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with Down, but emit no Milk : As Coltos-Foot, Fleabane, Golden-Rod, Ragwort, Groundsel, Cud

weed, &c. Carymbiferous. VIII. The Corymbiferous Plants, which have

a Compound Discous Flower, but their Seeds have no Down. The Name is taken from the Form of its Flowers spread out like an Umbrella ; as Corn-Marigold, common Ox-Eye, Yarrow, Daiy, Camomile, Mugwort ; and others a-kin to them;

as Scabious, Teasel, Eryngo's, &c. Capitated. IX. The Capitated Plants, whose Compound

Flower is composed of many small, long, 'fiftulous Flowers, whose Calices being crowded thick together within a squammose or scaly Coat emulate an Head or turgid Knop on the Top of the Stalk: As in the Thistle, Burdock, Blue-Bottie, Knapweed, Saw-worth. These also have a Down

adhering to their Seeds. Monospermous. X. Plants with a perfect Flower, and having

only one single Seed belonging to each single Flower : As Valerian, Corn-Sallet, Agrimony,

Burnet, Meadow-Rue, Fumitory, &c. Umbelliferous. XI. The Umbelliferous Plants, which produce

their Flowers in an Umbel on the Top of the Stalk or Branch, resembling in some Degree an Umbrella. They have a Pentapetalous Flower, i. e. one of 5 Leaves; and are Gymnodispermous, i. e. have two naked Seeds after each Flower. Of this Kind is Parfrip, Cow-weed, Meu, Angelica, Dropwort, Hemlock, Saxifrage, Burnet, Smal

lage, Thorowix, Sanicle, &c. Stellated. XII. The Stellate Plants, so call'd because

their Leaves grow on their Stalks at certain Intervals in Form of a Radiant Star. The Flowers are monopetalous, but divided into four Segments, like little Leaves. Each Flower is succeeded by two small Seeds at the Bottom of it. Of this

Kind is Mugwort, Madder, Lady's Bedstraw,
Woodruff, Clivers, &c.

XIII. The Asperifoliate or Rough-Leaved Alperifoliate. Plants ; they have their Leaves growing alternately or irregularly on the Stalks; their Flower Monopetalous, the Edges of which, as well as of the Calices, are divided into five Parts, and after each Flower usually succeed four Seeds : As Hound's-Tongue, Wild Bugloss, Comfrey, MouseEar, &c.

XIV. The Verticillate Plants, whose Leaves Verticillated. grow by Pairs on the Stalks; their Flowers monopetalous, labiated, and in many galeated ; to each Flower succeed four Seeds within the Perianthum. The common Charaēteristic of this Tribe is, that the Flowers grow in Whirls about the Stalk ; though it agrees not to all the Plants of this Genus. To this Clafs belong Dead-Nettle, Horebound, Mint, Pennyroyal, Vervain, Motherwort, Aleboof, Bugle, Betony, Self-beal, &c.

XV. Polyspermous Plants, or such as have many Polyfpermous. naked Seeds succeeding the Flower : As MarjaMallow, Pilewort, Crow's-Foot, Avens, Strawberries, Cinquefoil, Tormentil, Meadow. Sweet, &c.

XVI. Pomiferous Plants, which are all such as Pomiferous. bear large Fruit cover'd with a thick Rind; whofe Flowers are monopetalous, quinquepartite on the Margin, and growing on the Top of the Fruit, Of this kind are all Pompkins, Gourds, Citruls, Melons, Cucumbers, &c.

XVII. Bacciferous Plants, or such as bear Ber- Bacciferous. ries, as Briony, Honeysuckles, Butcher's-broom, Solomon's-Seal, Lily of the Valley, Nightshade, Asparagus, &c.

XVIII. Multifiliquous Plants, or such as have Multifiliquouo. after each Flower many diftinct, long, sender and sometimes curvd Cafes (or Siliqua) in which the Seed is contain'd, and which open and let it drop




Leguminous. .

out when ripe : As Housleek, Orpine, Navelwort, Bear's-foot, Marsh-marigold, Columbines, &c.

XIX. Vasculiferous Plants, with monopetalous Flowers, either uniform or difform ; and after each Flower a peculiar Case, or Seed-Vessel, (besides the Calix ;) and this often divided into many lefser Cells or Locules, containing the Seed. Of this Sort are Henbane, Gentian, Bird. weed, Throatwort, Toad-Flax, Fux-Glove, Yelloso and Red Rattle, Eyebright, &c.

XX. Plants which have an uniform Tetrapetalous Flower, but bear their Seed in oblong Siliquor's Cases or Cods: As Stock-gilliflower, Wall-ficwer, Jack by the Hedge, Mustard, Charlock, Radish, Wild-Rocket, Lady's-Smock, Scurvygrass, Wian, &c.

XXI. Leguminous Plants, or such as bear Pulse; their Flower Papilionaceous, (i. e, in the Form of a Butterfly and its Wings expanded) consisting of four Parts, set together at the Edges. These are Vetches, Lentils, Pease, Bears, Liquorice, Bird's-foot, Trefoil, Rejtbarrow, &c.

