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filtred, and sent more pure, elaborate, and spi-
rituous to the Seed for the Support and Growth
of the tender delicate Embryo, or Plantule therein

contained.
The Parts The Composition of the Fruit appears to be
thereof. in general the same as that of the other parts of
Skin. the Tree. Thus, (1.) The Cuticle and Skin of

the Fruit is only a Production of the Skin or outer Parenchyma. Bark of the Tree. (2.) The Parenchyma, or Pul?

of Fruit, is only an Expansion of the Blea or in

ner Rind of the Tree, swoln and turgid with Branchery.

Juices. (3.) The Branchery or Ramification are
only a Continuation of the woody Fibres of the

Branch on which it grows. (4.) The Heart or
Core. Core of Fruit is said to be produced from the

Pith or Medulla of the Branch, indurated and
strengthen’d by the Twigs of the Wood and Fi-
bres inosculated therewith.

But a prodigious Variety obtains in this part
of Nature's Workmanship, each Species produ-

cing its Fruit and Seed in a different Way and Parts of an

Kind. Thus the Apple hath four Parts, viz. the
Apple. Skin, Parenchyma, Branchery, and Core. The
Pear.

Pear hath five distinct Parts, the Skin, Paren-
chyma, Branchery, Calculary (or ftony Part) and

the Acetary. The three first of these, and a Cherry. Stone, make the Substance of Cherries, Plums, Nut, &c. &c. The Nut, Acorn, &c, consist of three Parts,

the Cap, the Shell, and the Pitb or Medulla, in-
closing the Kernel or Seed. Concerning all
which Authors say a great deal with little Cer-

tainty.
The Falling off The Fibres of the Branches being first ex-
of tbe Flowcr. tended thro’ the Parenchymous Part of the Fruit

to the Flower, furnish the necessary Matter for
the Vegetation of it; but as the Fruit increases,
it intercepts the Aliments ; and thus the Flower is

starved

starved and falls off; while the Fruit proceeds to grow and hasten to a State of Maturity.

THE SEED is that important Part which of the Seed is the Medium of all Vegetable Propagation and of Plants. Production ; it is most intimately contain’d in this Year's Plant, and the next Year's Plant is most intimately contain'd in it. This is both the Beginning and End of the Vegetable State.

The Parts of which the Seed of a Plant doth Its Parts. consist, are (1.) The Embryo or Plantule, being Embryo-Plant the future Plant in Miniature, and is call'd the Gem or Bud; this adheres to (2.) The Placenta Placenta, or or Cotyledon, which serves the faine Purposes as Cotyledon. the Secundines, i.e. the Chorion and Amnion in Animals. (3.) The common Tunicle inclosing the Common Coat. whole Seed.

The Seed receives its Fecundity, as I before hinted, from the Genital Parts in the Flower, and being now committed to the Earth, proceeds to vegetate as follows.

The Plantule or Gem of the Seed being acted The Vegetation upon and moved by the genial Influence and of the Gem or

Plantule. Warmth of the two great Parents the Sun and Earıb, begins to expand and protrude, or shoot forth its Radule or tender Root downward in the Earth, and the Plumule or Infant-Plant upwards; the small Radicles absorb the nutritious Juices, which causes the Plumule to grow and increase to the destined Size of the Plant: But till the Root is shot, and able to procure Nourishment, the Plantule is nourish'd from the Substance of the Placente or Cotyledons, which it draws to itself by an infinite Number of little Filaments callid Funes Umbilicales, or Navel-Strings, and by Botanists the Seed-Root. By this means the EmbryoPlant receives the cruder Juices of the Earth prepared and purified, being strain'd thro' the very Substance of the Placenta. When the Root is Gg2

able

able to provide for a Plant, the Cotyledons, or two Lobes of the Placenta, perish, and the Plant may be said to be deliver'd of its Young or Fætal Plant: So analogous is the Process of

Nature in the Vegetable and Animal Oeconomy!
The fourth The fourth and last Part of Botany is con-
Great Part of cerned in the following Particulars. (1.) To
Botany.

