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mix Water with the Wine, and refuse the Cup to the Laity; and use unleaven'd Bread. (21.) They hold Transubstantiation, or that the Bread and Wine, in the Eucharist, by the Consecration of the Priest, is changed into the real Body and Blood of Christ ; which they first cause to be ador'd with many Superstitions, and then very reverently eat him. (22.) They worship the Virgin Mary, Angels, Saints, and Images of all Sorts, by Prayer, Offerings, &c. (23.) They enjoin Celibacy, or a single State, to their Priests. (24.) They are forbid also to read the Books of Heretics. (25.) They make a Distinction of mortal and venial Sins, to serve the Purposes of Avarice and Ambition. (26.) They enjoin Confession of Sins in the Ear of a Priest, which they call auricular Confesion. (27.) They hold good Works meritorious, and sell Works of Supererogation

very often to poor Bigots for the Expiation of their Crimes, very dearly. (28.) They enjoin the keeping the Fast of Lent with strict Abjtinence from all Flesh ; yet allow the eating Fish; so near a-kin is their Philosophy to their Divinity. (29.) They say Mass for the Dead as well as the Living, to make the greatest Use (or Gain) of Godliness. (29.) They say the Fire of Purgatory hath eight Degrees of Heat, and that of Hell but four. (30.) They make it a damnable Sin for any to doubt of their Distates, though ever so absurd and ridiculous. (31.) They impose Penance for Sin, but you may often exchange the Painful for the Pecuniary; such is their Clemency! (32.) They profess Poverty ; and have instituted an Order of Meridicant Friars ; so much do they abhor Greatness, Riches, and Honour! (33.) They count all other Religions beretical and damnable. (34.) They pretend to have the Power of working Miracles. (35.) They Canonize Perfons for Saints ; but Money more than Holiness is necessary for this. (36.) They profess Chastity, both Men and Women; as we have very notable Instances in the Orders of Monks and Nuns. (37.) They are very jealous in the Cause of Religion, as many have experienced by the cruel, inhuman, and bloody Court of Inquisition. (38.) The Multitude of Ceremonies, Fasts, Festivals, Processions, Pilgrimages, Orders, Ofices, and Innovations of all kinds are too tedious to relate, and too incredible to believe : So that if


take Popery in its native Dress and Complexion, you must be pretty wise to know whether it is in the whole most like Cbriftianity,

Judaism, Mahometanism, or Paganism. Protestants These amazing Corruptions in the Roman whence.

Church occasion’d the Separation of a large Body of People from her in the Days of King Henry the Eighth ; who, from their Protesting against Popery and Romis Decrees, were callid Protestants: And who, since their general Reformation, have variously subdivided from each other, and according to their different Opinions and

Praćtices have obtain'd peculiar Appellations : As Lutherans. Lutherans, Calvinists, who follow Martin Luther Calvinists. and John Calvin, two of the first Reformers : Arminians. Arminians and Socinians, the Followers of James Socinians. Arminus, and of Socinus: The Unitarians, who Unitarians. allow but one Person, viz. of the Father, in the Trinitarians. Godhead ; and Trinitarians, who affert three Per

sons in the Godbead, as of the Father, Son, and Holy Gbojt, according to Athanasius's Creed. But the most substantial Divisions of Protestants are the

following, viz. The Church of The CHURCH of ENGLAND, which England. is establish'd by the Authority of Parliament ; and is therefore the National Church in England, and most parts of the British King's Dominions : The Hierarchy or Government whereof is Archiepiscopal; and for the Doĉtrines and Praktical H'orship therein, they are sufficiently known. All those


Difenters. who do not join with this establishid Church, are callid Non-conformists or Dissenters. As

I. PRESBYTERIANS, who assert the Go

Presłyterians. vernment of the Church is not by Bishops, but Presbyters, or ruling Elders ; and that there is no Order in the Church of divine Institution supe: rior to that of a Presbyter ; who therefore hach Power to ordain Ministers, which is by Fasting, Prayer, and Imposition of Hands. They have three Courts. (1.) The Minister of each Parish, with his Elders, and the Congregation. (2.) A Court of Presbytery; consisting of a great Number of Ministers and Elders, associated for governing particular Churches. (3.) The highest Court is a Synod, which they hold may be Provincial, National, or Oecumenical ; and allow of Appeals from the lesser to the greater. They Baptize by Sprinkling, as does the Church of England, and their common Worship consists in extempore Prayer, Preaching, and singing of Psalms.

II. INDEPENDENTS, so callid, because Independents. they hold that every particular Congregation hath a compleat Power of Jurisdi&tion within itself, independent of any Bishop, Synod, or Council; and so discard all Superiority or Subordination of particular Churches to one another. In most other Respects they agree with the Presbyterians.

III. ANABAPTISTS ; or (as they call them- Anabaptifts or selves) Baptifts; their main distinguishing Prin- Baprifts.

ciple is Baptism by Dipping or Plunging the Person wholly under Water ; and reject the Method of Sprinkling, used by others, as an Innovation, or human Invention, and altogether unscriptural. For the same Reason, they insist upon it that adult or grown Persons, not Infants, are the proper Subjects of Baptism ; because, as the Scripture requires, they only are capable of Repentance and Faith, which are the Prerequisites thereto. For their Opinion, they alledge (1.) The Precept and Precedent of Christ himself. (2.) And of the Apostles. (3.) The Practice of the Primitive Church for the first three Centuries. (4.) The proper Etymology of the Word Baptize, which they say will not admit Sprinkling. (5.) The several Versions of the New Testament, which all render the Word in Favour of Dipping, noc of Sprinkling. (6.) From the Design of the Ordinance, they argue Infants can't be the Subject, because not capable of answering it. (7.) The utter Silence of the Scripture about Pedobaptism. (8.) The Words of the Rubric of the Church of England itself, which absolutely enjoin Dipping, but Sprinkling only on Conditions. (9.) The Confeßions and Concessions of several Bishops and learned DoEtors of the Church in favour of Dipping only the Adult. To all which, and many other Arguments, the Pedobaptists return various Answers ; but whether sufficient, is not my Business here to say. This Denomination comes near the Presbyterions in their Hierarchy ; and acknowledge Hebrews vi. 1, 2. for a kind of Summary of their fundamental Doctrines and Principles.


IV. QUAKERS, so call’d from Quivering and Quaking, and such like frantic and ridiculous Emotions, which they seem'd fond of formerly;


but now are more sober, and disown the Name of Quakers. The Tenets of this People are always variable and changing ; but their two main Principles are (1.) The Light witbin, which they say is sufficient to guide every Man in Matters of Religion, and is more infallible than the facred Scriptures themselves. (2.) They deny all external Ceremonies and Services, but Preaching and Praying ; and even the two Sacraments, Baptism and the Eucharift. Their other Modes are too well known to need a Description. They first appeard about the Year 1650.

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