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two Tables of Stone, which he deliver'd to Moses on Mount Sinai, for the Use of the Jewish Cburch. These Ten Commandments are call'd the Decalogue ; and may be seen in Exod. xx. and Deut. v. To these general Heads of Morality contain'd in the Decalogue, there were added divers particular Rules and Precepts suited to the Cases of private Life ; all which Moses wrote in a Book, and then read it to the People.
To these Mofaical Precepts of Morality, which The feven Preare of Divine Authority, may be added the Sevencepts of Noah,
by Tradition. Precepts of Noah, which are merely Traditional ; Noab having (as the Jewish Doctors pretend) receiv'd the first Six by Tradition from Adam, and added the seventh himself, from whom the Rabbinical Doctors say they have them also by Tradition : They are as follow. (1.) To renounce What they beg all Idolatry. (2.) To bless the Name of God. (3.) To abstain from shedding Blood, or Murder. (4.) Not to uncover one's Nakedness, by which Fornication, &c. is forbid. (5.) Not to steal, or commit Rapine. (6.) Judgments or Punishments of Malefactors. (7.) Not to eat any Part of a Beast taken from it alive. These traditional By whom tale Precepts of Noah were to be acknowledged and observed. observed by those whom the Jews call'd the ProSelytes of the Gate.
The Ceremonial Law of the Jews was that The Ceremowhich appointed the Rites, Ceremonies, and Or-nial Law. dinances, which made up the Jewish Service and Worship. This consisted principally of the following Parts. (1.) Sacrifices and Offerings. The Jewish (2.) Libations. (3.) Prayers. (4.) Preaching. Worship. (5.) Confeffion.
The Sacrifices were made only of five Sorts The Sacrifices, of Creatures, viz. Oxen, Lambs, Goats, Tur- of what made. tle-Doves, and young Pigeons. They were of four Sorts. (1.) The Holocaust, or whole Burnt Of hozu many
Offering, every Part whereof was consumed by Fire, Levit. i. (2.) The Meat-Offering, confisting of fine Flour mingled with Oil, &c. See Levit. ii. (3.) The Peace-Offering, the Manner of which fee in Levit. iii. (4.) The SinOffering, of which you' have an Account in
Levit. iv. and following Chapters. Libations, or The Libations were those Drink-Offerings Drink-offer- which were added to the Sacrifices. These were ings,
made of various Quantities of strong Wine, which was pour'd forth to the Lord in the Holy Place of the Tabernacle ; concerning which you may
read Numb. xxviii. and xxix. Their Prayers. Their Prayers made another part of their
Service ; these at first were very few, but afterwards increas'd to a very large Bulk. Their Liturgies and Rubrics are so long, tedious, and perplex'd, that in this Respect, as well as several others, they vie with, if not exceed, the fuperftitious Roman-Catholics. The most folemn Part of their Prayers are those which they call Shemoneh Eshreb, or the eighteen Prayers, which they say were composed by Ezra and the great Synagogue ; to which another Prayer was afterwards
added. Their reading The reading and expounding the Scriptures and expound- made the most considerable Part of the Service ing the Scrip- of the latter Jews. The reading the Scriptures Kiriath is of three Sorts. (1.) The Kiriath Shema, or Shema. reading the Shema ; it confifts in reading three
Portions of the Scripture, viz. from Deut. vi. ver. 4 to 10. from Deut. xi. ver. 13 to 22. and from Numb. xv. ver. 37 to the end of the Chapter. This reading the Shema is accompanied with
several Prayers and Benedictions. (2.) The Reading the reading the Law; which in the Hebreró Bibles Law. is divided into 54 Seations, one of which they read on each Sabbath, and so the whole Law was
read once a Year. (3.) The reading of the Pro- Reading the phets. In the Time of Perfecution under Anti- Prophets. ocbas Epipbanes the Jews were forbid to read the Law ; instead of which they fubftituted 54 SeElions out of the Propbets, and read them to the Times of the Maccabees, who reftored the reading of the Law, and then both were read; the one for the first, the other for the second Lesson. See Atts xiïi. 15. and 27.