give an exact Enumeration and the Names of all
the Plants yet known in every Part of the World,
which are at this time about 16000 in Number.
(2.) To specify the peculiar Notes, Marks, Pro-
perties and CharaEters of each Plant, by which it
may be known and distinguish'd from any other.
(3.) The Place of its most common Growth, as
on Land or Water, wet or dry Ground, on Walls,
Trees, &c. (4.) The Time of Blooming, and their
Continuance in Bloom. (5.) To recite their Qua-
lities, and give a just and true Account of the
Medicinal Virtues that are known to pertain to
each. (6.) To teach the Method of propagating
each Species in Gardens, &c. for the various Uses
of Ornament, Food, Medicine, or Natural Pbilo-
Sophy. But, as I at first observ'd, these Particu-
lars are of too general a Nature, and alone the
Subject of the largest Volumes, and consequently
can't be expected here.

Of

453

Of ANATOMY: Containing

a brief Description of all the
Parts of a HUMAN BODY.

A

NATOMY is the Art which ANATOMY
teaches the true Knowledge of the defined.
Human Body (principally, but of
any Animal Body in general) as
to the Structure and Component

Parts thereof, by an artful and orderly Dissection, or Severing the Parts and Members of it from one another, by a proper

Inftrument. This Art is divided into two great is divided inParts, viz. (1.) Osteology, or the Doctrine of the to Ofteology Bones in general ; and (2.) Sarcology, which treats and Sarcology. of all the fleshy Parts of the Body.

OSTÉOLOGY, (according to the learned ofteology di. Boerbaave) is divided into three Parts, viz. (1.) vided into Osteogeny; which treats of the Origin of the Bones, Osteogeny, of what Matter they consist, and the Condition of the Bones in their proper Substance when actually form’d. (2.) Osteography, which teaches of ecgraphy, the Knowledge of the Stručture of the Sceleton or Fabric of the Bones, and the Diversity of Parts in the Bone itself now perfect. (3.) Synosteology, or Synofteology. Synosteography; which explains all the parts of a Bone, by means of which a Bone is connected or joined to a Bone, with Motion, or without Motion ; with a Cartilage, or without it.

SARCOLOGY also has a threefold Divi. Sarcology is fion, viz. (1) Myology, which teaches the Do- divided into ctrine of the Muscles. (2.) Splanchnology, which

Myology, treats of the Bowels (or Viscera) and the great Splanchnology,

Organs

Gg3

A Bone de

Organs of Animal Life ; as the Brain, Lungs,

Stomach, Intestines, &c. fhewing their Nature, Angiology. Connection, Parts, Figure, Site, &c. (3.) An

giology or Angiography ; this exhibits a Description of all the various Vessels in the Body; as the Arteries, Veins,Nerves, &c. explaining their Natures and Uses. Of all which take a concise

Account in their Order. Oftrogeny ex- OSTEOGENY being a Description of all plain’d. the Mutations or Changes a Bone undergoes from

its first Conception in the Womb to its last State of Perfection in the Adult Sceleton, it naturally falls under the following Confiderations, viz. (1.)

The Definition of a Bone ; which is said to be, fined. The hardest, whitest, and lightest Part of the Body,

inflexible and insensible ; consisting of a complex Sub

Jiance of a vascular, fibrous, membranous and carThe Genesis of tilaginous Nature. (2.) The Genesis of a Bone ; the Bones.

this confifteth of various States and Gradations

from irs first Origin to its last Perfection. For Their fort

(1.) The first State of a Bone is that of a terreState of Flui

Jirial, nutritious, fluid Matter, flowing among dity.

the Fluids (in Ovo) design’d for the Formation Their second, of the other Parts of the Body. (2.) The Parts or Fibrous

of this original earthy Fluid at a proper Time begin to cohere, unite, and thus form themselves into very small or fine Capillaments, Threads or Fibres, foft and porous, which being fill'd with a Lympha of the fanie Nature, they begin to in

crcase, harden, and grow close to one another.
Their ilird, or ( 3.) The Fibres thus form’d strike into various
Membranous
State.

Directions, and being thus interwoven in the
Manner of a Web, they constitute a sort of harder,

white, broad, elastic Substance, call'd a MiniTheir fourth, branc. (4.) These Membranes, as their Fibres or Cartilagimous State. become gradually hard and dry, do themselves

begin to consolidate, and forın hard, thin, white Substances, which lie on one another in the man

ren

State.

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