XXII. Enangiospermous or Vafculiferous Plants, with a pentapetalous Flower, i.e. one of 5 Leaves, and a Capsule or Case containing the Seed: As Maiden Pinks, Campions, St. John's Wort, Mal. Pimpernel, Chickweed, Crane-Bill, Primrose, Flax, Periwinkle, Ceniory, &c.

XXIII. Graminifoliate Floriferous Plants, with a Tricapsular Seed-Cafe, and a Bulbose or Tuberose Root, from the Basis whereof shoot many Fibres or Strings to keep it firm in the Earth: As Garlic, Onions, Daffodil, Hyacintb, Saffron, &c. To these are added also those Plants whose Rcots approach to a bulbous Form ; as Flowerde-Lis, Cuckoo-point, Orchis, Broom-Rape, Tsarblade, Winter-green, &c.


Sper mous.


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XXIV. Culmiferous Plants, which are such as Culmiferous.
have a smooth, Nender, long, hollow, jointed
Stalk, with one grassy sharp-pointed Leaf, im-
mediately encompassing the Stalk at each Joint.
These bear an imperfect Flower, and their Seed
is contained within a chaffy Husk: As Wheat,
Rye, Oats, Barley, and most Kinds of Grasses.
Under this Head Mr. Ray also places those with
a grally Leaf, but not culmiferous: As Cypress-
Grasses, Rusnes, Cat's-Tail, Burr-Reed, &c.

XXV. Anomalous Plants, or such as have no Anomalous.
diftinguishing generical Character, or no certain
Place of Growth, but chiefly in Water: As
Water-Lily, Water-Millfoil, Pepper-Grass, Mouse-
Tail, Milkwort, Dodder, &c.

Each of these kinds Mr. Ray divides into
various Sjecies more or less, and then enumerates
the several Plants of each Species, with their pro-
per Notes and Characters whereby they are to be
known. See his Method of Plants. This Gentle- His Diftribu-
man has also made a Distribution of Trees and tion of Trees.
Shrubs into several Kinds: As (1.) Coniferous, Coniferous.
which bear Fruit of a Conical Form; as Fir, the
Pine, Cedar, Cypress, Tree of Life, &c. (2.) Ju- Juliferous.
liferous, or such as bear the long pendant Tufts
callid Catkins, or Catalins; as Willows, Hazels,
Wallnut-trees, Poplar, Mulberry-trees, &c. (3.)
Pomiferous, with umbilicated Fruit, i. e. such as Pomiferous.

pretty large, round, juicy Fruit, with an Eye (as 'tis call’d) on the Top; as Apple-trees, Peartrees, Quince-trees, Medlars, &c. (4.) Baccife- Bacciferous. rous, with umbilicated juicy Fruit like Berries ; as the Gooberry-tree, Currant tree,Myrtle, Elder, Ivy, Laurus-Tinus, &c. (5.) Pruniferous, or which Pruniferous. bear Flowers adhering to the Bottom of the Fruit; the Fruit itself of the Plumb Kind, or with a Stone in the Middle, containing the Seed or Kernel: As the Plum-tree, Cherry-tree, Sloe-tree,


Peach, Apricot, Nectarin Trees, with all others of
like fort. To these he adds several other ano-
malous Genders, and such as are in part reverfe
to the foregoing; but 'tis not worth while to
mention then here ; nor yet his minute Distri-
bution of Grasses, Reeds, and Rushes into their

proper Classes and Genders. Of the third

The third great Part of Botany makes a just great Part of and natural Division of a Plant into its component Botany.

Parts, with a Description of the several Affections,
Differences, and natural Uses of each Part with
regard to the Vegetable Oeconomy. Now the Paris
of which a perfect Plant doth consist, are the
Root, Stalk or Stem, Leaves, Flower, Fruit, and

Seed. Of these in their Order.
The Root of a

THE ROOT of a Plant is that Part by which Plant; of

it adheres to the Earth or other Body, and by diver's Sorts. which it naturally draws in the nutritious Moi

Iture which nourishes it. Roots differ very much
both in their Forin and Make: The most noted

Differences of Roots are the following. (1.) A Fi-
Fibrous. brous Root, or that which consifts wholly of

small Threads or Fibres, as most sorts of Grass, Tuberous. Piuks, &c. (2.) A Tuberous Root, or that which

consists of an uniform Aeshy Substance, and is

of a roundish Figures as Turnips, Potatoes, &c. Bulbous. (3.) A Bulbous Root; which is either tunicated,

or cover'd with several Coats involving one ano-
ther, as Oniors, Tulips, &c. or squamose, having

several Scales lying over one another; as Lilies, Tifliculated. Crown-Imperial, &c. (4.) A Tefticulated Root,

or such as consists of two Knobs, resembling a

Pair of Testicles ; as in the Orchis. (5.) An Handid. Handed Root, being a tuberose one, divided as

it were into several Fingers; as in the handed Gramcus. Satyrions. (6.) A Grumous Root, or that which

is composed of several Knobs ; as the Anemone, Granulcus. &c. (7.) A Granulous Root, or kind of gru


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