated in 1863 as Union candidate for Secretary Gen. Peter B. Porter, who served with honorin the of State, he responded that his neighbors had War of 1812, and was Secretary of War under | intrusted him with the lives of their sons, and - J. Q. Adams. * Col. Porter, in the prime of life, he could not leave them while the War lasted.
and in the enjoyment of every thing calculated He was but one among thousands animated by · to make life desirable, volunteered from a sense like motives; but none ever volunteered from of duty; saying his country had done so much purer impulses, or served with more unselfish for him that he could not hesitate to do all in his devotion, than Peter A. Porter. power for her in her hour of peril. When nomi- 45 June 4. 46 June 6. 47 June 7. 48 June 10.
Korted as killshebel offico Gen. Dole!'oad in
road nearly down 49 to Louisa C. H.; struck the James at Wilcox's wharf, but, soon finding the Rebels too nu- between Charles City C.H. and Westmerous and pressing, he retraced his over. Wright and Burnside, crosssteps to Trevilian's, where he had a ing the Chickahominy at Jones's sharp, indecisive, sanguinary fight, bridge, moved thence to Charles City and then drew off; making his way C. H.; our trains, for safety, taking to Spottsylvania C. H., and thence roads still farther to the east. The by Guiney's station to White House, enemy made some attempts at annoyand so rejoined Gen. Grant. His ing our right flank during the march, raid was less effective than had been but to no purpose. Pontoons and calculated, because Gen. Hunter, who ferry-boats being at hand, the paswas expected to meet him at Gor- sage was promptly and safely made; 62 donsville, had taken a different di- and very soon our guns were thunrection, leaving more foes on Sheri- dering at the southern approaches to dan's hands than he was able satis- the Rebel capital. factorily to manage. His total loss, mainly in the last fight at Trevilian's, This is not a military history, and was 735, whereof some 300 were pris- its author makes no shadow of preoners. He brought out 370 prison- tension to other military knowledge, ers. The Rebel loss in killed and than that which is necessarily gained wounded was at least equal to ours, by all students of history; while no and included Gen. Rosser and Col. one who carefully reads this volume Custer, wounded, and Col. McAllis will accuse him of partiality or special ter, killed. :
admiration for Gen. Grant. Yet the Gen. Grant now decided to pass criticisms which have been leveled at the Chickahominy far to Lee's right, that commander's advance to Richand thence move across the James to mond seem so unjust as to demand attack Richmond from the south. It exposure.. : was a bold resolve, especially as the “Why not embark his army at authorities at Washington had a set- once for City Point??? has been tritled and reasonable repugnance to a' umphantly asked, “and establish it movement which seemed to place there at a cost of a few hundred men, the Federal City at the mercy of Lee. instead of fifty or sixty thousand ?" Taking up the rails from the Chick-' | The question not only ignores the ahominy to White House, and ship- Rebel losses in the course of this ping them around for use south of movement-losses which were at least the James, Smith's corps was like- as large in proportion to their resourwise embarked and returned to But ces as ours—but ignores also the obler; while the Army of the Potomac vious fact that Lee's army around was put in motion $? for the passage | Richmond, hard pressed by a superiof the James : Wilson's cavalry, in or force, was no peril to Washington advance, crossing the Chickahominy and the loyal States; whereas, to leave at Long bridge, followed by War- it on the Rapidan and take ship for ren's corps; which was passed at the James was either to make the Long bridge by Hancock's, which enemy a present of our capital, with 18 June 12. 5° June 12-13.
61 June 12.
2 June 14–15.
its immense stores of every warlike The moment it was decided that material, or compel that division and Meade's army must cross the James dispersion of our forces whereof Mc- below Richmond and threaten that Clellan had so persistently, and with city from the south, Grant hastened some justice, complained. Lee at to Butler's headquarters to impel Richmond, with the country north- against Petersburg whatever force ward to the Potomac thoroughly ex- might there be disposable, so soon as hausted and devastated, could not it should be certain that that attempt reach Washington at all without could be seasonably supported by the abandoning Richmond to its fate; legions of Meade. and corps after. corps of our army Butler, after the dispatch of the best could be transferred to the Potomac part of his force, under W. F. Smith, in less than half the time required for to Meade, had been inclined to keep a march of the Rebel forces to Center-quiet within his intrenchments; but ville. Of course, Grant set out expect that was not permitted. His northing to defeat Lee decisively between ern outpost at Wilson's wharf, north the Rapidan and the Chickahominy, of the James, held by Gen. Wild with and was disappointed; but it is diffi- two Black regiments, had already cult to see how he could have evaded been summoned and charged 63 by obstacles at least as serious as those Fitz-Hugh Lee's cavalry, who, after he encountered. As he pertinently a fight of some hours, were beaten observed, the Rebel army was his true off with loss : and now Gen. Gillobjective; and this must be encoun- more, with 3,500 men, was thrown tered, whichever route he might take. across 64 the Appomattox, to approach Had he attempted, as Lee evidently Petersburg by the turnpike on the anticipated, to advance by Gordons- north, while Gen. Kautz, with 1,500 ville or Louisa C. H., flanking Lee's cavalry, should charge into it from left instead of his right, he would the south or south-west. Two gunhave been starved into a retreat before boats and a battery were simultanehe came in sight of the James. ously to bombard Fort Clinton, de
fending the approach up the river. Petersburg, at the head of sloop. The combination failed, though it navigation on the Appomattox, 22 should have succeeded. Gillmore miles south of Richmond, is the focus advanced unresisted to within two of all the railroads but the Danville miles of the city, where he drove in which connected the Confederate cap-| the enemy's skirmishers and haltedital with the South and South-west. or rather, recoiled-deeming his force Petersburg taken and firmly held by altogether too weak for the task beour forces, the stay of the Rebel Gov- fore him, and understanding that he ernment and Army at Richmond must was free to exercise his discretion be of short duration. But merely to in the premises. Kautz, on the other take it, without the ability to hold hand, made his way not only up to it against the force which Lee, near but into the city-the Confederates' at hand, could easily send against it, attention having been concentrated would be worse than useless. on Gillmore-but, now that they 58 May 24.
66 June 10.
54 June 8..