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more particular, &c.) different Religious Societies,
which are called Churches. A Christian A CHRISTIAN CHURCH is a Society or Church defined Congregation of Men and Women, who are call'd
out from the vicious World by the Preaching of the Gospel, and are regulated in all the Parts of their ritual Discipline, and Articles of Faith, by the plain Rules and Prescriptions of the New Teftament; and whose Lives are correspondent to their Holy Profession.
THE MINISTERS of the Christian Church, Ministers of the Church in the primitive State thereof, were Extraordinary extraordinary, or Ordinary. The Extraordinary were chiefly and ordinary. three, viz. (1.) Apostles, who were delegated by viz. Apofles. Christ with Power and Commission to preach the
Gospel, and to work Miracles, in Confirmation Prophets. thereof, among all Nations. (2.) Propbets, who
were not such as simply foretold Things, but those to whom God was pleased to reveal his more lecret Counsels and Designs, and who related and
preached the same to Men. A Christian Prophes Evangelis. was God's Nuncio. (3.) Evangelists, such who
were Assistants to the Apostles in preaching the Gospel; and were indued with many extraordinary Gifts of the Holy Spirit, as of Languages, Interpretation, &c. But since the Establishment of Chriftianity in the World, these extraordinary Of
fices have cealed. Ordinering
The Ordinary Ministers of the Christian Church Mlinillers. are principılly thrce. (1.) A Bishop (call’d in A Eijk op
. Greek, E:1.copos) who had the Oversight of the His Gotila- Ficck or Church of Christ; to him pertain'd the
Preaching of the Word, and due Regulation of
the Church both in Faith and Minners. And Erile pacy.
this Rule and Presidence of the Bishop is callid Prens, Episcopacy. (2.) Presbyters, or Elders, or Priests; Eideis, Priile these were such as preach'd the Word, and admiinijired tbe Sacraments, and perform’d all the other
sacred Functions of the Ministry under the Inspection of the Bishop. But it is a Controversy whether the Scripture doth not intend the same Person or Officer by the Appellations Bishop and Presbyter. Their Power The Power of the Presbyter is call’d Presbytery. Presbytery. (3.) Deacons ; these were such as officiated in Deacons. that Part of the Christian Ministry which related to the Poor; and their Business was to take the Collections of Money made in the Church, and to distribute it to the Necesities of the Poor, and other sacred Uses. And their Office, properly speaking, is call'd the Ministry, or Deaconship. Deaconship. These Officers are all perpetual in the Christian Cburcb.
ORTHODOXY (with Christians) is that Orthodoxy and Faith, Belief, or Opinion which is strictly right Heterodoxy, and true, and in every Part comportant with the Scripture Rule and Declaration of Christian DoErine. The contrary to this, viz. wrong or false Belief, is call'd Heterodoxy.
HERESY sometimes signifies a Seet or Party Herefy, what. of Christians, distinguish'd from the general Church, by some particular and peculiar Notions, Opinions, or Practices. Sometimes it signifies an Opinion or Sentiment contrary to that which is generally receiv'd and esteemid Orthodox. The first Broacher of such Opinions, &c. is callid an Herefiarch ; and all those who embrace it, Herefiarch. Heretics.
SCHISM is an unnecessary Separation of one Schism, what. or more Members from the Body of a Church. And the Persons thus dividing, or causing such a Division, are properly callă Schismatics. But Schifmatics. . 'cis common for the general Church to term those who diffent or divide from it Heretics and Scbismatics ; whether they really deserve it or not.