27. After reading these Leffons, they preach'd to the People. Preaching.
The next thing respecting the Jewislo Wor- The Jewish fbip is their Festivals ; of which they have seve- Festivals. ral. As (1.) The Sabbath-Day, which they de- The Sabbath. dicated wholly to Rejt, and Religious Purposes. (2.) The Passover ; for the Time and Manner of celebrating it, see its Inftitution in Exod. xii. The Pafover. This was call'd the Feast of unleavened Bread. (3.) The Feaft of Pentecoft ; fo call'd because it Of Penteco 1. was the Fiftieth Day (or Seven Weeks) after the fecond of the Passover; its Institution is in Levit. xxiii, 17, &c. The Feafts of the Passover and Pentecoft answer to our Eafter and Whitsuntide. (4.) The Feast of Tabernacles ; during which the OfTabernacles People lived in Booths, which was seven Days. See Levit. xxiii. 34. and Numb. xxix. 12. (5.) The Feast of Trumpets ; this began the first Day of Trumpets. of the Month Tisri, and was proclaim'd by Blowing of Trumpets. (6.) The Feast of Ex-Of Expiation. piation, calld the Day of Atonement ; and this was the Day on which the Priests went into the Sanktuary. See Levit. xxiii. 27, &c. (7.) The Feast of New-Moons ; this was every first Day Of Newof their Months. See Numb. xxviii. 11. (8.) Mloons. The Sabbatical Year, or Year of Reft, wherein The Sabbatical they neither sow'd nor reap'd ; this was every feventh Year: Levit. xxv. 2, 3, 4. (9.) The Year of Jubilee ; which was every fiftieth Year : 0f Jubilee. This was a Sabbath of annual Sabbatbs; this was
the last Feast God commanded the Jews, and the moit folemn; for then all Estates alienated re
turn'd to those who had sold them, and Slaves Of Purim, or recover'd their Liberty. (10.) Feast of Purim, Lots.
or Lots : See its Original in Efiber ix, 21. In this Feast the History of Esther was read, and at every mention of Haman the Jews smote upon
their Benches and Seats, as if they would knock Of Dedication. him on the Head. (11.) The Feast of Dedication ;
of this we read John X. 22, &c. This was an anniversary or yearly Solemnity appointed by Judas Maccabæus in Commemoration of the Jews Deliverance from the Tyranny of Antiochus ; concerning which see i Macc. iv. All Festivals be
gan and ended on the Evening of the Day. Places of di- The Places consecrated to Divine Service unwine Worship, der the Jewish Dispensation, were (1.) The TaThe Tabernacle
bernacle, which was moveable, and but for a
Time, viz. of their sojourning State. (2.) The The Temple. Temple built by Solomon. In both these there were
three remarkable Parts, viz. 1. The Sanctum Holy of Holics. Sanctorum, or Holy of Holies, the most holy
Place ; into which only the High-Priest might enter, and that but once a Year ; which was on
the Feast of Expiation, to make an Atonement Sanctuary. for the People. 2. The Sanctuary, or that Part Court. before the Holy of Holies. 3. The Court before Synagogues. the Tabernacle and Temple. (3.) Synagogues ;
these, with respect to the Temple, were as ParishChurches with us in regard of the Catbedral Churches. The Rule was, to have a Synagogue in every Place where there was ten Batelnim, or
Persons of full Age, and free Conditions, always Profeuba, ready to attend the Service of it. (4.) The Oratories, or Profeuche, Oratories, or Houses of Prayer. These Houles of Pajer.
were not cover'd, but open above, like Courts; and in which every one pray'd apart for himself, as in the Courts of the Temple. They were built chiefly on high Places, and are the same, probably, which in the Old Testament are calld High-Places.
High-Places. As to the religious Orders in the Jewish Mini- Religious
Orders. ftry, the principal was the Sacerdotal Order, or that of the Priesthood. In this Order there was Priesthood. one Chief or Head, call'd the High-Priest. Of these Aaron was the First, and the High-Priestbood was peculiar, or tied, to his First-Born ; and that thro' all Ages of the Jewis Oeconomy. (2.) The common Priesthood, to which the Pofte- The Levitical sity of Levi was particularly consecrated. The Priesthood. peculiar Offices of the Aaronical and Levitical Priesthood are largely set down in the Books of Moses ; together with the Manner of the Consecration and Ordination proper to each. (3.) The Netbinims, who were a sort of an Order of Netbinims. Deacons ; they were Hewers of Wood and Drawers of Water for the House of God. These were neither Levites, nor even Israelites, but tributary Gibeonites. See yok. ix. 23. and Ezra ii. 43. These three Orders were proper to the Cathedral or Temple Service : But besides these there were (4.) Elders or Rulers of the Synagogues ; and next Elders of the to these (perchance one of them) was (5.) The Synagogue. Minister of the Synagogue, whom they call Sheliach Zibbor, i. e. The Messenger or Angel of the The Sheliach Churcb : In reference to whom, the Bishops Zibbor, om of the seven Churches of Asia are so called, Rev. Angel of the i. 20. Under these were (6.) The Cbazanim or The Chazanin Overseers of the Synagogue, who had the Charge or Overseers. of all things in it, and kept the Books of the Law, Prophets, Liturgies, &c. with the Utenfils belonging to the Synagogue Service. But particularly the Chazan stood by, overlook'd, directed, and corrected those who read the Lessons out of the Law and the Prophets. See Luke vi.
20. (7.) The next Officer was the Interpreter, whose The Interpreter