The great Di. The general Division of the Christian Church is vision of the
into the Greek and Roman. The Greek Church is Chriftian Church, into govern’d by four Patriarchs, viz. of Alexandria, the Greek and of Jerusalem, of Antioch, and of Constantinople ; Roman. the latter of which calls himself the Oecumeni
cal Patriarch, on account of his residing in the Imperial City, and his larger Jurisdiction than the
rest. The Greek Church holds, (1.) That the The principal Holy Ghost proceeds only from the Father, not Tenets of ihe, from the Son, but by the Son. (2.) Yet they befrom Sir Paul lieve him to be God, and the Spirit of the Son. Ricaut. (3.) They reject the Pope's Supremacy. (4.) They
attend Prayer Morning and Evening, on Sundays and Holidays. (5.) They enjoin the Observation of divers Fasts and Feasts in the Churcb. (6.) Also Obedience and Honour to their Priests. (7.) They enjoin Confession of Sins four tines a Year to a regular Priest. (8.) They forbid the Laity to read the Books of Heretics. (9.) They enjoin Prayer for Kings, and all Civil and Ecclefiassical Magistrates. (10.) They pray for Souls departed in the Christian Faith. (11.) Also for the Conversion of Scbismatics and Heretics. (12.) They forbid the Laity to invade the Rights and Benefits of the Clergy; and all kind of Sacrilegious Afts. (13.) They forbid Marrying in Lent, or other Fasts. (14.) They prohibit the frequenting Theatres, or to imitate any Gentile Customs. (15.) They have four Lents; the first begins the 14th of November ; the second, the great Lent before Easter; the third begins the Week after Pentecost ; and the fourth on the first of August. (16.) At these Times they eat nothing that has Blcod or Oil, nor Milk-Meats, but Herbs and Shell-Fish. And they will scarce allow FleshBroth or an Egg at those times, even to a fick Patient, though his Life depend on it. (17.) Their Priests think it no Sin to be drunk on a
festival Day. (18.) They are as ridiculous in the Hiftories of their Saints as the Popish Legendaries. (19.) They baptize Infants, at eight Days old, by Dipping them three times under Water in the Name of the Trinity. (20.) They use a kind of Exorcism, Unction, Crossing, Sealing, &c. in their Baptism. (21.) They have only one Godfather, or Godmother, according to the Sex of the Child. (22.) They use a particular Chrism or Anointing to confirm the Person baptiz'd with a deal of Ceremony. (23.) In the Eucharist they seal their Bread in the form of a Cross ; their Bread is leaven'd; they communicate in both Kinds, but it must be fafting; they receive the Bread and Wine together in a Spoon from the Hand of a Priest. (24.) They acknowledge no Transubstantiation, yet pay a fort of Adoration to the Sacrament. (25.) Their Excommunications are made on very frivolous Occasions, though full of terrible Curses. (26.) They believe that departed Souls go either to Heaven or Hell immediately. (27.) They call Marriage one of their seven Mysteries, and absolutely prohibit the Marrying a fourth Time. (28.) They worship painted Images, but curse graven or carved ones. (29.) In the Worship of Angels and Saints, they differ little from the Papifts. (30.) They reckon seven Sacraments, the fame as the Church of Rome ; but hold only Baptism and the Eucharift necessary to Salvation. (31.) They reject the Apocrypha from being canonical ; yet hold some Traditions of equal Authority with the Scripture. (32.) They hold Justification from Faith and Works conjointly.
The Roman Church holds (1.) That Peter was The Doitrines, the Prince of the Apostles, or had the Primacy perfitions of
Tenets and Suamong them. (2.) That he came to Rome tbe Church of A.C. 42, govern'd the Church there as Supreme Rome,
Bishop twenty-four Years and a half ; and was crucified with his Head downwards. (3.) That he was Infallible. (4.) That he receiv'd from Christ the Keys of Heaven and Hell ; or Power to anathematize, and to absolve Sins. (5.) That they have had an uninterrupted Succesion of BiJhops from Peter ; whom they call Popes. (6.) That therefore the Pope is the supreme or universal Bishop or Head of the Christian Church. (7.) And that likewise he is infallible. (8.) That he also inherits the Power of Absolving Persons from Sin, or binding them with Anathema's or Curses, as Christ's Vicar. (9.) That he is supreme Head of the Stale as well as Church ; and can inaugurate and depose Kings and Princes; as well as ordain and excommunicate Bisbops and Priests. (10.) That he can grant Indulgences and Dispensations for committing Sins, and perpetrating horrid Crimes. (11.) They believe that Christ did really descend into Hell, and releas'd the Souls of former Saints their detain'd. (12.) They hold a Purgatory, or a Place where Souls are purified by Fire, before they enter into perfect Bliss. (13.). They pretend also, that by saying Mass the Prieils can deliver Souls from the Fire of Purgatory. (14.) They suppose the same is effected alto by Works of Supererogation, and the Prayers of Angels. (15.) They introduced the Sign of the Crojs, Chrijims, Sponsors, Sprinkling, &c. in Baptism. (16.) They forbid the reading the facred Scriptures by the Laity. (17.) They receive the Apocrypba into the Canon of the authentic Scripture. (18.) They hold divers Traditions by which they pretend to supply the Defits of Holy Scripture. (19.) They reckon seven Sacraments, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, the Lord's. Sapper, Penitence, Extreme Unktion, Orders, and Marriage. (20.) In the Eucharist, they